with some small champaigns. The hills MSually rise on or near jts
as uisTORT or tut
eastern and northern borders, and extend south-westerly and south-
erly, conforming their courses to the rivers and streams. Every ri-
ver and creek lias its valley and hills. The hills in general gain
elevation as they advance along those streams. The lands in this
county are commonly productive, and are among the most improv-
able in the state. There are, comparatively speaking, no barrens,
and but little land which cannot be cultivated. Otsego is one of
the best grazing counties in the state. Along Otego and But-
ternut creeks, and Unadilla river, are some rich flats.
The principal streams in this county are the Susquehanna river,
Otego, Wharton and Butternut creeks. The first issues out of
Otsego lake, and pursues a southerly course till it meets Charlotte
river, when it is south-westerly. The second is about thirty miles
long, and runs southerly into Susquehanna- The third and fourth
have south-westerly courses, and fall into the Unadilla. Char-
lotte is common to Otsego and Delaware to its union, and then the
Susquehanna belongs in common to both counties. The Unadilla
divides Otsego from Madison and Chenango. Otsego and Schuy-
ler's lakes are in this county. They are beautiful sheets of water.
Crumhorn pond, on the mountain of that name, is also in this county.
Chenango is bounded eastvvardly by Otsego and Delaware,
southwardly by Broome, and westwardly by a part of the same
county and Cordand, and northwardly by Madison. Its greatest
length is forty miles and a half, and its breadth thirty. It contains
about eight hundred and forty square miles, equal to five hundred
and thirty-seven thousand six hundred acres of land. Of these one
hundred and seventy-eight thousand five hundred and eighty acres
were under cultivation in 1825, being almost one third. At the
same time the population was thirty-fom- thousand two hundred and
fifteen, being very nearly forty-one for every square mile.
Chenango was erected into a county March 15, 1798. It is sub-
divided into seventeen towns. Its chief villages are Oxford, Nor-
wich, Sherburne, Bainbridge, and New Berlin.
Chenango is diversified with hills and vallies, which range with the
streams. The principal hills are along Unadilla and Chenango river,
and Otselic creek. These, in the main, extend from north-east to
STATE or NEW-TORK. 29
south-west, and gain height as they advance. They are mostly sus-
ceptible of tillage. The valley of the Chenango occupies nearly
the middle of the county. It has considerable breadth, great beautvj
and contains much good land. The lands along Unadilla are also
good. The valley of Oiselic is partly in this county, and partly in
The Chenango river runs in a general south-westerly direction
through the county. The Unadilla flows along the east side, and
forms the division line betwen Chenango and Otsego. The Sus-
quehanna has its course across the south-easterly part of the county^
and Otselic across the north-westerly part. These streams, where
they cross, have south-westerly directions. Like Otsego, Chenango
has an elevated surface,
Broome is bounded on the east by Delaware, on the south by
Pennsylvania, on the west by Tioga, and on the north by Cortland
and Chenango. Its length on the Pennsylvania line is forty-two
miles ; its breadth is various ; on the Tioga boundary it is twenty-
eight miles, and on that of Delaware only thirteen ; midway it is
seventeen. It contains eight hundred and forty square miles,
equal to five hundred and thirty-seven thousand six hundred acres
of land. Its population in 1825, was thirteen thousand eight hun-
dred and ninety-three, being about sixteen and a half for every
square mile. The lands under improvement, at the same time,
were sixty thousand four hundred and six acres, not quite three-
sixteenths. Broome is subdivided into ten towns. It was erec-
ted March 28th, 1806.
Much of this county is covered with mountains and hills. The
land is commonly poor, and sometimes barren. Along the Sus-
â€¢quehanna and some other streams there are, however, some fer-
tile alluvions and good uplands. The Susquehanna crosses the
eastern part of this county into Pennsylvania, and soon after returns
into it, making a very large sweep in its way, called the Great
Bend. It then pursues a north-westerly, and afterwards a westerly
course, passing off into Tioga. The Chenango has a south-westerly
course of fourteen miles before it unites with the Susquehanna.
The Tioughnioga flows across the north-easterly parts of this
MISTORt Â©r THfc
county, and joins the Chenango. The Olselic creek empties into
Ihfe Tiougbnioga in this county.
