sand. The Erie canal runs from east to west through this county.
In 1825, Monroe contained thirty-nine thousand one hundred
and eight inhabitants. Its present population is nearly fifty thou-
sand ; the increase of Rochester alone, having been almost seven
thousand since the census of 1825.
The improved lands in 1825,
were one hundred and thirty-six thousand seven hundred and
twelve acres, being nearly three- eighths of the whole. The popu-
lation amounted to about seventy for every square mile.
Ontario is bounded on the north by Monroe and Wayne, on
the east by Seneca and Yates, on the south by the latter county and
Steuben, and on the west by Livingston and Monroe. It is about
thirty-five miles in extent from east to west, and about twenty-nine
from north to south, containing about seven hundred and twenty-
five square miles, equal to four hundred and sixty-four thousand
acres of land. In 1825, the lands under improvement were one
hundred and eighty-three thousand three hundred and fifty-one
acres, some under three-tenths of the whole. The population the
same year was thirty-nine thousand four hundred and twenty-two,
which gives an average of about fifty-four to every square mile.
Ontario is subdivided into eighteen towns. Its villages of most
note are Geneva and Canandaigua, Both are beautifully situated,
and are large and thriving. This county was erected January
40 lUSTOBY OF THE
The eastern and northern parts of Ontario, are mostly cham-
paign : the southern andVestern are in general, diversified with
hills of easy ascent, plains and valleys. The lands are commonly
very productive. There are no barrens, or wastes.
Canandaigua outlet is the largest stream in the county. Its
course is northerly and north-easterly into Wayne. The next is
Mud creek, which heads in the south-western corner of the county.
Its direction is northerly and north-easterly till it enters Wayne. It
waters the western parts of the county. Flint creek rises near the
inlet of Crooked lake, and pursues a northerly course till its exit in
Canandaigua outlet. Canandaigua, Honeyoe and Caneadea lakes,
are in this county. Canandaigua lake, and its outlet, water the
middle part of the county. The Erie canal runs a short distance
in this county.
Wayne is bounded on the east by Cayuga, on the south by Sen-
eca and Ontario, on the west b}' Monroe, and on the north by lake
Ontario. It is thirty-two miles in length from north to south. Its
area comprises five hundred and twelve square miles, equal to three
hundred and twenty-seven thousand six hundred acres of land:
ninety-one thousand four hundred and forty-three acres were im-
proved in J 825. The number of ini)abitants, were then twenty-
six thousand seven hundred and sixty-one, being fifty-two to every
square mile. Wayne was erected April 11, 1822, and is now sub-
divided into eleven towns. The villages of Lyons, Palmyra and
Sodus are rhe most considerable. The two former are on the ca-
nal, and the latter on great Sodus bay.
The middle and southerly parts of Wayne are, with few excep-
tions, champaign. The northern is a plain that descends to lake
Ontario. The ancient beach of lake Ontario extends eastwardlv
through this plain. The lands are good.
Lake Ontario washes the whole extent of the county on the
north. Great Sodus, Little Sodus, Port bays, and other bays indent
Canandaigua oudet, or river, soon after it enters this county, is
joined by Mud creek at Lyons. From thence its course is south-
eastwardly in the main, but very crooked to Cayuga county. Mud
STATE OF NEW-YORK. 41
ereek has an easterly course, after its entrance from Ontario, of
sixteen miles, in a straight line. Its bed is very lortuous. The
valleys along Canandaigua river and Mud creek have considerable
breadth : that along the former expands into a vale. The lands
in both, are good.
Seneca has Wayne on the north, Cayuga outlet and lake on the
east, Tompkins on the south, and Seneca lake and Ontario couniy
on the west. It is thirty-two miles in length from north to south,
and on an average eleven in breadth from east to west, and con-
tains about tliree hundred and fifty-two square miles, equal to
two hundred and twenty-five thousand acres of land. In 1825, the
hnds under improvement amounted to ninety-four thousand one
hundred and forty-five acres, rather over two-fifths. The popu-
lation in the same year was twenty thousand one hundred and sixty-.,
nine, some over fifty-seven to every square mile.
Seneca was erected the 24th of March, 1804, and is subdivided
into six towns. Seneca Falls, Waterloo and Ovid are the principal
The surface of this county is either level or moderately uneven.
The level part is along Seneca outlet, and thence northerly. The-
soils of this county, generally speaking, are not excelled by those
of any other county in the state.
