trate, is under the protection of your figent, who refuses to give
her up. Such n servant is part of her master's estate, and a more
considerable part than a beast. Your agent himself, in height of
disorder, and contempt of authority, resists the watch at Hartford
by night, draws and breaks his sword upon their weapons, and by
flight escapes." See Hazzard's C. S. P.
From the foregoing, we learn that the colonists at a very early
period, enslaved their captives, and that they held them in but little
higher estimation than they did beasts of burden.
The following extracts are taken from a letter of September
22iid, 1646, wrote by ]\Ir. Kieft, to the commissioners of the con-
federate English, at the Red Mount (New Haven,) in the New-
Netherlands, and are in answer to the preceding.
"The inhabitants of Hartford have deceived you with false ac-
cusations, as were easy to be evidenced by us, were we disposed at
this lime to produce th(mi ; but that we may not seem to evade you
with vain words, we shall at this time present you with a (ew par-
ticulars, in order that you may judge of them." And therefore,
passing by the usurping by the people of Hartford of our jurisdic-
tion, and our lands against possessions solemnly taken by us, not-
withstanding our former protestations ; we do say, that the blood
of our countrymen shed by the inhabitants, and the selling of our
domestic beasts by them : do sufficiently show the equity of our
proceedings in ihe case of Whiting."
" So far as concerns the Indian hand-maid, although it be appre-
hended by some, that she is no slave, but a free woman, and be-
cause she was neither taken in war, nor bought with price, but was
in former times placed with me by her parents for education : yet
we will not suffer her to be wrongfully detained."
" Concerning the breaking in of our agent upon the watch at
Hartford by night, we truly conceive that watches are appointed
for the defence of towns against enemies, and not for the hindrance
of friends while returning to their houses."
"Certainly, v/henwe hear the inhabitants of Hartford complain-
ing of us^ we seem to hear Esop's wolf complaining of the lamb."
344 HISTORY CF THE
" To conclude, we protest against all your commissioners met at
the Red Mount, as against breakers of the common league, and
also as infringers of the rights of the lords the States our supe-
riors, in that you have presumed without express permission, to hold
your general meeting within the limits of the New Netherlands.'
See Hazzard's C. S. P.
Thus the parties had as yet done nothing beyond complaining of
injuries, and grievances, and protesting. Both claimed the country
which now constitutes the state of Connecticut. Both had formed
establishments, and taken possession of parts. Neither would allow
the claim of the other to be well founded.
Hitherto the Dutch and English had been cautious about furnish-
ing the Indians with guns, hatchets, and other warlike instruments.
Both governments had prohibited the traders from selling these
weapons. The love of gain however, had tempted some to break
In 164G, the Swedes built a church at New Gottenburgh, on the
island of Tennacum, which was consecrated by Dr. John Campa-
nius. Tennacum is three leagues east of Christiana, in the state of
Delaware. The Swedes settled here in 1631, and erected a small
fort. Their governors resided here. The natives called the island
Tutae-ae-nungh-teniko. The Swedes named it New Gottenburgh.
See History of Swedeland, in the Historical collections of New-
CHAPTER XIII. .
William Kieft succeeded in the government of the JVew Netherlands
by Peter Stuyvesant. â€” The disputes between the Butch and
English planierss on Connecticut river, and other places, still
continued. â€” Correspondence between Mr. Stuyvesant, the go-
vernor, and the Commissioners of the United Colonies of New
England. â€” Conference between governor Stuyvesant and the
Commissioners of JVew England,' at Good Hope, (Hartford). â€”
Refermce. â€” Report of the referees. â€” The Dutch after the report
withdrew from Connecticut, and the eastern and middle parts of
Long Island. â€” Disputes betiueen the Dutch and English about
the lands around Delaware bay. â€” Differences between the Dutch
and Swedes, <^c.
On the twenty-seventh of ]\Iay, 1647, Peter Stuyvesant super-
seded Mr. Kieft in the government of the New Netherlands. He
found himself embroiled very soon after his arrival with the colonies
of New England.
