31,721,974 dollars, and those in foreign to 2,190,479 making a
grand total of 33,912,453 dollars. The duties, charged and paid
at the Custom House were 9,941,702 dollars. The imports from
the 1st of October, 1826, to 30th September, 1827, were as fol-
In American vessels - - - - |3G,600,914
In foreign _ _ _ - - 2,118,730^
Making a total of - - - .^38,719,644
88 HISTORT OF THE
The exports of domestic produce in American ves- ) /^ cyqf. ^^.q
sels during the same time, were â€¢ - - 3 ' '
In foreign 1,600,119
Making in all - - . . |13,920,627
In the same time the exports of foreign produce in ) â€ž qoq ^s^r
American vessels, were - - ^ j j "^
In foreign - . . . 1,009,975
Making in all - - - $9,918,510
The total amount of exports was 23,734,137 dollars. The ba-
lance against New York was then 14,985,504 dollars. It may be
asked, how the deficiency was made up.'* we answer, from our citi-
zens who have intercourse with New York. The great balance of
trade against this city, and which goes into the coffers of capitalists
abroad, shows how important it is for our government to foster do-
The registered tonnage in the same time was 158,451, and the
enrolled and licensed 1 57,837. See the report of the Secretary
of the Treasury of the United States, made in 1828.
The imports of the United States, from the 1st of October, 1826,
to the last of September, 1827, were 79,484,068, and the domes-
tic exports were 58,921,691, and the foreign 23,403,136 dollars.
On comparing the imports of the United States, it will be found
that those of New York are nearly one-half, but her exports bear
no proportion. The balance of foreign trade against her is greater
in proportion to her imports, than it is against Boston, Philadelphia,
Baltimore, New Orleans, he. and this balance has to be made from
our own citizens.
New York, and the avenues leading to the ocean, are strongly
fortified. We shall do little more than enumerate the forts.
Castle William and Fort Columbus stand on Governor's Island,
situated in the bay half a mile south of the city.
Fort Wood is on Bedlow's Island, and Crown Fort on Ellis's
Island, both lying in the same bay.
Castle Clinton, or the west battery, is situated at the southwest-
ern angle of Manhattan island. The latter, with forts William and
STATE OF NEW-YORK, 39
Columbus, command the head of the bay, and the mouths of
East and Hudson rivers.
North Fort is on the Hudson, a mile and a half north of fort
Fort Ganzevort is still higher up.
Besides these there is a fort at Hurl Gate, eight miles northeast
of the city, which secures the entrance on the side of the sound.
Fort Fayette is within the Narrows. Forts Richmond and
Tompkins are on Staten Island, over against fort Fayette. The
Narrows are seventeen hundred and sixty yards broad. The pos-
session of Long Island and Staten Island, in time of war, is of vital
importance to New York, since he who possesses them can dictate
laws to the city.
New York was founded by the Dutch, and called by them New
Amsterdam, but the year we have not been able to ascertain with
so much precision as we co.ul(>l have desired. According to their
annals, they purchased some land at the southern end of Manhattan
island, towards the latter end of the year 1614, or in the course of
1615, from the Mohiccons, the original proprietors, on which they
erected a small fort and some trading houses. By and by a vil-
lage grew up in the vicinity of the fort, which afterwards expanded
into a city. Such was the origin of this splendid city. New York
was incorporated by Colonel Nicolis on the 12th of June, 1665.
The subjoined is a view of the population at eight different pe-
riods, to wit :
In the year 1697 it contained 4,300 inhabitants.
1756 13,040 do.
1790 33,130 do.
1800 60,489 do.
1810 96,373 do.
1820 123,706 do.
1825 166,000 do.
Estimated in 1829 at 200,000 do.
The annual increase, including emigrants from the States, and
from Europe, exceeds ten thousand. Again, the censors in 1825
committed some mistakes in taking the census, which would have
carried the number over 175,000 ; the number at present, it is pre-
voL. II. 12
90 HISTORY OF THE
sumable, exceeds two hundred thousand exclusive of aliens, or such
persons as have not resided long enough in the country to be na-
New York bay was called by the Lenni Lenape JVoijarlij. â€”
See Smith's History, p. 26. The Mohiccons, the original inha-
bitants of Manhattan island, belonged to this nation.
