country, and now he're." This expression had reference to enter-
See Smith's Hist, of N. Y. Also Williams' Hist, of Vermont.
388 HISTORY CF THE
ing both ends of their country. Haughgo^bnuchshionee, in their
langii.'ige, meant a long house ; a great many fires. This was the
name of their country. Aganuschioni is of the same import.
Haughgoghnuchshionce, the long house with many fires, was bro-
ken into at both ends.
The French, in this expedition, set out from Chambly, on So-
rel, and proceeded up lake Chnmplnin to Wood-creek, or the head
of Soulh-b;iy, from whence they crossed over to the Hudson, at
Sandy Hill, and then went down that river on the Ice to Saratoga.
Here they left it, and marched through the woods to Schenectady.
Most of the way was on the ice. The advance went forwsrd on
snow shoes. The main followed their trail. Incredible were the
hardships suffered by this veteran band.
Another detachment under the Sieur Hertel, set out from Three
rivers, and succeeded in destroying the fort at Salmon falls in New
Hampshire, on the ISth of March ; thirty-four were killed, and
fifty-four, chiefly women and children, were led into captivity.
The success that attended these expeditions, was very favorable
to the views of coimt Frontenac, and served to revive the drooping
spirits of the Canadians. At] the same time, they occasioned an
alarm in the provinces of New-York, and New England ; and it
was apparent, that unless they could be repressed, much greater
injuries would be received.
In order to concert measures for the common defence, it was
proposed that there should be a meeting of commissioners from all
the colonies of New England, and the province of New- York.
Agreeably to this proposition, commissioners assembled at the city
of New-York, on the first day of May, 1690.
At this meeting, it was the unanim.ous opinion of all present, th.at
there could be no permanent peace in the colonies, till the French
in Canada were subdued ; that the only effectual way would be to
engage upon an expedition for this purpose. To effect the con-
quest of Canada, ihey agreed upon this pliiu of ojjcralions; that
eight or nine himdred colonists, widi five or six hundred of the Ago-
neaseah and Moheakanneew?, should mnrch by the way of lake
Champlain, and make an assault upon I\lontreal ; while a fleet and
army of eighteen hundred men should go up the river St. Law-
STATE OF NEW-YORK. 389
rence, and make an attack upon Quebec at the same time. By
thus penetrating into the heart of the country, and carrying the waj
to their two capitols : it was supposed, that the forces of the enemy
would be so divided, as to afford a fair prospect of success.
A vessel had been sent to England in the beginning of April,
with a represefftalion of the exposed state of the colonies of New-
York and New England, and the necessity of reducing Canada ;.
and earnestly requesting a stipjily of arms and ammunition, and
that a number of frigates might be dispatched to aid in the attack
from the sea ; while the colonial forces, and their allies, should in-
vade the country on the side of Montreal.
The English, however, were in no situation st this juncture, to
afford the solicited aids. Not disheartened by the failure of aids
from England, the colonies determined to prosecute the expedi-
Massachusetts agreed to fit out the force that was to proceed to
Quebec ; while New- York and Connecticut engaged to furnish
the army that was to advance against Mon^treal.
The troops of New- York and Connecticut, were put under the
command of John Winthrop, Esquire, of the latter province, with
the rank of Major general.
Early in the month of August, general Winthrop arrived with
the troops under his command, near the falls on Wood creek, hard
by fort Ann. This was the place appointed for the rendezvous of
the Agoneasea.h But instead of finding a large body of warriors
as he expected, there were not over seventy i\Iohawks and Onei-
das. A messenger had been sent to the Onondagas, Cayugas, and
Senecas, to prevail upon them to send on their warriors ; but they
did not come forward to join the army. When the general had
proceeded about one hundred miles, he discovered that there were
not batteauK or canoes, provided sufncient to transport one-half or
the army, and that the commissary had not procured supplies of pro-
visions for the forces. The Agoneaseah who were wiih him, told
him, that it was too late in the season to make canoes ; and that it
would be the best for him not to attempt Montreal ; but direct his
attacks against Chambly, and the French settlements on this side
of the St. Lawrence. Discouraged with the obstacles before him,
390 HISTORY OF THE
General Wintlirop called a council of war, at wliich it was resolved,
that liie army should return to Albany. Preparatory to his return,
he detached one hundred and forty men, to make a diversion in
favor of the fleet.