CoRtLAND is bbunded on the north by Onondaga, on the east
by Chenango, oh the south by Broome, and on the west by Tomp-
kins and Cayuga. !t is the most regular county in the state, being
tn exact oblong. Its length is twenty-four miles, and its breadth
nineteen. It contains four hundred and fifiy-six square miles, or
two iiundrcd and ninety-one thousand eight hundred and forty
acres of land. The cultivated land^- in 1825 comprised eighty-four
thousand nine hundred and fifty six acres, and the population tvas
twenty thousand two hundred and ?evcnfy-one. The improved
land amounted to abont two-sevenths of the whole. The avemge
population to every square mile rather exceeded forty-four. Its
principnl villnges are Homer, Cortland and*Port Watson.
The surface of Cortland, although elevated, is in general biit
'moderately uneven. The northern part is neatly on the height of
land, between lake Ontario and the head-watei-s of the Busquehati-
tia river. The soil of this county is lo'erably productive. There
We no barrens, and few or no wastes.
The Tioughnioga and its branches water nearly the whole of
this county. A branch of Fall creek, of Cayuga l^ke, has its
source in the south-westerly |)art of the county. The Tiougbnioga
is boafable with a sw^ell as high up as Homer.
Tioga is bounded on the east by Broome, on the south by
Pennsylvania, on the west by Steuben, and on the north by the
same county and Tompkins. It is forty-or.e miles in length j"rom
-east to west, and from twenty-six to twenty-eight in breadth from
north to south, its medium length is forty miles, and breadth
twenty-six. It contains one thousand and forty square miles, or
six hundred and sixty-five thousand six hundred acres. Ih 1825,
there were eighty-three thousand four hundred and fifty^two acres
"of improved land, being rather over the o^ne-eighth. The number
of inhabitants the same yetir was nineteen diousand nine hundred
and fifty-one. The average population to every square mile is
Â»TÂ«TÂ« OS NEW-TOP.K. 31
Ti OCA was creeled into a oouoty February 16ib, 1791. Ii is
subdivided into nine towns.
This county is moiit)tainoi s and hilly. In the southern parts,
the mountains rise with consider-ible grandeur. In geceral they
are rocky and barren. The hilly parts adjoin Tompkins and the
head of Seneca lake. The lands in these are usually good.
Tioga is well watered. The Susquehanna winds across the
south-easterly corner of iho county. Owego creek has a south-
wardly courio nil it is lost in the Susquehanna. In its way it forms
the line between Tioga and Broome. The Catetant from Tompkias
augments the Owego. The Ciivuta creek is mostly in this county :
its course is souih-castcily. Tioga river has its way for twenty
miles across the south-westerly part of the county. The inlet of
Seneca Inke runs nf)rtherly,
STKUOBN.â€”This county io bounded on tlie north by Livingston,
Ontario and Yates ; on the east by part of Seneca Lake, wliich
separates it from Seneca, Tompkins and Tiogi ; on the south by
Pennsylvania; and on the west by Alleglian} . Ills forty-one miles ig
length from north to south, and thirty-eight in breadth from cast to
west, containing one thousand five hundred and twenty square miles,
equal to nine hundred sixty one thousand two hundred and eighty
acres of land. The improved land in 1825 was estimated at one
hundred and twelve thousand one hundred and ten acres, being
over the one-eighth of the whole. The population at the same
time was twenty nine thousand two hundred and forty-five, nearly
thirteen to every square mile.
The county of Steuben contains some good land, and much poor.
The soudiern and interior parts are broken with mountains and high
The valleys of Conhocton and Canisteo have considerable breadth,
and contain very valuablt^ lands, perhaps the best in the county.
The Tiosa vallev has also some valuable lands.
Tioga is watered by tlie Tioga, Conhocton and Canisteo rivers,
Troup's creek, and some other streams. The Tioga enters from
Pennsylvania, and after winding across the south-easterly corner,
33 HisTOHT or tus
passes into Tioga county. The Canisteo and Conhocton have
courses south-easterly till they join the Tioga.
Steuben was erected March 18lh, 1796. It is subdivided into
Cataraugus is in the valley of the Alleghany and most of the
county of Chautauque.
Cataraugus is bounded on the east by the county of Alleghany,
on the south by Pennsylvania, on the west by Chautauque, and on
the north by Erie and Genesee. Its length is about forty miles,
and its average breadth thirty-five.
The southern parts of this county are hilly and broken, and the
northern level, or somewhat diversified. The lands in the former are
generally poor, and in some instances barren : those in the latter
are middling, occasionally fertile. The Allesi,hany has about
fifty miles of its course in this county and enters from Pennsylvania,
and leaves it for the same state. OleaiK and several other streams,
fall into it. Cataraugus creek flows between this county and Erie.
Some part of the Connewango is in this county.