Seneca outlet, which runs across the county in an east north-east-
erly direction, is the only streams of any note. Seneca and Cayuga
lakes wash this county on the west and east, northerly to their out-
lets. The canal winds across the north-easiern corner of the
Yates is hounded on the east by Seneca lake, on the south by
Steuben, and on the west and north by Ontario. It has an average
length of twenty miles from east to west, and an average breadth
from north to south of twelve, and contains about two hundred
and thirty square miles, equal to one hundred and forty-seven thou-
sand two hundred acres of land, exclusive of the waters of Seneca
gnd Crooked lakes.
Yates was erected January Sth, 1823. Its population in 1825,,
VOL. II. 6
42 filSTORV OP THE
was thirteen thousand two hundred and fourteen, andj^its Improved
land sixty thousand two hundred and fifty-five acres, being about
Yates has a diversified surface, consisting of hills, plains and val-
leys. TJ)e soil is ordinarily good.
Seneca lake washes this county on the east, while Crooked lake
with its bifurcations, dips into it from the south. The outlet of
the latter lake, which is five or six miles in length, is entirely in the
county. Its population is rather over fifiy-seven for every square
Tompkins Is bounded northerly by Seneca and Cayuga, easterly"
by Cortland and Tioga, southerly by the latter county, and westerly
by Steuben, from which it is separated by part of Seneca lake, hs
length from east to west is thirty-five miles ; and its breadth frott:
north to south sixteen. Its average breadth is not over twelve
miles. It contains four hundred and twenty square mile?, which are
equal to two hundred and sixty-eight thousand eight hundred acres
of land. In 1825, its population was thirty-two thousand nine hun-
dred and eighty. Its cleared land amounted in the same year to one
hundred and thirty-five thousand three hundred and foriy-two acres^
a litUe over one-half. The average population for every square mile
is seventy-nine. Tompkins is subdivided into ten towns. Ith-
aca is the most considerable village. It v.as erected April 7th,.
This county is considerably broken with hills, especially around
the head of Cayuga lake, and thence westwardly to Seneca lake.
The hills in general admit of cultivation, being covered with a good
depth of soil. The vale of Ithaca, containing the village of that
name, is on Cayuga inlet, or stream, falling into Cayuga lake. It
is two miles broad, where it opens into the lake. It Is a beautiful
tract of rich land, almost environed by high hills, which rise from it
like the steps of an amphitheatre. The lands of this county are,
for the most part good.
Tompkins is well watered. Cayuga lake penetrates the central
part some distance : Seneca lake washes it on the west ; Fall creek
and some others water the eastern and middle parts.
STATK OK NKW-yOUK. 'i5
Catitoa has Oswego, Onondaga and Cordand on the east, Tomp-
kins on the south, on the west Cayuga lake and outlet (which sepa-
rate it from Seneca,) and Wayne, and on the north by lake Onta-
rio. Its length from south to north is fifty-eight miles, and its great-
est breadth from west to east twenty-three, containing about six
hundred square miles, equal to three hundred and eighty-four thou-
sand acres of land. The improved land in 1825, comprehended one
hundred and eighty-seven thousand four hundred and ninety-five
acres, very nearly one-half of the whole. The population in the same
year was forty-two thousand seven hundred and forty-three, being
about seventy-one to every square mile. j
Cayuga was erected March 8th, 1799, and contains fifteen towns.
Its largest villages are Auburn, Weeds Port, Bucksville, Montezuma
and Aurora. Auburn, on the Ovvasco is a populous flourishing vil-
lage, containing about four hundred houses. Weeds Port and
Bucksville are on the Erie Canal, and Montezuma on a branch of
the same canal.
Cayuga displays some diversity of aspect and soil. The northern,
middle and western parts are either level, or champaign, and the
southern and south-eastern hilly. Those parts lying eastwardly of
the lake, descend towards it ; while those adjoining Seneca river and
lake Ontario, slope severally towards them. The land, with few
exceptions, may be pronounced fertile. Cayuga is one of the best
counties in the state, and is capable of supporting a dense popu-
Cayuga lake washes a part of this county on the west. Owasco
is entirely in the county. A part of Cross lake is also in it. Owas-
co oudet passes through Auburn, in its way to Seneca river. Its
course, which is north-westerly, is sixteen or seventeen miles.
Salmon creek, which enters Gyaugo. lake, is in the south-west part
of the county. Seneca river winds across the county in sullen si-
lence. It is a dull stream. Lake Ontario washes the nortii end of
the county, and penetrates it by Little Sodus bay, one of its inlets^
The Erie canal meanders tlirough it.
