James Miller Guinn.

Historical and biographical record of southern California; containing a history of southern California from its earliest settlement to the opening year of the twentieth century online

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Online LibraryJames Miller GuinnHistorical and biographical record of southern California; containing a history of southern California from its earliest settlement to the opening year of the twentieth century → online text (page 1 of 209)
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O. W- Lowe.

HISTORICAL AND

BIOGRAPHICAL
RECORD



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA



CONTAINING A HISTORY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA FROM ITS EARLIEST

SETTLEMENT TO THE OPENING YEAR OF THE

TWENTIETH CENTURY



J. M. GUINN, A.M.



Secniary of the Historical Society of Sou t hern California. Member of the Ai,
Historical Association of U'ashi?igton, D. C.



ALSO CONTAINING BIOGRAPHIES OF WELL-KNOWN CITIZENS OF

THE PAST AND PRESENT



CHAPMAN PUBLISHING COMPANY

CHICAGO



Copyright, 1902

BY

CHAPMAN PUBLISHING CO.



PREFACE.



SDL'TIIliRX C.\L]I'"( )RNIA is neither a geographical nor a political subdivision of the
state of L'alifornia. Generally speaking, it refers to the seven southern counties, viz.:
San Diego. Orange, Ri\'erside, San Rernardino, Los Angeles, \"entura and Santa Barbara; yet
there is no good reason why it might not take in two or three more counties. In the so-called
I'ico Law of 1851), "granting the consent of the legislature to the formation of a dififerent govern-
ment for the southern counties of the state," San Luis Obispo and all the territory now com-
prising Kern were included within the boundaries of the proposed new state of Southern Cali-
fornia. ,

The plan of the historical part of this work includes — first a general history of what is usually
designated as Southern California, beginning with its discovery and continuing through the Span-
ish and ]\Iexican eras into the American period to the subdivision of the state into counties ;
— second a history of each county of Southern California from the date of its organization to
the present time.

The author has endeavored to give a clear, concise and accurate account of the most impor-
tant events in the history of the section covered. The reader will find in it, no laudations of
climate, no advertisements of the resources and productions of certain sections, no pufifs of
individuals or of private enterprises. However interesting these might be to the individuals
and the localities praised, they are not history and therefore have been left out.

In compiling the history of the Spanish and Mexican eras I have taken Bancroft's History
of California as the most reliable authority.

I have obtained much original historical material from the Proceedings of the Ayuntamiento
or Municipal Council of Los Angeles (1828 to 1846). The jurisdiction of that Ayuntamiento
exlende<l over the area now included in four of the seven counties of Southern California. Con-
sequently the history of Los Angeles in the Mexican era is virtually the history of all the section
under the jurisdiction of its ayuntamiento. This accounts for the prominence of Los Angeles in
the earlier portions of this volume.

The names of the persons interviewed and the lists of books, periodicals, newspapers and
manuscripts consulted in the preparation of this work w'oukl be altogether too long for
insertion here. To the authors from whom I have quoted, credit has been given either in the body
of the work or in foot notes. To the jiersons who have given mc verbal or written inforination
I return my sincere thanks.

J. JNL GUINN.



Los Angeles, October 12, 1901. wov^O^



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



PART KIRSX.

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA.



CHAPTER I

Spanish Discoveries on the Pacific Coast of North America 33

Spanish Enterprise and Adventure — Scurvy, the Scourge of the Seas — Hernan Cortes — •
Fortuno Ximenez discovers Baja California — Origin of the name California — Discovery of
the Rio Colorado — Ulloa's Voyage — Coronado's Return dispels the Myths of Quivera and
the Seven Cities of Cibola — Mendoza sends Cabrillo on a Voyage of Discovery to the North-
west Coast.

CHAPTER n

The Discovery of Nueva or Alta California 35

Cabrillo's Voyage — Discovery of the Bay of San Diego — Islands of San Salvador and Vitoria,
now Santa Catalina and San Clemente — Bay of San Pedro — Santa Barbara Islands — Death
of Cabrillo — Return of his Ships— Drake's Voyage through the Straits of Magellan-
Plunders Spanish Settlements on the South Pacific Coast — Search for the Straits of Anian —
Refits his Ship in a California Harbor — Takes possession of the Country for the English
Sovereign — Names it New Albion — Return to England — Sebastian Viscaino's Voyage —
Changes the names of the bays and islands discovered by Cabrillo — First Boom Literature —
Failure of Viscaino's Colonization Scheme. His death — Las Californias still believed to be
;.n island — Father Kino's Explorations in 1700 dispels this fallacy.