Brooklyn is in the county of Kings opposite to the city of New
York. East river, which separates these places, is one thousand
three hundred and twenty yards broad. Brooklyn may be consi-
dered a suburb of New York ; it contains about fifteen hundred
houses and stores, four places for public worship, several rope-
walks, factories, &c. and about nine thousand inhabitants. Its situ-
ation is commodious and beautiful, and in most respects little infe-
rior to that of New York. The United States' Navy Yard is here.
All kinds of ships come up to the town. At no distant day Brook-
lyn will become a commercial city of'^'ank and consideration. It is
now to New York what Pera, or Galata, is to Constantinople.
Jamaica, a pleasant village in Queen's county twelve miles from
the city of New York, is a place of considerable resort in summer.
Flatbush, in Kings county, is about five miles from the city of
New York, and contains one hundred dwelling houses, an academy,
court-house, and jail. It is pleasantly situated.
Sag Harbor, in the county of Suffolk, on the south side of Gard-
ner's bay, contains about one hundred houses, one church, and an
academy. The houses are built on a street a mile long. The har-
bor is capacious and secure, and admits the largest ships. It is
about one hundred miles eastwardly of New York. The tonnage
in December, 1826, belonging to this place, was 7,016.
West Farms, in the county of Westchester, is twelve miles north-
easterly of the city of New York. The scenery around it is beau-
Newburgh is"situated on the west bank of the Hudson, about sixty
miles north of the city of New York, and one hundred south of the
city of Albany. It contains about six hundred houses, four churches,
an academy, coiu't-house, jail, and bank. Ships of the largest size
come up to it. A good navy-yard might be constructed here at a
moderate expense. Its population in 1820 was 2,700; at present
it exceeds 3,000.
STATE OF NEW-YORK. 91
Poughkeepsie, the shire town of Dutchess county, is agreeably
Situated on a plain one mile east of the Hudson, seventy-five miles
north of the city of New York, and eighty-five south of the city of
Albany. It contains upwards of six hundred dwelling houses and
stores, one bank, five places of public worship, an academy, Lan-
caster school-house, court-house, and jail. Many of the buildings
are brick and stone, and are constructed with elegance. Pough-
keepsie was founded about the year 1740. Its population is three
Poughkeepsie Landing is one mile westwardly, on the east bank
of the Hudson. It is a mere hamlet.
Kingston, the shire town of tlie county of Ulster, stands on the
south side of Esopus creek two miles west of the Hudson ; it is one
hundred miles northwardly of the city of New York, and sixty
southwardly of the city of Albany. It has about two hundred
houses, an academy, court-house, church, and jail. After New
York, and Albany, it is the oldest place in the state. Its origin may
be dated back to 1616. The Dutch called it Esopus. It was
burnt by the British in the year 1777.
Catskill, on Cats-kill creek a litde above its mouth, is also on the
west side of the Hudson ; it is one hundred and twenty-five miles
north of the city of New York; the number of houses is about two
hundred and fifty. The public buildings are, three churches, an
academy, court-house, and jail. It is the county town of Green.
Its population is about twelve hundred.
Athens is in the same county, on the west bank of the Hudson,
one hundred and thirty miles north of the city of [New- York; it
contains about two hundred houses, and one thousand inhabitants.
The river is nearly a mile broad here, and is navigable for ships of
six hundred tons burthen. Athens Avas formerly called Lunenburg,
and was founded before Hudson. For some time it was a small
Opposite to the village of Athens, on the east side of the river, is
situated the city of Hudson, containing four thousand inhabitants,
(t was founded in the year 1784 by Messrs. Seth and Thomas Jen-
kins. Its latitude is forty-two degrees fourteen minutes north. The
nver has five or six fadioms of water quite up to the wharves. It
92 HlSTORy OF THE
has about seven hundred houses, five churches, a court-house, and
jail. Its situation is beautiful. Mount Merino, lying south of the
city, and Prospect Hill to the southeast, enhance its beauty, and
add a kind of picturesqueness. From the latter the lofty Kaats-
kill mountains, enveloped in blue, and soaring towards the sky, are
seen to great advantage. Hudson is one hundred and thirty miles
north of New- York.
Coxsakie, in the county of Green, has about one hundred houses
and one church. It is a little back from the river, and twenty-four
miles southerly from the city of Albany, near the south end of a
long narrow sandy plain.