The commissioners of the United Colonies being convened at
Boston, in Massachusetts, wrote on the sixteenth of June, 1647, a
letter of congratulation to Mr. Stuyvesant. In this they say, " some
things have been presented to us, which we shall present to you for
your consideration. We have been informed of a dangerous liberty
taken by many of your people in selling guns, powder, shot, and
other instruments of war to the natives, not only at your fort Au-
rania (Orange ;) but at Long Island, on Connecticut river, and
other places within the English jurisdiction." And though you may
have laws to suppress so mischievous a trade; yet so strong is the
temptation by an excessive gain, that without constant care, and
severe execution, the inconvenience cannot be removed."
On the 6th of September, 1648, the commissioners addressed
another letter from Plymouth.
346 HISTORY OF THE
" It is now more than a year," they say, " since we wrote to you,
under a desire of confirming, and perpetuating the peace between
the English and Dutch plantations."
"They repeat what they had said in their former letter, in rela-
tion to selling guns &,c. at Orania (Aurania,) and other places
within, as they alleged, the English jurisdiction." We say, they
" have considered your claim to all the lands, rivers, streams, &.c.
from Cape Henlopen to Cape Cod, with your protest and letter,
dated October 12th, 1647 : we have also seen divers letters, which
you have sent to New Haven, together with the answers to August
28th, 1648 ; old style. By all of which, we find much cause of
meeting to adjust the differences."
We are not in possession of sundry letters : nor is it likely that
they are extant, that Mr. Stuyvcsant wrote to the commissioners of
Massachusetts bay, Plymouth, and New Haven, in relation to the
differences concerning boundaries, territory, and property ; but it
appears from the preceding, that he had wrote, and that he had pro-
posed to them a meeting on Connecticut river, in order to settle the
differences, establish boundaries, and transact such other business
as might concern the respective colonies.
The commissioners of Plymouth in their letters in answer, say,
" you desire, that yourself, and some of the English may be dele-
gated to adjudicate past actions, reconcile the present differences,
and prevent all future occasion of contention."
Again they say, " if you meet in the spring with the governor
of Massachusetts and Plymouth, you hope that a reconciliation and
adjustment may be made." Hazzard's C. S. P.
The answer of Stuyvcsant was given in September, or October
of the same year; but it seems not to have been preserved : our
knowledge of it is derived therefore from communications made by
the commissioners of Plymonth and Massachusetts. In one of
these they say, " we wrote to you in the month of September
1648, on sundry particulars, in respect to an adjustment of the dif-
ferencs between us, and obtained your answer ; but in it, you are
altogether silent concerning the dangerous trade carried on between
your people, and the natives at Aurania, and other places, in guns,
warlike munitions, &ic."
STATE OF NEW-YORK. " 347
" We assert," say they, " the English title and just right both to
the New Haven lands, and harbor, and to all the English plantations
from Cape Cod, or point Judith, both on the main, and the islands
which are possessed by the English, as anciently granted by our
sovereign to his subjects, and sines duly purchased from the Abor-
gines ; and peaceably planted by the inhabitants of the United Colo-
" We have perused the letters which you sent, both to the go-
vernor of Msssachusetls, and Plymouth, concerning Delaware bay,
and the lands thereabouts, claimed by the people of New Haven."
The foregoing was dated at the 'town of Boston, August 6th,
1649, old style. Hazzard's C .S. P.
The preliminaries for a congress, or meeting, being adjusted ;
Governor Siuyvesant, repaired in the month of September, 1650,
to Good Hope (Hartford,) on Connecticut river, where be met the
commissioners of the confederate colonies of New England. After
having had some conferences with them, J;lr. Stuyvesant, on the 23d
day of September, in the same month, presented a written statement
of the matters in dispute. He informed them, that he had been led
10 do this, to the end that he might be better enebled to render an
account to the High and Mighty States General of the United
Belgic provinces, and the honorable Lords Bewinthebbers, of the
West India Company. In regard to the statement, it contains
little or nothing of interest, beyond encroaciiments by the English
planters. We shall, however, make an abstract of the substantial
In the 61*81 place, it sets out the wrongs and injuries done to their
High Mightiness, and the honourable West India Company, by
certain of the English planters, by their unjust usurpation and their
possessing the lands lying along Coimecticut river, or the Fresh
River, beii>g the lands which the company had bought of the original
proprietors, and paid for, before any other nation had either bought
or pretended right thereunto, for which a full surrender, and satisfac-
tion were now required."