CHAPTER HI

Mission Coloniz.^tion

Spain's System of Colonizing— Fear of English and Russian Aggression— Four Expeditions
sent to Nueva California— Settlement at San Diego— Portola's Expedition sets out for
Monterey — Discoveries — General Plan of the Missionary Establishments, Location and
Government — Industrial Training of the Neophytes — San Gabriel under Zalvidea — What
was accomplished there.



CHAPTER IV



Indians of Southern Cm. iforni.\

Inferiority of the California Indian— Indian Towns— Vang-na— Indians of the Los Angeltb
Valley— Hugo Reid's Description of their Government— Religion— Marriage— Burials— Feuds
—Song Fights— Utensils— Mythology— Myths— Indians of the Santa Barbara Channel—
Chupu the Channel god— A Revelation.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER V
Fkaxciscan Missions in Southern California 46

Location of the Missions — Condition of the Buildings now — Founding of San Diego de



Aleala — Destruction of the Mission Buildings by Indians — Murder of Father Jaunie — Mis-
sion Statistics — San Gabriel Arcangel — Disreputable Soldiers — Mission Moved to a new-
Site — Statistics — San Juan Capistrano — Failure of the first attempt — Mission re-established— •
Karlhquake of 1812 — Destruction of the Church and Loss of Life — Mission Secularized.
San Buenaventura — Channel Missions Damaged by Earthquake — Mission Garden — Santa
Barbara — Delay in Founding — Damages by Earthquake — Mission rebuilt — Statistics — La
Purisima — New Plan of Mission Management — Church Destroyed by Earthquake — Revolt
of the Indians— Statistics— San Fernando — Large death rate— Treaty of Cahuenga— San Luis
Rey — Flourishing Mission — Father Peyri — The Asistencia of Pala — Santa Inez — Effects of
the Earthquake — Indian Revolt — Chiefs Shot.

J* ^ Jt

CHAPTER VI

The Presidios of Sax Diego and Santa Barbara 52

The Presidio in Colonization — The founding of the Presidio of San Diego — Monotony of
Soldier Life— The Fur Traders— The Lelia Byrd— The Hide Droghers— San Diego in 1829—
Don Juan Bandini's Mansion — The Old Presidio in 1836 — Dana's visit in 1859 — The Channel
Missions and Presidio of Santa Barbara — Founding of Santa Barbara — Quarrel between the
Padres and the Comandante — Vancouver's Description of the Presidio in 1793 — Completion
of the Presidio — A Boston Boy — Don Jose de La Guerra y Noriega — Change of Flags —
Santa Barbara in 1829 — As Dana saw it in 1836 — Famhani describes it in 1840 — Population
and Appearance of the Pueblo when Fremont's Battalion took possession of it in 1846.

..« ^ ^
CHAPTER VH

IVjUNDIXG OF THE PuEDLO OF LoS AnGELES 56

Pueblo plan of Colonization — Governor de Neve selects Pueblo sites — Regulations and Sup-
plies for the Colonists — Recruiting Pobladores in Sonora and Sinaloa — Arrival of the Colon
ists at San Gabriel — Founding of the Pueblo de Los Angeles — Names of the eleven heads o''
Families — Derivation of the name of the Town and River — The Indian Town of Yang-na.



CHAPTER Vni

Los Angeles in the Spanish Era 60

The Old Plaza— Area of a Pueblo— Subdivision of Pueblo Lands — Location of the Old
Plaza — Deportation of three worthless Colonists — Final Distribution of Lands to the Colon-
ists in 1786— Government of the Pueblo— Census of 1790— Population in 1810— The "pirate
Buchar" — End of Spain's domination in California.



CHAPTER IX

Transition Period — From Monarchy to Republic 64

Governor Sola a Royalist — Californians Loyal to Spain during the Revolution — Beginnings of
a Government by the People — Population and Resources of the Pueblo of Los Angeles —
Arrival of Foreigners- Life in California in 1829— Slow Growth and Little Progress.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



CHAPTER X

Mission Secularization and the Passing of the Neophyte.