Albany,* the second city in the state in population, commerce,
and wealth, is situated on the west side of the Hudson, about one
hundred and forty-five miles northwardly of the city of New- York,
in north latitude forty-two degrees and thirty-nine minutes. It is
built partly on a flat, and partly on the side of a hill. The streets
are generally crooked and narrow. The hill rises with a pretty
steep aclivity, and has an elevation of about one hundred and fifty
feet at the distance of half a mile from the river, and two hundred
and ten at the distance of one mile ; here the plain, spreading west-
wardly, begins. From the border of this plain there is an exten-
sive view eastwardly, and south-eastwardly.f
Albany in 1825 contained about sixteen thousand inhabitants,
and three thousand dwelling houses and stores, twelve houses for
public worship, a state-house, three banks, the capitol, a court-
house and jail, an academy, theatre, museum, and an arsenal. It&
population at present is about twenty thousand.
"â€¢The spot where llils city now stands was at first called by the Dutch Aura-
nia ; then Buverwyck, till 1025 ; then FortjOrange, till 1(>47, and Williamstadt,
till 1GC4. All this lime it had also the name of the Fuyck. Fort Orange was
built in 1 023, anS Williamstadt in 1G47. At first a hamlet, then a village, and
afterwards a town, aad lastly a city. For a long time after its foundation it
was enclosed with pickets (palisadoesj
iBy a late survey the distance between New-York and Albany, by the road on
the west sido of the river, has been found only 145 miles. According to the lati-
tudes tlic distance is still less, being only one hundred and thirty-five miles and
a half, and eight rods. The received distances of all the intermediate towns
and villages on and near Ihe river fromtliesc two cities are incorrect. Hudson,
for'instance, is about one Jiundred and eight miles by its latitude from the city
of New-York. By the river the distance does not exceed one hundred and six-
teen miles. The latitudinal distance from Hudson to Albany is about twenty-
STATE OF NEW-YORK. _ 93
The Academy is constructed of red sandstone. It is ninety feet
square, and three stories high, apart from its basement. The Al-
bany ^Lyceum is kept in it. It is the handsomest edifice in the city.
The Capitol, or State-House, stands at the head of State-street j
its base is about one hundred and thirty feet above the Hudson ;
the structure is brick faced with red sandstone. It is one hundred
and fifteen feet long, ninety broad, and fifty high, exclusive of the
basement story and the roof. The legislature of the state, the su-
preme and county courts sit in it. In the structure of this edifice
the rules of architecture, whether Egyptian, Hindoo, Chinese, Gre-
cian, Roman, Saracenic, Gothic, or composite, have been violated-
Tbe Erie and Champlain canals terminate at the city in a spa-
cious basin. Sloops carrying from ninety to one hundred and fifty
tons come up to the city. The bars below are serious impediments
to the navigation of the river ; these might be obviated by a canal
ten or twelve miles long, and then vessels of two or three hundred
tons might make their way up.
Albany was incorporated in the year 1G8G, by Colonel Dongan
governor of the colony. In 1750 it contained three hundred and
fifty houses. From its foundation till the close of the revolution it
was palisadoed and fortified. Here all the treaties with the Ago-
ncaseah, and other Indians, were concluded. It used to be a great
mart for fur.
The exact time when Albany was founded is not known. In
1G14 the Dutch erected a small fort and a trading house, on an
island half a mile below the site of the present city. In 1623 they
built fort Orange on the west side of the river within the bounds of
the present city. Some have alleged that they made the latter fort
in 16 14. If this be true, Albany is the oldest town in the United
States, but if the preceding, then New- York, Esopus, and Sche-
nectady take precedence. Notwithstanding the allegation, we have-
no doubt but New-York is the oldest of the two. A village sprung
up near the fort, which was afterwards enlarged and became a city.
Mr. Stuyvesant the governor of the New Netherlands ; in a letter
to Col. Nicolls, September 2nd, 1664, says, that the Dutch came
up the North River, in the years 1614, 1615, and 1616. near
fort Orange. Where to hinder the invasions and massacres com-
D4 HISTORY OF THE
monly comtnitted by the savages, they built a small fort. A
little before in the same letter he says, we have enjoyed fort Orange
about forty-eight or fifty years, and the Manhattans about forty-one
or forty-two years. See Smith's Hist. p. 28. Albany was called
Schau-naugh-ta-da, by the Agoneaseah. The definition of which
is, over the p me plains, or across the pine plains, on the Cahoha-
tatea, (Hudson's River.) The Dutch in after times applied it to
the place where Schenectady now stands, as being over the plains
from Albany. Hence the radical of Schenectady.
Greenbush is on the east side of the Hudson, over against the
lower part of the city of Albany. It is built on the river bottom,
and has about one hundred houses. The present village was-
founded in 1812.