The army of Gen. Wintlirop first opened a road from the navi-
gable part of Hudson's river, to Wood creek, which runs into the
head of lake Chamnlain. The army upon its return, wintered at
Cotton Mather says : In regard to this expedition, there was a
liorrid mismanagement in the west ; for one thousand English from^
New-York, Albany, and Connecticut, with fifteen hundred Indians,
were to have gone over land, and fallen upon Mount Royal, (we
suppose Montreal :) while the fleet was to visit Quebec, and no
expedition could have been better laid than this ; which was thus
contrived ; — but the Englisii companies in the west, marching as far
as the great lake, fChaniplain :) that was to be passed, found their
canoes not provided according to expectation ; and llie Indians,
(Agoneaseah) were [how, God knows, and will one day judge] dis-
suaded from joining with the English; and the army met with such
discouragements, that they reiured. Had the western army done
but so much as continued at the lake, the diversion thereby given
(o the French quartered at Mount Royal, would have rendered the
conquest of Canada easy and certain. But the governor of Cana-
da being informed of the retreat, had time to get the w hole strength
of the country into the ciiy of Quebec, before the fleet could come
up to it.
About the same time, August the ninth, that general Winthrop
set out for Albany, the fleet tailed from Boston, for Quebec. It
consisted of between thirty and forty vessels, the largest of forty-
four guns, and the whole number of men about two thousand. Sir
William Thips, the governor of .Alassachusetls, had the chief com-
mand. The fleet had a long passage from Boston, and did no
arrive before Quebec, till the fifth of October.
From the lateness of the season, and the retreat of general
Winihrop's army, Sir William Phips wou-d have had little pros-
spect of success. Count Frontenac had advanced with nearly all
his forces to Montreal, to defend that part of the country against
STATE OF NEW-YORK. 391
the army which was advancing by the way of lake Champlain. No
sooner, however, had he received advice by his scouts, that the
colonial array of New- York and Connecticut had returned to Al-
bany, than he retraced his steps with the greatest dispatch to Que-
bec, and arrived there before the fleet had come to anchor.
The Baron Le Hontain, a French officer, who was then at
Quebec, gives this account of the proceedings ; that Count Fron-
tenac was at Montreal, when he heard that the fleet was in the
^liver : and had Sir William Phips made a descent before his ar-
rival at Quebec, or two days after, he would have carried the place
without any contest, as there were not two hundred French in the
city, and it was open, and exposed in every part ; but that he lost
the opportunity, by spending three days in consultation before ,he
came to any determination how to act.
On the eighth of October, the troops were landed, amounting to
twelve or thirteen hundred men, and advanced towards the city.
The garrison was summoned to surrender ; but refused. The next
day the ships were drawn up before the town, and cannonaded it
with all their force ; but were repu'sed with considerable loss. On
the eleventh, the troops were re-embarked. They had advanced
and maintained their ground with spirit; but they received [such
accounts of the strength of the French, from a deserter, as dis-
couraged them from any further attempts. In a few days, tempes-
tuous weather came on, which drove some of the vessels from
anchor, and dispersed the whole fleet ; they therefore had to make
the best of their way to Boston, where they arrived on the nine-
teenth of November.
Such was the end of the first expedition against Canada. The
plan was well concerted, although premature, and depended for its
success on the joint operations of the forces under general Win-
throp and Sir William Phips. Unfortunately both set out too late
in the season to have done much had they possessed the requisite
talents. But neither General Winthrop nor Sir William Phips, al-
though both natives of New England, possessed information of the
enemy's country, nor had they talents adequate to such enterprises.
The land and naval forces employed under them amounted to three
392 HISTORY OF THE
thousand men — a force every way competent to have effected the
conquest, had_it been properly directed.