Sentiment not History — Spain's purpose in Founding tlie Missions — Mission Land Mo-
nopoly — Decrees of Secularization humane — Regulations Governing Secularization — Slaughter
of Cattle— Reckless Destruction— Ruin of the Missions— Fall of the Neophyte— The Pueblito
— Indian Slaves — The Monday Auction — What became of the Mission Estates — Mortality
among Neophj'tes under Mission rule — Extinction of the Indian inevitable.



CHAPTER XI
A Decade of Revolutions 70

The Storm Centre of Revolutions — Expulsion of Governor Victoria — Death of Avila and
Pacheco — Pio Pico, Governor — Rival Governors, Echcandia and Zamorano — California Split
in two — Governor Figueroa appointed — The Hijar Colony — A Cobbler and a Cigar Maker
head a Revolution — Hijar and Padres arrested and shipped to Mexico — Death of Governor
Figueroa — Los Angeles made the Capital of Alta California — Castro becomes "gefe politico"
— Chico, Governor — Deposed and sent back to Mexico.



CHAPTER XH

El Estado Lir.RE v Soberano de Alta California 74

(The Free and Sovereign State of Alta California^
Causes that led to Revolution — No Offices for the "Hijos del Pais" (native sons) — Revolt
against Governor Gutierrez — Declaration of Independence — Alvarado, Governor of the Free
State — Monterey Plan — Los Angeles opposes it — War between the North and the South —
Battle of San Buenaventura — Los Angeles Subjugated — Peace in the Free State — Carlos
Carrillo appointed Governor by the Supreme Government — Los Angeles the Capital of the
South — Carrillo inaugurated with imposing ceremonies — War again — Capture of Los Angeles
— Flight of Carrillo to San Diego — Battle of Las Flores — Surrender of Carrillo — Alvarado
recognized as Governor by the Supreme Government — End of the Free State.



CHAPTER xni

Closing Years of Mexican Rule 79

The Government in the hands of the Native Sons — Arrival of Trappers from the United
States — The Graham Affair — Arrival of Governor Micheltorena and his Cholo Army — Cap-
ture of Monterey by Commodore Jone.^ — Micheltorena and Jones meet at Los Angeles — Ex-
travagant demands of the Governor — An Army of Chicken Thieves — Revolt against Michel-
torena and his Cholos — Sutter and Graham join forces with Micheltorena — The Picos unite
with Castro and Alvarado — Americans favor Pico — Battle of Cahuenga — Defeat and Abdica-
tion of Micheltorena — Deportation of the Governor and his Army — Pio Pico, Governor —
Looking Backward.



16 TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XIV

MuxrciPAL Government — Muy Ilustre Ayuntamiento 84

But Little Crime in California under Spanish and Mexican Rule — Pueblo Government — The
Most Illustrious Ayuntamiento — That of Los Angeles the best Illustration of a Mexican
Municipal Council — Officers of the Ayuntamiento — Taking the Oath of Office — When Office
Sought the Man — The Public Alarm — Blue Laws of Old Los Angeles — Hygienic rules — The
Pueblito — Municipal revenues — Salaries — Elections — Judges of the Plains.



CHAPTER XV
'I'liii Ho.MEs AND Home Life of Californians in the Adobe Age 89

The Indian Brick-maker — An Architecture without Freaks or Fads — The Adobe Age not
Aesthetic — Leonardo Cota's Plea for Urban Beauty — Reconstruction and Rehabilitation —
Style of Dress in 1829 — No Chimneys for Santa Claus — Filial Respect — Economical Goveni-
ment — Dog Days — No Fire Department and no Police.



CHAPTER XVI
.\couisiTioN OF California by the United States — Capture of Los Angeles

Territorial Expansion — Fremont and Castro — The Bear Flag Revolt — Commodore Sloat
takes possession of California — Castro's Retreat Southward — Review of Affairs at Los
Angeles — The Old Feud between the Uppers and the Lowers — Pico's Humane Proclama-
tion — Stockton at San Pedro and Fremont at San Diego — Their United Forces enter Los
Angeles — Historical Myths.