In the second place, ** it proposed, in order to end the disputes,
that a provisional boundary be fixed, and tliat a written statement
be sent to their superiors for ratification."
348 HISTORY OF THE
On the sqme day, Edward Hopkins, the president of Hartford,
in the name of the commissioners, addressed a note to Mr. Stuy-
vesant, signifying their tmwillingness to treat, because the proposi-
tions made by his excellency, were dated at New Netherlands, not
On the following day, Mr. Stuyvesant, by a note informed Mr.
Hopkins, that he did not think this a siiflicient ground lo break off
the conference? ; but to remove every objection, he would for the
future forbear to style it New Netherlands, if he would not style it
Hartford in New England, and that he would date his letters at
Connecticut in New Netherlands. To this, Mr. Hopkins assented,
and returned an answer to the propositions of Mr. Stuyvesant.
The commissioners in this, asserted the right of the English to
Connecticut river, with all the plantations and lands upon, or about
the same. That evidence was necessary to show whether the
English had made encroachments, or not, upon the pretended rights
of the states of the United Provinces."
"By what rules the traders, whether of Aurania, or Springfield
walk, they did not enquire. That trade was free, and that mer-
chants attended to iheir own interests." Hazzard's C. S. P.
The commissioners, although the government of the United Co-
lonies had frequently complained of the Dutch selling guns,
powder, and hatchets, to the Indians ; seemed unwilhng on the pre_
present occasion, to take the subject up.
The parties had now come to an issue. The Dutch claimed ti-
tle to the whole country watered by Connecticut river and its de-
pendent branches. The English claimed the same country. Mr.
Stuyvesant proposed to refer all disputes whether in regard to
boundaries or to individuals to four referees to be appointed by the
parties. To this proposition the New England commissioners ac-
The Dutch at this time had a small garrison at ^Good Hope.
Both the Dutch and English had magistrates who exercised juris-
diction over their respective people. This appears in the corres-
The commissioners of the United Colonies appointed Bfessrs.
Simon Bradslreet and Thomas Prentice referees on their j)art, vviiile
STATE OF NEW- YORK, S49
Mr. Stuvvesant appointed Messrs. Tliornas Willelt and George
Baxter, on the part of the New Netherlands. The appointments
were made on the 28th of September, 1650. Full powers were
given to the referees to hear, adjudge, and determine every thing
The referees met immediately after and made a report, which
embraced most of the disputed matters. The following abstracts
in relation to boundaries and limits are the only things which can
interest the reader.
" Concerning the boundaries and limits betwixt the English Uni-
ted Colonies and the Dutch province of New Netherlands, we agree
and determine as followeth :" â€”
1. "That upon Long Island a line run from the westermost part
of Oyster Bay, so and in a straight and direct line to the sea shall
be the bounds between the English and the Dutch there : the eas-
terly part to belong to the English the westermost to the Dutch."
" The bounds upon the main to begin at the west side of Green-
wich bay, about four miles from Stanford, and so to run a northerly
line twenty miles up into the country, and after as it shall be agreed
by the two governments of the Dutch and of New Haven, provided
the said line come not within ten miles of Hudson's river."
2. " And it is agreed that the Dutch shall not at at any time
hereafter build any house or habitation within six miles of the said
line. The inhabitants of Greenwich to remain till further consid-
eration thereof be had, under the government of the Dutch."
3. " That the Dutch shall hold all the lands in Hartford, that they
are actually possessed of, known or set out by certain marks and
bounds, and all the remainder of the said lands on both sides of Con-
necticut river to be and remain to the English there./
4. " And it is agreed that the aforesaid bounds and, limits both
upon the island and main shall be observed and kept inviolate both
by the English of the United Colonies, and all the nation, without
any encroachment or molestation, until a full and final determina-
tion be agreed upon in Europe by the mutual consent of the two
states of England and Holland." Hazzard's C. S. P.
At this meeting the referees had some conversation in relation to
a union, friendship and amity between the English and Dutch col-
onies, against the Indians and others ; but the further consideration
550 HISTORY OF THE
of this matter was postponed to the next yearly meeting of the com-
From the tenor of this conversation, and the correspondence be-
tween the Dutch, and English colonists, there seems to have been
an understanding between the leading men in respect to the course
to be pursued with the aborigines. Both were suspicious of them,
and viewed them at best but as dangerous friends. They knew
the natives looked on then) as intruders upon their ancient domains.