During this year, small parties of the Agoneaseah made frequent
incursions into Canada. One of these fell upon a party of French
and Adirondacks and others, in the St. Lavvrt nee, about one hun-
dred and twenty miles above Montreal, under the command of
captain Louvigni who was going to Michilimackinack, and killed
several. Another party made a descent on the island of Montreal,
at Point au Tremble, and killed one officer an twelve men. A
third partj carried off fifteen prisoners, taken at Riviere Puantz,
whom they butchered, under an apprehension of their being reta-
Arrival of Colonel Slau^htpr — His government, ^c. — Leisler re-
fuses to deliver up the government to him. — His arrest, trial and
execution. — Arbitrary measures pursued against the adherents
of Leisler. — Meeting of the Assembly. — Abrogation of certain
laivs. — Servility of the members of the house. — An act confiryn*
atory of grants passed. — Erection of the Supreme Court, fyc.
— Supplies voted — Disaffection of the Agoneaseah, 8^c. — Death
of Col. Slaughter. — Capt. Ingolsby succeeds him as President
of the Province. — Expedition ot Beaucour against the Senecas.
— In August, 1G92, Ingolsby succeeded by Col. Fletcher. — The
Province has to rely on its own resources for defence. — The
French invade the Mohawk Canton, and captivate three hundred
Moliaioks, ^c. — Bigotry of Fletcher. — Laio making provision
for the ministers of the church of England. — In 1695, an agent
employed to reside near the court oj St. James, ^c.-Count Fron-
tenac invades the Onondaga Canton, Sfc.
While the war continued to rage with unabated fury between the
colonies of England and France, and their savage allies, in this
quarter of the globe, Colonel Henry Sloughter, who had been com-
missioned governor of the province of New-York, on the fourth of
January, 10 89, arrived here, and published his appointment on the
I9th of March, 1691.
Never was a governor more necessary to the province, than at
this critical conjuncture ; as well for reconciling a divided people,
as for defending them against the enemy. But a man was sent over
utterly destitute of every qualification for government, licentious in
his morals, avaricious and poor.
Leisler refused to deliver up the garrison and government to him,
when required, but shut himself up in the fort with Bayard and
Nicholson, whom he had before imprisoned. On the second de-
VOL. 11. 51
394 HISTORY Of THE
mand of the fort, I\li!borne and Delanoy came out, under pretence
of conferring with the new governor, but in reality to discover his
designs. Colonel Sloughter, who considered them as rebels threw
them both into goal. Leisler, upon this event, thought proper to
abandon the fort, which Sloughter immediately entered. Bayard
and Nicholson were now released from their confinement.
Leisler, having thus ruined his cause, was apprehended with ma-
ny of his adherents, and a commission of oyer and terminer issued
to Sir Thomas Robinson, Colonel Smith, and others, for their trial.
In vain did they plead the merit of their zeal for king William,
since they had so lately opposed his governor. Leisler, in partic-
ular, endeavoured to justify his conduct, insisting that lord Notting-
ham's letter entitled him to act in the quality of lieutenant-governor.
Whether it was through ignorance or sycophancy, I know not, but the
judges instead of pronouncing their own sentiments upon this part
of the prisoner's defence, refered it to the governor and his council,
praying their opinion. The answer was as might have been expec-
ted, in the negative ; and Leisler and his son-in-law Milborne were
condemned to death for high treason. These were the first trials
and convictions ever had in the province on charges of high treason:
and both were unjust. See Smith's His. N. Y.
No treason had been committed. Leisler was a weak man, and
had abused that power which he had got, but, after all, he ought
not to have suffered death. His opponents were equally weak and
would have made the same use of power as he did, had it but fallen
into their hands. The leaders of both parties desired the govern-
ment, but both could not be gratified. There were not offices enough
without impoverishing the infant colony to gratify the avarice of
The arbitrary course pursued against Leisler and his adherents,
drove many of the inhabitants into the neighbouring colonies, which
shortly after occasioned the passing of an act of indemnity. Smith's
His. N. Y.
From the surrender of the province, in 1GG4, to the year 1683,
the inhabitants were ruled by the duke's governors and their coun-
cils, who from time to time made rules and orders, which were es-
STATE OF NEW- YORK. 395
teemed to be as binding as laws. These laws may now be seen
in the first volume of the New- York Historical Collection.
iThose ads which were made in 1683, and after the duke's acces-
sion to the throne, when the people were admitted to a participation
of the legislative power are for the most part lost. Few minutes
relating to them renjain on the council books, and none in the jour-
nals of the house.