CHAPTER XVH

jE of Los Angeles 98

Stockton and Fremont Leave Los Angeles — Captain Gillespie in Command of the Southern
Department — Revolt of the Californians — Gillespie's Men Besieged on Fort Hill — Juan
Flaco's Ride — Battle of Chino — Americans Evacuate the City — Retreat to San Pedro — Can-
non thrown into the Bay.



CHAPTER XVHl
Battle of Do.minguez Ranch — Flores, Governor



Authentic account of the Battle by Lieutenant Duvall— Arrival of the Savannah at San Pedro,
Capt. William Mervine, Commanding — Landing of the Troop.s — Gillespie's Men join Mer-
vine— March to Dominguez Ranch— Battle— Retreat of Mervine's Force— Names of the
Killed and Wounded— Dead Buried on Deadman's Island— Names of the Officers in Com-
mand — The Old Woman's Gun — Flores made Governor and Comandante-General — Jealousy
of the Hijos del Pais— Arrest of Flores— He is Released and Rico Imprisoned.



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 17

CHAPTER XIX

The Second Conquest of Califorxea 104

Stockton Arrives at San Pedro — Carrillo's Ruse — A Remarkable Battle — Fremont Recruits a
Battalion — Californians Capture Santa Barbara and San Diego — Recapture of San Diego —
Building of a Fort — The Flag Episode — Arrival of General Kearny at Warner's Pass — Battle
of San Pasqual — Commodore Stockton Sends a Force to Relieve General Kearny — Prepara-
tions for an Attack upon Los Angeles — The March — Battle of Paso de Bartolo, or San
Gabriel River — Battle of La Mesa — Small Losses.



CHAPTER XX

Occupation of Los Angeles — Building of Fort Moore 109

Burial of the Dead — Surrender of Los Angeles — The Americans Occupy the City — Unwel-
come Visitors — A Famous Scold — How Stockton Obtained Headquarters — Building of Fort
Moore — Two Forts — Fears of an Invasion — The Mormon Battalion — Colonel Stevenson takes
Command — A Flagstaff for the Fort — The First Fourth of July — Historical Fictions — Fre-



mont's Headquarters.



CHAPTER XXI

Tre.\ty of Cahueng.\ — Transition 114

Fremont's Battalion Arrives at San Fernando — Negotiations — Treaty Signed — Fremont's
Battalion enters Los Angeles — Colonel Fremont appointed Governor — Quarrel between
Stockton and Kearny — Colonel Mason succeeds General Kearny — Colonel Stevenson in Com-
mand of the Southern Department — Ayuntamiento Elected — Civil and Military Authorities
Clash— Stephen C. Foster, Alcalde— The Guard House blown up— Treaty of Guadalupe
Hidalgo — Pio Pico Returns to California — The Second Ayuntamiento.



PART SECOND.

COUNTIES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA.



CHAPTER XXII



San Diego County.



Organization of the County — Boundaries — Population in 1850 — Indian War of 1851 — Early
History of the County and City Identical — The Old Pueblo — First Survey of the Pueblo Lands
— Area of the Pueblo in 1850 — Origin of New Town — Puenta de Los Muertos — The First
Buildings in New San Diego — The First Wharf — Its Tragic Fate — The Pioneer Newspaper —
Disasters that Befell the Plant — John Phoenix, Editor — A Political Somersault — The
Famous Mill between Ames and Phoenix — The San Diego Herald Dies — Early Steamers —
The First Overland Mail Route— Old Town and New Town in Statu Quo— Dry Years and
Ihe Civil War.



CHAPTER XXIII



S.-VN Diego County (Continued).



THE NEW ERA

Arrival of Alonzo E. Horton — He Buys a Town Site — The Rush to San Diego — Rapid
Growth of New Town — The Horton House — The Texas Pacific Railroad — The Railroad
Act Passed, Great Rejoicing — Boom of 1871 — Some Boom Poetry — Branch Railroads — Fail-
ure of the Railroad — Bursting of the Boom — Gloom — A New Trans-Continental Railroad
Sclienie — Its Success — The Boom of 1S87 — Inflation of Values — New Towns — Collapse of
the Real Estate Bubble — The Boom a Blessing — Development of the Back Country — Sub-
stantial Improvements Made — A Year of Disasters — Recuperation — Riverside County takes
a Slice — Annals of the Closing Years of the Century — Public Schools — The Free Public
Library — The Chamber of Commerce.