In no instance did the colonists .Â©f either of these nations excite the
natives to take up arms against the other. Nor is there an instance
of their 'furnishing aids. The pursuits of the Dutch and English
were nearly alike. Their interests were very much alike. The
people of both nailons were bent on commerce and colonization. A
vast field was opened to enterprise and industry. Each strove to
monopolize the fur trade, which was extremely lucrative. Nor
were they very scrupulous as to the means used. In general, they
overeached the Indians in every bargain. Every species of inge-
nuity which the human mind could devise was called into requisi-
tion. The Indians were extremely ignorant ; consequently they were
outdid in all their bargains, whether with the one or (he other.
Their lands they either sold for small sums, or ceded gratuitously.
Witness how easily the settlers obtained permission to ersct forts
and trading houses on their very arrival ; and how readily they ob-
tained extravagant grants for nominal sums.
Tiie Swedes and Fins had settled on both sides of Delaware bay
and river in the states of New Jersey, Delaware and Pennsylvania,
(then portions of the New Netherlands) as early as the year 1627.
These being joinfed by more of their countrymen, who came from
time to time, made 'encroachments upon the Dutch in those parts.
The governor, Mr. Stuyvesant, being alarmed, adopted measures
to put a stop to those encroachments. In 1651, he caused a fort
to be built on Delaware river, wliere Newcastle now stands, which
he called Casimer. A Swedish ship, about this time, arrived in
Rariton river, through the mistake of Desvvyck the captain. Mr.
Stuyvesant, upon intelligence of this, ordered it to be seized and
brought into New Amsterdam.
The Swedes like other nations who had made discoveries and
STATE OF NEW-YORK. 352
planted colonies laid claim to part of the North American continent.
When the Dutch were constructing fort Casimer and forming an
establishment there, Prinlz, the Swedish governor, protested form-
ally against the works and the encroachments, and claimed the
country for Sweden. IMr. Risingli, his successor, not long after,
under the disguise of friendship, came before the fortress of Casi-
mir fired two salutes, and landed witli thirty men, who were enter-
tained by the commandant as friends ; but Risingh had no sooner
discovered the weakness of the garrison than he made himself mas-
ter of it ;1 seizing also upon all the ammunition houses and other ef-
fects of the West India Company, and compelling several of the
people to swear allegiance to Christina, queen of Sweden. See
Smith's Hist. N. Y.
In September, 1651, sundry of the inhabitants of New Haven pre-
sented a petition to the commissioners of the United Colonies, con-
vened at that place. In this, among other tlxngs, they alleged that
several merchants had purchased of the native Sagamores (chiefs)
and their companions several large tracts of land on both sides of
Delaware bay and river, and that they had begun to build and set
up factories for trade, and had purposed to make plantations : but
that they had been prevented by the Dutch and Swedes, in their
works, and compelled by force to leave the country. That in con-
sequence of the proceedings had the year before at Hartford, they,
to the number of about fifty, had set out for Delaware river for the
purpose of recommencing the works they had been obliged to aban-
don in preceding times; and that on their way thither they were
stopped at Manhattoes, (New Amsterdam) by the Dutch governor,
and detained until they engaged under their hands not to proceed
on their voyage. Hazzare'sC. S. P.
The commissioners, after having taken the petition into consider-
ation, among other conclusions, came to the following : to wit.
" That the English right by patent, the rights of the merchants
and other inhabitants of New Haven, to certain tracts of land named
in the petition were indubitable." 'â€¢ That they would write to Mr.
Stuyvesant, the governor of the New Netherlands, and protest
against his proceedings, assert the English right to the lands, and
demand reparation for the injuries done," &c. They also gave it
362 HISTORY OF THE â€¢
as their opinion, " that the petitioners were premature in their at-
attenipts to form settlements on Delaware bay and river. That if,
however, they should think proper to commence plantations there
they were at liherty to do so, at anytime within twelve months ; and
might embark to the number of one hundred and fifty: and that in
case the Dutch and Swedes offered any opposition, while they were
peaceably carrying on their avocations, the commissioners would
send a sufficient detachment of soldiers to protect their persons and
properties." Hazzard's C. S. P.