Cataraugus contains one thousand and four hundred square miles,
equal to eight hundred and ninety-six thousand acres of land. The
cleared lands in 1825, were twenty-two thousand four hundred and
ninety-eight acres; being about the fortieth part of the whole. Its
population the same year was eight thousand six hundred and
forty, being about six to every square mile.
The county is subdivided into fourteen towns. It was erected
March 11, 1808.
Chautauque is bounded on the east by Cataraugus, on the
south by Pennsylvania, on the west by the Pennsylvania Triangle,
on the north-west by lake Erie, and on the north by the county of
Erie. Its greatest length is forty-one miles, and its greatest
breadth thirty-seven. It contains about eight hundred and twenty
square miles, equal to five hundred and twenty-four thousand
and eight hundred acres of land.
â€¢' Its surface is generally undulating, but no where mountainous.
As you go st)uth from lake Eric you ascend for about eight miles,
STATE or NBW-yORt. 33
and in this distance attain the height of about seven hundred feet.
The country then descends moderately to the south ; and this sum-
mit divides the waters which fall into the Alleghany from those fall-
ing into lake Erie. Nearly on this summit is lake Chautauqua,
which is eighteen miles long, and from one to two broad. The
principal streams of the county are the Conewongo, Cosdaga,
French, Broken Straw, and Still-water creeks. These run south-
erly into the Alleghany. Canadaway, Silver, and Walnut creeks
descend into lake Erie.
The soil is generally a strong loam, remarkably adapted to the
culture of grain. The vale of Conewongo is in this county, and is
in some places seven or eight miles broad."
The above is taken from a letter wrote by Jarnes O. Morse, Esq.
of Cherry Valley, in which that geileman gives a description of the
Chautauqua was erected March 11, 1808. It is subdivided into
eleven towns. Its inhabitants, in 1825, were twenty thousand six
hundred and forty. The land under cultivation amounted to sixty-
seven thousand seven hundred and eighty-five acres. Its popM-
lalion for every square mile is rather over twenty-five.
The counties in the basin of the St. Lawrence are Erie, Niagara,
Orleans, Genesee, Alleghany, Livingston, Monroe, Ontario, Yates,
Tompkins, Seneca, Wayne, Cayuga, Onondaga, Madison, Oswe-
go, Jefferson, Lewis, St. Lawrence, Franklin, Clinton, and Es-
These counties are divided into, first, such as are along lakes
Erie and Ontario : second, mc\\ as are in the valley of Genesee ri-
ver : third, such as are situated along Seneca river, and its conflu-
ents : fourth, those on Black river: ftfth, those along the St.
Lawrence: and sixth, such as border on Lake Champlain.
Erie, situated mostly along the laki^ of that name, is bounded on
the east by Genesee, on the south by Cattaraugus and Chautauqua,^
on the west by lake Erie and Niagara river, and on the north by
Niagara. It is forty-four miles in length from north to south, and
thirty in breadth from east to west, and contains about seven hun-
dred and twenty square miles, equal to four hundred and sixty thou -
ror.. II. 5
34 HISTORY OP THÂ«
sand eight hundred acres of land. It is subdivided into thirteen
towns. The improved land, in 1825, was seventy-five thousand
six hundred and twenty-six acres, and the population twenty-four
thousand three-hundred and sixteen. The cultivated land was
very nearly the one sixth part of the whole- The number of inhab-
itants to the square mile was about thirty-four. Erie was erected
the 2nd of April, 1821.
Erie does not exhibit much variety of aspect. The middle and
northern parts are flat, or gently waving, while the southern rises
into moderate hills. Grand Isle, and some other islands in the
river Niagara belong to this county. The soil in general is good.
Erie is well watered by Cattaraugus, Eighteen mile, Buffalo, Sene-
ca, Cazenovia, Ellicott and Tonnawanta creeks. Lake Erie and
Niagara river lave it on the west, Cattaraugus on the south, and
Tonnawanta on the north. The former divides it from Cattaraugus
county and tiie latter from Niagara county. Buffalo and Us bran-
ches water the iviiddle parts of the county. The Erie canal com-
mences at Black rock in this county, and runs along the margin of
Niagara river to Tonnawanta creek.
The chief villages are Buffalo and Black Rock. The former
is one of the most promising in the western country. It is con-
nected with the ^lie canal by a branch, extending to Black
Niagara is bounded on the east by Orleans and Genesee, on
the south by Tonnawanta creek, which separates it from Erie, on
the west by Niagara river, and on the north by lake Ontario. It
is twenty-eight miles in length from east to west, and nineteen in
breadth from north to south, and contains about five hundred
square miles, equal to three hundred and twenty thousand acres of
land. Its improved lands in 1825, were forty-two thousand and
fifty-two acres, and its population fourteen thousand and sixty-nine.