OTHER CITIES AND TOWNS

Old Town — National City — Coronado Beach — Occanside — Escondido — Fall Brook — Pala —
Julian — Banner.



CHAPTER XXIV
Lo.s ANGEI.E.S County 131

AREA AND ORGANIZATION

Extent of the Original County — Boundaries — Organization of San Bernardino County — -V
Slice taken off Los Angeles to Make Kern— Orange County Created— No More County
Division— Organization of the Los Angeles County Government— First election— Officers
Elected— Court of Sessions— A County Interpreter- County Prisoners Hired to the City



TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Council — First Public Building, a Jail — Jueces del Campo — Patriots of the Pocket — Some
Cliarges — The First Fee Bill — The Office of Supervisor Created — First Board.

THE FIRST DECADE OF THE COUNTY's HISTORY, l8S0 TO 1860

Early Land Grants — Litigation over Grants — Township Boundaries — Immigrants and Over-
land Routes — Sonorese Migration — A Job Lot of Immigrants — A Tricky Alcalde — The
Mexican Route — The Gila Route — The Santa Fe Trail — The Salt Lake Route — Immi-
gration by Southern Routes — Commerce and Conveyances — The Mustang Saddle Train —
The Carreta Freight Train — First Stages — The First Steamer at San Pedro — High Fare
and Freight Charges — Bucking Sailors — Imports and E.xports — High Price of Grapes — ■
First State Census — Small Area under Cultivation — Slow Growth of the County in the 50's.



CHAPTER XXV
Los Ange[.es County (Continued) 137

THE SECOND DECADE, 1860 TO iS/O

A Gold Rush and Gold Placers — Hard Times — The Great Flood of 1861-62 — After the
Deluge — Drought — The Famine Years of 1863-64 — Death of Cattle — Financial Depression
— The Civil War — Decadence of the Cattle Industry — The Stearns Ranches — From Cattle
Raising to Grain Production.

THE THIRD DECADE, 187O TO 1880

Railroads — Los Angeles and San Pedro Railroad — The Southern Pacific — Bond Election^
The Great Tunnel — Completion of the Road between Los Angeles and San Francisco — First
train — Los Angeles and Independence Road — Fate of the Santa Monica Wharf — Colonies —
San Pasqual Plantation Scheme — The Indiana Colony — It becomes Pasadena — Rapid Growth
— Pomona — First Auction Sale of Land and Lots — Santa Monica — "The Zenith City by the
Sunset Sea" — Disasters.

THE FOURTH DECADE, 1880 TO 189O

Depression Continues — First Trans-Continental Railroad — Immigration — A New Railroad
Coming — Beginning of the Boom — Town-Making — Homberg's Twin Cities — Unprincipled
Boomers — Magnitude of the Boom — Great Booms of Former Times — Collapse.

FIFTH DECADE, 189O TO igOO

From Boom to Gloom — Increase in Population — Reaction — Bank Panic of 1893 — Spanish
War — The Harbor War — Three Dry Years — Prosperity — Population of Cities and Towns
in 1900.

J^ J* ..t



CHAPTER XXYI

The City of Los Angeles 144

shaping the city
A City Without Form— Urban Expansion— The First Boom— No Written Titles— Land
Commissioner's Report— "Monstrous Irregularity of the Streets"— Area of the Pueblo, "Two
Leagues to each Wind from the Plaza Church"— An Amazed Commission— Wide Streets
Offend the Sense of the Beautiful— Squaring the Plaza— Ord's Survey— Area of the City,
Sixteen Square Leagues— Street Names in Ord's Plan— Charity Street— Adjusting Street
Lines and Property Lines.

AMERICANIZING THE CITY

Incorporated by the Legislature of 1849-50— Reduced Area— Twice Made a City and not
Much of a City Then- The First Election Under American Law— City Officers— Patriotic



TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Councilmen— The Indian Question— Auction Sale of Prisoners— A Cily Ordinance that
Favored Poor Lo— Tlie Whipping Post— The Indian Question Settled.