Omoxdaga is thirty-seven miles in length from north to south,
^nd twenty-nine in breadth from east to west, and contains eight
'44 HISTORY OF THE
hundred and twenty-six square miles, equal fo five hundred ana
Iwenty-eight thousand six hundred and forty acres of land, of which
one hundred and ninety-three thousand five hundred and eighty-two
acres were under cultivation in 1825. The population in the same
year was forty-eight thousand four hundred and thirty-five, a little
over fifty-eight for every square mile.
Onondaga is hounded on the east by Madison, on the south by
Cortland, on the south-west and west by Cayuga, and on the
north by Oswego. It was erected March 5th, 1794, and is subdi-
vided into twelve towns. The villagcb of IManlius, Jamesville, On-
ondaga Hollow, Onondaga Hill, Marcellus, Skaneateles, Onondaga
Castle, Pompey, Syracuse, Salina, Liverpool, Geddesburg, Camil-
lus, Elbridge, Jordan's Port, &c. are in this county. The six first
are on the south Seneca turnpike^ the seventh is south of the turn-
pike, and is an Indian village : Syracuse, Geddesburg and Jordan's
Port, are on the Erie canal : Salina is on the Oswego canal, and
Liverpool on the east shore of Onondaga lake.
Onondaga is divided into two parts; the hilly, and level. The for-
mer comprehends the southern and south-eastern parts. The lat-
ter, the northern. The soils usually are very productive. Seneca
river winds across the north-western part of the county, and meets
Oneida river, at Three River point. Oneida river, in its course
divides Oswego from Onondaga. Skaneateles outlet and lake wa-
ter the westerly and south-westerly parts of the county. Nine
Mile, Onondaga, Butternut and Limestone creeks, water the residue
of the county. The three first flow in deep valleys. The Erie
canal winds through the flat part of this county.
Madison is bounded north-cast wardly by Oneida, castwardly by
the same county and part of Otsego, southwardly by Chenango^
westwardly by Chenango and Onondaga, and northwardly by part
of Oneida and Oneida lake, which .separate it from part of the lat-
ter county and Oswego. Its area, aOer making allowances for the
irregularities in its exteriors, contains six hundred and twelve s(|uaro
miles, equal to three lunulred and ninety-one thousand six hundred
and eighty acres of land, of which one hundred and seventy-six thou-
sand one hundred and ninety-four acres were improved in 1825.
STATE OP KEW-YORK. 4$
Tile population the same year was thirty-five thousand six hun-
dred and forty-four, a little over fifty-eight to every square mile.
The improved land falls some under seven-fifteenths.
This county, except along Oneida lake, and betv?een it and tlie
Erie canal and along the canal, is hilly. The soil is commonly
good. There is little, or no waste land ; the hills usually have
smooth outlines and easy ascents.
The north-west branch of the Chenango heads in this county,
and passes off into the county of Chenango, Its course is south-
easterly. The north-easterly branch runs through the south-eas-
terly part of the county. Otselic creek takes a south-westerly di-
rection into Chenango. A branch of the Tioughnioga originates in
the south-westerly part of the county and makes its way into Cort-
land. Chitteningo originates in Lincklean's lake, and descends in a
general north-westerly direction into Oneida lake. It receives Can-
asaraga. After its union with Limestone creek from Onondaga, it
forms the line between the latter and IMadison counties to its mouth.
Oneida creek rises also in this county, and flows easterly to Onei-
da county, where it changes its direction to north north-westerly and
constitutes the boundary on this side between Madison and Oneida.
Oneida lake is partly in this county. The Erie canal crosses the
county from west to east.
Madison was erected March 21st, 180C, and is now subdivided
into thirteen towns. Its villages of note are Cazenovia, Eaton,
Morrisville, Hamilton, Peterborough, Chitteningo, Canasaraga, and
Canestota. The latter is on the Canal. Chitteningo is on a branch
The counties of Madison, Onondaga, Cortland, Cayuga, Tomp-
kins, Seneca, Wayne, Ontario, Yates Livingston, Monroe, Gene-
see, Orleans, Niagara, and Erie may be termed the granaries ol"
the state. Only thirty-eight years have elapsed since actual settle-
ments were made,and these counties now, in populousness and
weahh, surpass most of the old counties. The march of improve-
ment has been immense, and»niay be attributed in a great measure
to the richness of the lands^ and the enterprise of the farmers.