The average population to the square mile is twenty-eight. The
cultivated lands are somewhat over the one-eighth part of the
Niagara was erected March 11th, 1808. It is subdivided into
eleven towns. Its villages are I^ockport, Lewistown, and Youngs-
5TATB OF .NEW-rORK. 36
town. Fort Niagara is at the mouth of the river of the same
The French established a military post here in 1679. It was
taken in 1759.
Niagara comprises a part of the great western plain. The
mountain ridge, or steep that crosses the river Niagara, divides it
into two parts. This ridge has only one declivity, and that looks
tovvards lake Ontario. The county, therefore, consists of two
parts ; the lower and the upper : the first ends at the foot of the
ridge ; and the second at Tonnawanta. The soil of this county is
The ridge road, a natural causeway, runs through this county
from east to west on the lower plain.
Niagara is washed on the north by lake Ontario. It has on the
west Niagara river, and on the south Tonnawanta creek. The
celebrated Falls, bearing the name of the county, are partly in it.
The Erie canal crosses the south-easterly part of the county.
Orleans, which was established November 11th, 1824, is
twenty-four miles in length from east to west, and about fifteen in
bri^adth from north to south. Its superfices do not vary materially
from three hundred and fifty square miles, or two hundred and
thirty thousand four hundred acres of land. In the year 1825, its
population was fourteen thousand four hundred and sixty, which
gives forty-one to every square mile. The improved lands were
fifty-one thousand three hundred and sixty-eight acres.
Orleans is bounded on the north by lake Ontario, on the east by
Monroe, on the south by Genesee, and on the west by Niagara. It
is uniform in its outlines, being nearly a parallelogram.
Orleans, like Niagar?i, is divided into two plains by the mountain
ridge, or steep. The ascent from the lake to the steep, and from
the steep southerly is very easy. The ridge road runs westwardly .
through the county. The soils are mostly clays*, and argillaceous
loams, and are very productive.
Oak Orchard, and Sandy creeks are the only streams of moment,
and these arc not large. Both rise in Genesee. Tonnawanta cros-
36 RtsToRT or rns
ses the south-west corner. The Erie canal pursues an easterly
course through tin's county. Orleans is subdivided into nine towns.
Geneske, which also comprises a portion of the great western
splain, is bounded on the east by Monroe and Livingston, on the south
by Allegiiany and Cattaraugus, on the west by Erie, and on the north
by Orleans. It is forty-four miles in length from north to south,
and twenty-five in breadth from east to west, containing about
nine hundred and eighty square miles, equal to six hundred and
twenty-seven thousand two hundred acres of land. Tn 1825, the
population was forty thousand nine hundred and five. The average
number of inhabitants was forty-two for every square mile. The
improved land comprised one hundred and seventy thousand four
hundred and forty acres, being some over the one fourth part.
Genesee is subdivided into twenty-two towns. Its principal villages
are Batavia and Leroy. It was erected March 30, 1S02.
The northern and middle parts of this county are in general level:
we find little diversity of aspect before we approach the counties of
Alleghany and Cattaraugus. The southern steep extends eastward-
ly through this county, and in some respect divides it into two plains.
The lands of this county are commonly fertile.
Genesee is watered by Genesee river, Tonnawanta and Allen's
creeks, and some other streams. The Genesee river crosses the
south-easterly corner of the county. Tonnawanta creek rises in
the south-west part of the county, and takes a north-easterly course
to Batavia, where it turns and runs north-westerly into Orleans.
Its course by its windings is about forty miies. Allen's creek orig-
inates in the south part of the county, and pursues a north-easterly
direction into Monroe. Cattaraugus has its course near that of
Tonnawanta and proceeds westvvardly into lake Erie. The Seneca
and Cayuga branches of Buffalo also head in the western part of
the county, and enter Erie.
Allkohanv is bounded on the east by Steuben, on the south by
Pennsylvania, on the west by Cattaraugus, and on the north by Gen-
esee and Livingston. It is forty-four miles in length from north to
south, and twenty-eight in breadth from cast to west, and contains*
STATE or Ncw-Toni:. 37
twelve]^hundred square miles, equal to seven hundred and sixty-eight
thousand acres of land. Its improved lands amounted to only sixty
one thousand seven hundred and six acres in 1825, and its popula-
tion to eighteen thousand one hundred and sixty-four. The impro-
ved lands fall short of the one-twelfih part of the whole. The
number of inhabitants to the square mile goes rather over fifteen.