THE POST OFFICE .\ND POST.\L SERVICE

Postal Service in the Spanish Era — In the Mexican Era— First American Mail Service — A
Tub Post Office — Irregular Mails — The Butterfield Stage Route — Los .A.nge!c5 Postmasters.

SCHOOLS AND SCHOOL MASTERS

The First School— Mexican Schools and School Masters— First American School— The First
School Ordinance— The Pioneer School House of the City— Prejudice against the Public
Schools — The First High School in Southern California — City School Superintendents —
The Normal School.



CHAPTER XXVII

The City oi- Los Angeles (Continued) 152

crimes and vigilance committees
Turbulence, but few Capital Crimes under Spanish and Mexican Rule — The Defenders of
Public Safety — The First Executions by a Vigilance Committee-»-GoId and Crime — People's
Tribunals — Executions by Vigilance Committees in Los Angeles — The Murder of Sheriff
Barton and Four of His Posse — Extermination of the Flores Gang — The Vasquez Gang — The
Chinese Massacre — The Last Vigilance Conmiittee.

PIONEER NEWSPAPERS

La Estrella de Los Angeles (The Star of Los Angeles) — The Southern Californian — El
Clamor Publico — The Southern Vineyard — The Los .A.ngelcs Daily News.

ANNALS OF THE CITY's GROWTH AND PROGRESS

.\dobe gives Place to Wood and Brick in Building— First Building Boom— Population in
i860— Camel Caravans— The Telegraph— Salt Lake Trade— Union Demonstration— The
Great Flood — A Year of Disasters — Union and Secession — The War Ends and Peace Reigns
—The First Protestant Church— The Great Flood of 1868 Makes a New River— New
Growth— The First Railroad— City Lighted with Gas— First Bank— Population of the City.
1870— The Railroad Bond Question— Bank Panic— Hard Times— Population in 1880— Re-
action— A Rate War— Good Times— The Boom Comes— The Cable Railway— Electric Rail-
ways — Oil Discovery — Oil Boom — City's Expansion by .Annexation — Population in iqoo.



CHAPTER XXVIII
S.'VNTA Barbar.v County ' 5^

ORIGIN OF THE NAME

First use of the Name in Connection with the Mainland— Santa Barbara, Virgin and Martyr.

ORGANIZATION OF THE COUNTY

Boundaries— Transition from Mexican to American Forms of Government- Election of
County Officers— County Seal— Sheriff Killed— First County Assessment— Mixing City and
County Offices— Ruling Families— Townships— Board of Supervisors— The County Solidly
Democratic in Politics — The First Court House.

CRIME AND CRIMINALS

Bands of Outlaws— Jack Powers— Ned McGowan— His escape from the Vigilantes— .\ Grand
Jury Report.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.

DOWNFALL OF THE CATTLE KINGS

The Feudal Lords of the Land — Stock Ranges Equal to Gold Mines — Overstocked Ranges —
Starvation of Cattle — The Shepherd Kings — Kings no More — The Famine Years end their
Rule — Fatalism — Subdivision of the Great Ranches — Transition Period — Prosperity — The
Southern Pacific Railroad — The Boom — Railroad Gap Closed — Lompoc — Guadalupe — Bettcra
via — Santa Maria — Santa Ynez — Goleta — El Montecito — Summerland — Carpinteria Valley —
The Channel Islands.

PUBLIC SCHOOLS

First School — Long Vacations — Schools under Me.xican Rule — Schools after the Conquest
— Little Progress at First — Rapid Advance — High Schools



CHAPTER XXIX
The City of Santa Barbara 165

ORGANIZATION OF THE CITY GOVERNMENT

Incorporation — First Meeting of the Common Council — City Officials — Lost Records —
Haley's Survey — Wrackenrueder's Map — The Second Council — The Indian Question — An
Ethnic Question — Economical City Government — "A Wide Open Town" — A California
Treat — A Spasm of Virtue — Careless Councils — Pueblo Lands — Street Names — Caiion Perdido



Online LibraryJames Miller GuinnHistorical and biographical record of southern California; containing a history of southern California from its earliest settlement to the opening year of the twentieth century → online text (page 1 of 209)