On the 20th of March, 1G91, colonel Sloughter issued writs of
summons for the meeting of the Assembly, on the 9th day of April,
in the following month. This was the first assembly after the rev-
olution. The province contained ten counties : to wit, the city and
county of New-York, the city and county of Albany, Ulster, Or-
ange, Dutchess, Westchester, Kings, Queens, Sufl:blk, Dukes.
The number of members was seventeen. They met pursuant to
The members for Queens county, being quakers, were dismissed
for refusing to take the oaths directed by the governor's commis-
James Graham v/as elected Speaker. The majority of the mem-
bers were against the measures which Leisler pursued in the latter
part of his time. They unanimously resolved that his dissolving
the late convention, and imprisoning several persons, seizing their
effects, and those of others, and his levying money, were all illegal,
and that he had been guilty of rebellion. The house, having by
these agreeable resolves prepared the way for their access to the
governor, addressed him in a very adulatory manner.
Before the house passed any acts, it unanimously resolved, " that
all the laws consented to by the general assembly, under the duke
of York, and the liberties and privileges therein contained, granted
to the people, and declared to be their rights, not being observed
nor ratified by his royal highness and the late king, are null and
void : and also the several ordinances made by the late governors
and councils being contrary to the constitution of England, and the
practice of the government of their majesties other plantations in
America are likewise null and void."
Among the laws enacted at this session we will mention the fol-
lowing. One establishing a revenue, which was afterwards drawn
39G HISTOUY OF THE
into precedent, and became a source of much controversy between
some of the governors and legislatures.
The sums raised by it were made payable into the hands of the
receiver-geiveral, and issued by the governor's warrant. By this
means the governor became, for a season, independent of ilie peo-
ple : hence it was in his power to discharge the debts of private
persons, contracted on ihc faith of government or not as suited his
Antecedent to the revolution there were controversies relating lo
|niblic townships and private rights : and hence an act was passed,
confirming unto the cities, towns, manois, and freeholders, their se-
veral grants, patents, and rights respectively. Tliis was done for
the purpose of putting an end to those controversies.
A law, establishing courts of judicature in the cities, counties,
and towns, for two years, was passed : although a perpetual act had
been made to that purpose in 1683, and the old court of a?size
abolished in 1684.
Under this act the Supreme Court was created. It consisted of
a chief justice and four assistant judges, with an attorney-general.
The chief justice, Joseph Dudley, had a salary of one hundred and
thirty pounds; Johnson, the second judge, had one hundred pounds;
William Smith, Stephen Van Courtlandt, and Pinhorne, the other
judges, and Newton, the attorney-general, had nothing.
An act for settling the militia passed. Two thousand pounds
were voted for one hundred fu/ileers, who were to be employed for
the defence of the northern frontiers.
A law declaratory of the rights and privileges of the province
was also passed — but it was repealed by king William, in 1697.
This act was repealed because it declared that the |)rovince had a
light to be re])rescntcd in assembly.
The Uritish court, at this early period, although it allowed its
American colonies to have legislatures, intended that these bodies
should be wholly dependent upon the mother country. All laws
passed on this side of ilie ocean were subject to revision and re-
peal at any tinic. 'I'liis kej)l the colonies in absolute depend-
The abortive attempts of the colonics to conquer Canada, in the
STATE OF NEW-YORK. 397
preceding year, made a very unfavourable impression on the minds
of the Agoneaseah. The Mohawks, in particular, at the instance
of the Caughnawagas, one of their clans who had migrated to Can-
ada, dispatched a messenger to count Frontenac to sue for peace.
Upon learning this intelligence. Colonel Sloughter, in order to pre-
vent it, repaired to Albany in June, where he had an interview with
the Agoneasean chiefs, who seem to have been highly pleased with
his excellency. They told him that their ancestors, as they had
been informed, were greatly surprised at the arrival of the first ship
in the country, and were very solicitous of knowing what was in its
huge belly. That upon examination they had found Christians in
its belly, and one Jacques, with whom they made a chain of friend-
ship, which they had preserved to this day. All the cantons of the
Agoneaseah, except the Mohawk, assured him of their resolution
to prosecute the war against the French. The ancient league was
Sloughter soon after returned to New- York, where he died very
suddenly, on the 23d of July, 1691.