The Commissioners wrote a letter to governor Stuyvesant, con-
cerning the lands on Delaware river and bay, and concerning the
detention of the ship and their people at Manhattoes. In their let-
ter they " asserted the right of the English to those lands, and pro-
tested against his entering upon them, or throwing impediments in
the way of the people of New Haven." Hazzard's, C. S. P.
The right to the lands about Delaware bay, and on Delaware ri-
ver according to the maxims of the European nations was clearly in
the Dutch. They had discovered and explored the bay and river
long before the English came into those parts : and had taken pos-
session in the name of their sovereign.
On the 28th of April, 1653, the commissioners received two
letters from governor Stuyvesant. The one was directed to the go-
vernor of Massachusetts, and the other to the governor of New Ha-
ven. These letters we believe are not extant. It, however, ap-
pears from the tenor of other letters, that the commissioners of the
United Colonies had charged him with entering into a plot with the
Indians, for the destruction of the plantations of New Haven, Hart-
ford, he. and that he denied it, and offered to come or send a per-
son, in order to clear himself of the charge. Hazzard's C. S. P.
The commissioners deputed three agents to go toNew Amsterdam,
with a letter to governor Stuyvesant. And, however strange it may
seem they were commissioned to try him. We shall, for the satis-
faction of the reader, copy some portions of the letter.
" The United English colonies," say the commissioners, " have
by letters, protests, and treaty, often proposed their grievances, and
have required reparation, both from you and your predecessor, but
STATE OF NEW-YORK. 353
" We have lately, they say, obtained evidence of a tieacherous
conspiracy formed against ourselves, our wives and children." "We
have the proof of several Indians, that you are concerned in the
plot. But we cannot believe that you would enter into so base a
" We have intelligence that Nimnigret, one of the sachems of the
Narragansetts passed the winter with you at Manhattoes, and that
in the early part of the spring he returned home in a sloop provided
by you. That he exchanged presents with you as we have been
assured by his messengers sent to us. And though^Nimnigret de-
nies the plot, yet one of his messengers here, both by speeches and
carriages rendered both the Dutch and him very suspicious."
" The Wampeage sachem's brother, in company with one of the
Narragansetts, confessed the plot before Mr. Haines and others at
Hartford." They also stated " that Nimnigret went over Hud-
son's river and called meetings of the sachems, and there commu-
nicated the plot and conspiracy against the English." They like-
wise say " we have heard that there are many Indians upon Long
Island and the main who will testify the same to your face.'' They
concluded by saying that they expected speedy and just satisfaction
from him for all former grievances, and due security for the future
for what passed in his predecessor's time." Hazzard's C. S. P.
The letter from which the foregoing extracts are taken, is signed
by John Endicolt, William Hathorne, William Bradford, John
Brown, Roger Ludlow, John Cullicke, Theophilus Eaton, and John
Astvvood, and dated at Boston, May, 2nd, 1653. The whole story
of the plot and conspiracy appears to have been a fabrication. The
commissioners immediately after the arbitration seemed to have
been desirous of raising new troubles, in order to expel the Dutch.
The sequel seems in a measure to warrant the conclusion.
In the year 1G50, all differences had been amicably adjusted.
The Dutch had abandoned all claims to the lands along Connecticut
river, and westwardly to near where the present boundary of the
state is. In doing thi?, they had been compelled by the superior
numbers of the United Colonies : not by any right ; for the Eng-
lish had none according to the established usages of European na-
VOL. u. 4G
HISTORY OF THE
Mr. Stuyvesant, at the time he made the submission, was not in
a condition to enforce the Dutch rights, or he would not have made
The agents of the United Colonies, on their arrival at New
Amsterdam, requested that Mr. Stuyvesant and his council, should
name a time and a place, for having the testimony in relation to the
supposed plot, and conspiracy. They proposed Flushing and
Hempstead, both or either, as occasion should require for the places
of meeting; provided his excellency would allow them to call such
witnesses as they saw fit ; and provided also, that no English, In-
dian, or other person, should be molested while there, or called to
an account afterwards for what he testified." >
To this request, and the proposals, Mr. Stuyvesant and his coun-