Troy is also situated on the east side of the Hudson, at the
head of Sloop Navigation. It is six miles north of Albany, and
one hundred and fifty-one north of New- York. The Erie and
Champlain canals are joined to the Hudson by side cuts, and locks,
so as to benefit this' place. Troy is built on a handsome plain, of
several miles extent, lying between the river and hill ; and contains
about eleven thousand inhabitants. There are here two banks, aad
six or seven houses for public worship ; also a court house and
jail. After Albany, Troy is the most wealthy, commercial, and
populous city on the Hudson. It was founded between 1787, and
1790; incorporated as a village in 1801, and as a city in 1810.
In point of location, it nearly equals Albany. It is the shire town
of the county of Rensselaer. The tide ascends to this place.
Gibbonsville in the county of Albany, west of Troy, contains
about eighty houses. There are two large basins here appended
to the Erie canal. The one is connected with the Hudson by a
side cut, and two locks. There is an arsenal at this place.
Lansingburg in the county of Rensselaer, is situated three miles
northwardly of Troy, and one mile southeasterly of Waterford^
and on the same plain that Troy stands on. It contains three
hundred and fifty dwelling houses, five places for public worship,
a bank and aca-demy, and about 2500 inhabitants. Sloops now
come up to it. Lansingbrgh was founded very soon after the revo-
lution. Troy and Lansingburg, will at some future day be united.
STATE OF NEW-YORK. ' 95
Waterford is in the county of Saratoga, one mile northwesterly
of Lansingbiirg. It stands at the union of the Hudson and Mo-
hawk rivers; the Champlain canal passes by it: since the construc-
tion of the darn across the river at Troy, sloops have come up to it.
Waterford contains about two hundred houses, two churches, an
academy, and one thousand inhabitants. It is 155 miles north of
the city of New- York. The point of land on which this village
is built, was called Nachtenack by the Agoneaseah.
Stillwater and Schuylerville, are on the Champlain canal, and
severally contain forty houses. Bemis's heights are about three
miles north-northwesterly of the former place. The latter is noted
as being the place where Burgoyne's army capitulated, in 1777.
Sandyhill is on the west bank of the Hudson, in the county of
Washington, fifty two miles northwardly from Albany, It is the
half-shire of the county, and contains about one hundred houses,
and one church. The feeder taken out of the Hudson, above
Glensfalls, passes by it.
Glensfalls village on the left bank of the Hudson, three miles
higher up, is about as large. It is in Warren county. â€” A feeder
for the Champlain canal, taken out of the Hudson, runs by it.
boats ascend it.
White-Hall in Washington county, is at the head of sloop navi-
gation, on Lake Champlain: and at the termination of the
Northern canal. It contains about seventy houses. It is 72 miles
north north-easterwardly from Albany, and 150 southwardly from
St. Johns, in Lower Canada : at the foot of Sloop navigation.
Plattsburg, in the town of the same name, in the county of Clin-
ton ; is situated on a plain along Saranack river, a litde back from
Lake Champlain. It is 170 miles northwardly from Albany, and
63 southwardly of Montreal in Lower Canada. It contains three
hundred houses, and about one thousand five hundred inhabitants.
Its latitude is forty-four degrees, forty-two minutes. It is the
Saratoga Springs, is in the county of Saratoga, and contains
nearly one hundred houses. It stands on a sandy and gravelly
plain, and is nearly, or quite, environed by woods.
The celebrated mineral springs, are chiefly in a small valley,
96 HISTORY OF THE
lying east of the village. The ground where ihcy are is marshy.
Albany is distant thirty-two miles. In the summer months, great
numbers of persons resort to these springs, either for health or
pleasure. The village has been built since 1800.
Ballston Spa, in the same county, is twenty-six miles north north-
westerly from Albany. The village is partly enclosed by hills, be-
ing situated at the mouth of a small valley. The scenery although
not beautiful, is diversified. The village contains about one hun-
dred houses, two churches, an academy, court house, and jail. It
has been wholly built since 1790. The Ballston springs at this
place, have considerable celebrity.
The two latter villages owe their origin to the mineral springs.
The city of Schenectady stands on a flat, on the south side of
the Mohawk river, fifteen miles north west of Albany. It contains
about five hundred houses, three churches, a court house and jail.