OswfGo is bounded northwardly by Jefferson, eastwardly by
46 HISTORY OF THE
Lewis and Oneida, southwardly by part of Oneida lake and the
county of Onondaga, westwardly by Cayuga, and north-westwardly
by lake Ontario. It is thirty-seven miles in length from east to
west, and thirty from north to south. These are the extremes.
Its area does not differ much from nine hundred and eighty square
rviles, or six hundred and twenty-four thousand two hundred acres
of land. In 1825, its population was seventeen thousand eight hun-
dred and seventy-five, being a fraction over eighteen for every
square mile. The improved land in the same year comprised fifty-
two thousand three hundred and ninety-two acres, almost one-
twelfth of the whole.
Oswego was erected March llih, 181 G, and is now subdivided
into fourteen towns. Its villages, which are considerable, are Os-
wego, on the shore of lake Ontario ; Oswego'Falls, on Oswego
river ; and Pulaski, on Salmon river. Oswego, during the two
last years, has had a rapid growth, and is now one of the most thri-
ving villages in the western country.
This county is divided into the plain, chan»paign, and hilly tracts-
The plains are along lakes Ontario and Oneida, and the latter's-
outlet, and Oswego river, almost to the Falls: the champaign em-
braces the intermediate space, and the south-westerly part r ther
hills occupy the north-easterly part.
Oswego river has its course across the south-western part of the-
county. The northern part is watered by Big Salmon river, whielv
runs across it from Lewis. The interior is mostly watered by
Little Salmon river. Oneida lake and outlet are on tl^e south^ and
water those parts adjoining them.
The lands in Oswego are generally middling,, occasionally
Forts Oswego and Brewington were in this county. The for-
mer was at the moutii of Oswego river : it was made a militaiy
station in 1722. The latter was at the outlet of Oneida lake.
Oswego was taken in 1 750 by the French, under the Marquis de
Montcalm, and demolished. It was subsequently rebuilt-. At pre-
sent it is in ruina.
Jefi'erson is bounded westwardly by lake Oiitario) norih-wcsl-
StAtE OF NEW-YOnK. 47
\vardly by the St. Lawrence, north-eastwardly by the county of
St. Lawrence, soulh-eastwardly and eastvvardly by Lewis, and
southwardly by Oswego. Its greatest lengili from north-east to
south-west is forty-eight miles, and its greatest breadth in an oppo-
site direction, is thirty-six. Its outlines have considerable irreg-
ularity, especially on the side of lake Ontario, which indents it
with bays and inlets. It contains not far from one thousand one
hundred and fifty square miles, or seven hundred and thirty-six
thousand acres of land. In 1825 its inhabitants amounted to forty-
one thousand six hundred and fifty, rather over thirty-six for every
square mile. There were one hundred and seventy-three thousand
one hundred and forty-one acres of improved land in the same
year, being nearly the one-fourth part of the whole.
Jefferson was erected March 28th, 1805 ; and is now subdivided
into nineteen towns. Watertown, Sacket's Harbour, Adams,
Brownville and Carthage are the principal villages. Sacket's
Harbour is on Hungry Bay, and is a port of entry. Watertown
on Black river, is a manufacturing village.
On the coast of lake Ontario, and along the St. Lawrence, are
levels ; in the interior, champaigns ; and in the south-eastern parts
hills. ThiB lands universally decline towards the lake and St.
Lawrence. The lands of this county are with very few exceptions,
Black river severs Jefferson into two parts ; the larger, being
northerly of that river. Its course after entering on the side of
Lewis, is first north-westerly and then westerly. It opens into
Hungry Bay, about four miles north-east of Sacket's Harbour.
About forty miles of the course of Indian river is in this county.
It waters the south-easterly part, making several large sweeps.
After its entrance from Lewis on the south-east, it changes its direc-
tion to the north-east, afterwards to the south-west, then to the
north-east, and lastly to the east, when it enters St. Lawrence coun-
ty. In one place it approaches within six miles of Black river.
Perch creek and Chaumont river fall into Chaumont bay. They
are small streams. Big Sandy creek holds a south-westerly course
across the southern part of the county. Its source is in Lewis.
The St. Lawrence washes the north-west side of the county, and
48 HISTORY OF THE
Jake Ontario the west. Hungry, Chaumont and Henderson bays
are considerable sheets of water.
Lewis is bounded on the north-east by the county of St. Lawrence,
on the east by the county of Herkimer, on the south-east and south
by the county of Oneida, on the west by parts of Oswego and Jef-
ferson, and on the north-west by the latter county. Its greatest length
from north to south is fifty-one miles, and its greatest breadth from
east to west, forty. After making deductions for the difference in its
length and breadth, it will be found to contain about one thousand two
hundred and forty square miles, equal to seven hundred and ninety-
three thousand six hundred acres of land ; of which only forty-seven
thousand were improved in 1825, not quite the one-sixteenth. The
number of inhabitants the same year was eleven thousand six hun-
dred and sixty-nine, being rather over nine to every square mile.