This summer. Major Schuyler with some volunteers, and a party
of Mohawks, passed through lake Champlain, and made an irrup-
tion into Canada, and devastated some of the French settlements
on the Sorel. M. D. Callieres, the governor of iMontreal, to op-
pose him, collected a small army, and encamped at La Prairie.
Several skirmishes took place between the hostile parties, and in
these, it is said, that Schuyler slew about three hundred of the
enemv, a number which exceeded that of his own force, a thing
not at all likely. IMajor Schuyler's design in this incursion, was to
reanimate the INIohawks, and preserve their enmity agamst the
French. They accordingly, with the other membeisof the nation,
continued their hostilities, making numerous inroads into Canada,
and keeping the country in constant alarm. '
In the midst of these distresses, the gallant count Frontenac
preserved his s[)rightliness and vigor, animating every body about
him. He was at this time about seventy years old. After he had
served himself, the Utawawas who came to trade at Montreal, he
sent them home under the care of a captain, and one hundred and
ten men ; and to secure their attachment to the French interest, he
398 HISTORY OF THE
gave them presents, and sent others by them to the western In-
dians, who were in alliance with them.
At the time of Slonghter's decease, tlie government devolved
according to the act declaring the rights of the people, on the
council in which Jacob Dudley had a right to preside ; but they
committed the chief command to Richard Ingolsby, a captain of an
independent company, who was sworn into the office of president,
on the 2Gih of July, 1G91.
Ingolsby was a man of very moderate talents : he had, however,
been active in accomplishing Leisle^'s ruin, which was a sufficient
The assembly, on the 30th of September in the same year, voted
fifteen hundred pounds for the payment of one hundred and fifty
men, who were to be employed on the frontiers of Albany county,
in addition to those already in service.
At this session, the province was divided into twelve counties.
We have already mentioned ten of these. Duke's and Cornwall
have since been detached. The former contained the island of
Nantucket, IMartha's Vineyard, Elizabeth island k,c., and No-
nian's-land. The latter Pemaquid, and all the territories in those
parts, with the adjacent islands.
In the winter of 1692, M. Beaucour marched a body of about
three hundred inen, to attack the Agoneascah at the isthmus or straits
of Niagara. Incredible were the fatigues and hardships which this
veteran band underwent, in this long march over the snow, bearing
their provisions on their backs, through woods and trackless deserts.
Eighty of the Agoneaseah opposed them, and bravely maintained
their ground, until they v/cre mostly cut off.
In Juno, president Ingolsby met the chiefs of the Agoneaseah at
Albanv, and exhorted them to persevere in the war. The chief
sachem in reply, said, " brother Gorlear, we are all subjects of
one great king and queen : we have one head, one heart, one in-
terest, and are all engaged in the same war."
Colonel 13t;iijamin Fletcher ^arrived with the commission of
Governor, on tne 29ih of August, IG92.
Colonel Fletcher brought over uiiii liiin a present to the colony,
of arms, anmnmition. and wnrlike stores, which were very much
STATE Of NEVV-YOKK. 399
needed at this time. Tiie whole number of men capable of bear-
ing arms, did not exceed three thousand, and those were re-
duced to great poverty, owing to unremitting duty. The exposed
situation of the settlements, the numbers of the natives, and the
war with France, occasioned frequent drafts. For defence, the co-
lony had to depend solely on its own resources. It had not yet
obtained sufficient consideration to attract the notice of the Eng-
lish government. The people were few in number, and poor*
The whole population could not have surpassed twenty thousand,
and this was dispersed in a few towns and villages, which in general
were remote from each other.
The seas and bays of the province, as well as those of the other
provinces, were abont this time infested with pirates, and privateer's
On the 10th of September, 1692, an act was passed for restrain-
ing and punishing them ; but it was never enforced, as some of the
officers of government were concerned with them.
Provision was made about the same time for levying and sub-
sisting two hundred and twenty men. These were to be marched
to the small military posts on the frontiers, in order to strengthen the
feeble garrisons. Independent of these, provision was also made
for raising and paying eighty men, for the defence of Dutchess and
In November, a law was enacted, creating a post office in the
city of New- York. This was the first establishment of the kind in
Fletcher was brave, active, passionate, bigotted, and avaricious,