The Erie canal passes through it. The city is tolerably well laid
out, and before the late destructive fire, made a respectable appear-
ance. Schenectady w-ns founded between tlic years 1G16, and
1620. At first, about twenty Hollanders established a trading
house there â€” afterwards a village, and then a city arose. In 1G90,
it cnntained slxty-t.hree houses. In the month of February of the
same year: it was surprised, taken, and burnt by a party of French
and Indians from Canada.
It is alledged by some, that in 1G14, there were eight hundred
warriors at Schenectady, and that three hundred of these lived
upon the lands which have since been included in one farm. By
others it is said, that the place had been abandoned some ages be-
fore, for causes unknown, and that no great number resided there.
This seerns to be the more reasonable and probable. Icanderago
at the mouth of Schoharie creek, was the capitol of the canton, in
1614, and for a long time after. Ohnowalagantle at this time was
a secondary town. Con-nugh-harie-gugh-harie, had before been
the capitol. It was superseded by Ohno-wal-a-gantle, as this latter
has been by Schenectady.
The college is on the heights in the vicinity of the city, and con-
sists of two brick buildings, each of which is two hundred feet in
length and four stories high. They are two hundred yards distant,
STATE 3F NEW-YORK. 9t
and'command a view of the city flats, champaigns, and hills, which
at times is very pleasing to the eye.
On the i7th of January, 1G90, Count De Frontinac, governor
of Canada, delached two hundred men, and some Caughnawagas,
under the command of D. Aillebout de Mantel and Le Moyne
against New-York. They marched through the woods on snow
shoes, and arrived at Schenectady on the eighth of February. The
town was in perfect security, and under no apprehension. The
enemy entered about eleven o'clock at night at the gates which
were open ; and, that every house might be invested at the same
time, divided themselves into small parties of six or seven, and then
began the assault. Every house was carried in an instant. Sixty
persons were put to death, and twenty-seven were carried into cap-
tivity ; the rest fled towards Albany nearly naked, through a deep
snow which fell that night in a terrible stor/n, and twenty-five of
them lost their limbs by the frost. The town was set on fire and
every thing destroyed.
Schenectady, from its foundation to the end of the revolutionary
war, was enclosed with pickets, and had block-houses for defences.
As the town increased the defences were extended eastwardly and
south-eastwardly ; the Moliawk and its waters washed it on two
sides. At the time it wss burnt its population exceeded three hun-
dred. See Smith's HiÂ§t. p. SI.
Johnstown, the seat of justice of the county of Montgomery, is
forty-one miles northwest of Albany, and four north of the Mohawk.
It contains about one hundred and fifty houses, three churches, an
academy, court-house, and jail. It was founded in 1771 by Sir
William Johnson. The surrounding country is beautiful.
Little Falls Village is in the county of Herkimer, at the Little
Falls on the Mdiawk. It is seventy-two miles west-northwest-
wardlv from Albany, and contains about one hundred houses and
one church. The aqueduct over the river is a noble structure ;
the scenery is romantic.
The vilhge of Herkimer is seven miles west of Litde Falls. It
contains sbout seventy houses, one church, and a jail, and court-
house. The situation is beautiful; extensive flats and gentle emi-
nences surmounted by hills nearly environ it.
VOL. II. 13
98 HISTORy OF THE
Fairfield, In the same county, contains about seventy dwelling
houses, an academy, college, and church. Its situation is hand-
some ; on the east the land rises. The college of physicians and
surgeons stands on a green. There are two stone buildings which
can accommodate two hundred students^ The faculty consists of a
president and vice-president, who is professor of obstetrics, a pro-
fessor of chemistry and materia medica, a professor of the theory
and practice of physic and medical jurisprudence, a professor of ana-
tomy and physiology, and a professor of surgery. The number of
students in 1827 was one hundred and forty-four, in 1828 nearly
Utica stands on the south side of the Mohawk, ninety-four miles
west-north-west from the city of Albany. It contains about twelve
hundred dwelling houses and stores, seven churches, an academy,
and two banks, and about eight thousand inhabitants. Many of the
buildings are of brick, and are elegant. The ground on which the
town is built rises from the river with a gentle aclivity ; the Erie
canal meanders through it. Ibe adjacent country is beautiful.
Utica was founded in .1794. It is near the centre of the state,
^nd may at no distant period aspire ^.o be the seat of government.
Its latitude is forty-three degrees and six minutes.
The vale is two miles wide. Uti'ca appears to the best advan-
tage from Hassencleaver on the north; here the spectator sees the
town, its environs, the vale, and the surrounding country, spread
out before him like a map.
Whitesborough is also on the south side of the Mohawk, in the