Alleghany is subdivided into sixteen towns. It was erected
April 7tli, 180G. The principal villages are Nunda and Angelica*
The surface of this county is elevated, and considerably roughened
with hills, many of which are sharp and steep. The country on
and near the Pennsylvania border often exceeds two thousand feet
in elevation above the ocean. At Nunda the elevation of the bed
of Genesee river, immediately above the upper fall at that place,
is about seven hundred and thirty feet. The soil, in some places,
is rich, but generally speakmg, middling or poor.
TI:p Genesee, in its way from Pennsylvania to lake Ontario, runs
through the whole county, dividing it into two parts, of nearly equal
size. Its course is first north-westerly, and then north north-easterly.
Gvvaga, a branch of the Alleghany river, crosses the south-westerly
corner of the county from Pennsylvania, and enters Cattaraugus.
Olean flows south-westerly into the latter county. The Canisteo,
a branch of Tioga river, flows into Steuben on the east. Canasa-
raga creek, which heads in Alleghany, takes a north-easterly course
Livingston is bounded on the north by Monroe, on the east by
Ontario, on the south by Steuben and Alleghany, and on the west
by Genesee. It is twenty-six miles in length from south to north,
and twenty in breadth from west to east, containing about four hun-
dred square miles, exclusive of the waters of Canesus and Hem-
lock lakes, equal to two hundred and fifty-six thousand acres of
land. The improved lands in 1825, were one hundred and thirteen
thousand five hundred and seventy-six acres, some over two-fifths
of the whole. The number of inhabitants in the same year was
twenty-three thousand eight hundred and sixty. The average pop-
ulation for every square mile was nearly sixty,
Livingston comprehends the country on both sides of the Gene-
3S HISTORY OF THE
see river. The western and middle parts are either level, [or gen-
tly rolling, and decline towards the river, while the eastern and
southern are diversified with hills, that generally have easy accliv-
The extensive and beautiful vale of Genesee, containing the cel-
ebrated flats, is mostly in this county. In some places it is four
miles broad. The lands of this county are rich, and equal those
of the most favoured counties in the state.
Genesee enters the south-westerly part of this county, aud runs
north north-easterly through it into Monroe. Its course, without
taking into the estimate its windings, is about twenty-three miles.
It flows through the flats in beautiful curves and reaches, and is
navigable for boats. Canasaraga creek holds a north-westerly
course from the south-easterly corner of the county, till it has join-
ed the Genesee. The ouilet of Canesus also falls into the same
river. The outlets of Hemlock and Honeyoe lakes water the
north-easterlv part of this county. Hemlock and Canesus lakes
are in this county.
Livingston was erected Feburary 23rd, !821, and is subdivided
into fourteen towns. Its villages are Geneseo, Caledonia, Avon,
MoNuoE is bounded northwardly by lake Ontario, eastwardly by
Wayne and Ontario, southwardly by Ontario and Livingston, and
westward ly by Genesee and Orleans, ft is thirty-five miles in
length from east to west, and twenty-four in breadth from north to
south, and contains five hundred and seventy sqviare miles, or three
hundred and sixty-four thousand eight hundred acres of land.
The outlines of this county, without any apparent necessity, are
very irregular. In truth, this may be remarked in relation to ma-
ny of our counties.
The western, middle and northern parts of this county are level,
or nearly so, being part of the great western plain. The south-
eastern is very moderately uneven, and may be termed champaign.
The country rises from the shore of lake Ontario by easy grada-
tions. The ridge road, or former beach of the lake, stretches
STATE OF NKW-TORK. 80
through the county from east to west The soil of this county is
Monroe is washed on the north by lake Ontario, and indented
by Irondequot and Braddock's bays. Genesee river crosses it from
Livingston, dividing into two nearly equal parts. Salmon and
Sandy creeks, two small streams falling into Braddock's bay, water
the north-westerly part ; Allen's creek, and the outlet of Hemlock
lake, the southerly ; and Irondequot, the easterly parts.
Monroe was erected February 23rd, 1821, and is now subdivi-
ded into sixteen towns. Its villages are Rochester, Carthage,
Clarkson, Brockville, Piitsford, Penfield, and Falltown. Brock-
ville, Rochester, and Pittsford are on the Canal. Rochester is the
largest village in the state, its population exceeding eleven thou-