Lewis is subdivided into nine towns, and contains the villages of
Martinsburg and Lowville.
This county is divided into the hilly and mountainous tracts.
The former is south south-westwardly of Black river, and contains
the settlements, if we except some very small parts. The lands
in this tract are usually cultivable, and are often good. In the
mountainous tract there are, comparatively speaking no good lands,
and not much that is suitable for cultivation. Several attempts have
been made to settle it; but hitherto they have proved abortive.
Those parts of Herkimer, adjoining this tract, we are assured, are
equally poor, if not more so, and are absolutely without inhab-
Black river enters this county from the north-easterly corner of
Oneida, and pursues a north north-westerly course to Jefferson,
dividing it nearly midway. The improved parts are traversed by
Deer creek, and some other streams that descend into Black river.
The mountainous tract is watered by Moose, Beaver, and some
other streams falling into the latter river. Indian river makes its
way into the Oswegatchie through Jefferson.
St. Lawrence, which is the largest county in the state in re-
spect of territory, is bounded on the east by Franklin, oil the
STATE or WEW-YOHK. 49
south by Hamilton and Herkimer, on the south-west by Lewis and
Jefferson and on the north-west by the St. Lawrence river, which
divides it from Canada. Its greatest length from east to ^yest is
sixty-six miles, and its greatest breadth from north to south sixty-
four. Its area however, in square miles is only about two thousand
six hundred and fifty. Its form is not unlike the end of a barn. It
contains one million six hundred and ninety-six thousand acres of
land, of which only one hundred and four thousand one hundred and
tiiirty-five acres w€re cleared in 1825, not quite the one-sixteenth
part. Its population the same year was twenty seven thousand five
hundred and ninety-five, being nearly ten and a half to every
St. Lawrence was erected March 3rd, 1802, and is subdivided in
to eighteen towns. It contains the villages of Ogdeusburgh, Can-
ton, Russia, Potsdam, Madrid, Lewisville, he.
This county is divided into the champaign, hilly and mountainous
tracts. The first, comprises the country along the river St. Law-
rence ; the second, the interior ; and the third, the residue. The
soils of this county are various, presenting every kind, from the
richest to the poorest. Those of the champaign tract, however, are
usually good. The St. Lawrence washes the north-westerly side
of the county throughout its whole extent, being about seventy
miles. The Oswegatchie, a very considerable river, with its
branches, waters the westerly and south-westerly parts of the coun-
ty ; while the middle and easterly parts are watered by the Grass
Racket, and St. Regis, with their branches.
Fort Oswegatchie, the La Galletteofthe French, was in this coun-
ty, at the mouth of Oswegatchie river.
Franklin is bounded on the north by the province of Lower
C anada, on the east by Clinton and Essex on the south bj' part of
the latter county and Hamilton, and on the west by the St. Law
fence. The eastern and southern parts are mountainous, and the re_
maining champaign and hilly. Franklin is watered by Salmon, St.
Regis, Chateaugue, Chazy and Saranack rivers, and some other
streams. The lands in the north-western part of the county, are re-
spectable in quality, and sometimes even fertile.
Franklin is fifty-four miles in length from north to south, and thirty
fOL. n. 6
50 HISTORY OF THE
in breadth from east to west, and contains one thousand seven hun-
dredand ten square miles, equal to one million and ninety-four thou-
sand four hundred acres of land. Of these only thirty thousand
' and eighty-eight were improved in 1825, not quite the one-thirty-
sixth part. The population the same year was seven thousand
nine hundred and seventy-eight, being between four and five to the
Franklin was erected March 11th, 1808. It is subdivided into
Clinton is bounded on the north by the province of Lower Cana-
da, on the east by lake Champlain, on the south by Essex, and on
the west by Franklin. It is forty five miles in length from north to
south, and thirty-six in breadth from east to west, and contains one
thousand one hundred and seventy square miles, equal to seven hun-
dred and forty-eight thousand eight hundred acres^of land. The
improved land in 1825, amounted to sixty two thousand three hun-
dred and fifty-one acres, being almost the one-twelfth. The pop-
ulation at the same time, was fourteen thousand four hundred and
eighty-six, some thing over twelve for every square mile.