In October, 1869, the present pastor, Rev. John
Ewing, was installed. From the beginning to the
present, 540 persons have been received into mem-
bership, and of these 200 remain (November, 1880).
Mention having been made that a Sunday-school
was organized near Clinton (or Hunt's Mills) in 1825,
it remains to be said that the same school is known
as the Presbyterian Sunday-school. Mr. Henry Miller
was the moving spirit in its organization, and in suc-
cession to the present as superintendents may be
named David Miller, Adam Stiger, A. W. Dunham,
Morris S. Stiger, Eli Bosenbury, Peter Van Pelt,
Rev. John Ewing, N. D. Stiger, and William H.
PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHUECH.
A Protestant Episcopal Church was established in
Clinton in 1837, and in 1838 a house of worship was
built. The first rector was Rev. William C. Crane ;
the second, Rev. James Adams. With the close of
the latter's labors, about 1846, the organization ceased.
The church building was afterwards used for private
school purposes, and is still known as the " Acad-
CLINTON METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHUECH.
Just when Methodist meetings were first held in
Clinton village cannot be positively stated, although
it may be estimated that the first class was formed
at that point about 1830. Certain it is that there
was a Methodist Episcopal Church at Allertown
before there was one at Clinton (or Hunt's Mills),
for in 1822, when the first Methodist Episcopal
church edifice was built at Allertown, John Green,
the Hunt's Mills blacksmith, was a leading member of
the organization, and the inference is fair that he went
down there to church because there was none at his
home. Probably about 1830, Methodist meetings
were held in the stone school-house, and in 1839 a
building was put up, at which time a Rev. Mr. Wig-
gins was the preacher in charge, and Nehemiah Clin-
tan leader of the Clinton class. In 1842, Nathaniel
Megronnigall was the class-leader at Clinton, Walter
Burrows presiding elder, George Banghart preacher
in charge, and Richard Van Horn junior preacher.
In 1844 the Clinton charge included Clinton, Aller-
town, Cokesburg, Lebanon, Lebanonville, Mount
Lebanon, Clarksville, Bethlehem, and Mountainville.
In that year the preachers in charge were Revs. Ed-
ward Page and Samuel E. Post; from 1845 to 1855,
Revs. Manning Force, John Fort, George Banghart,
E. II. Stokes, J. P. McCormick, Rodney Winans, and
J. N. Crane. In 1863 the house of worship now in
use was erected.
November, 1880, Annandale and Clinton were in
the charge and included 162 members. The class-
leaders were George Fleming, Jacob D. Fritts, and
James Astle. The trustees were C. B. Melick, Ed-
mund Melick, Theodore Melick, Isaiah Fritts, N. S.
Wyckoff, B. C. Smith, and Christopher Starner. The
Sunday-school, at Clinton, in charge of J. H. Low
and eighteen teachers, had an average attendance of
BAPTIST CHUECH OF CLINTON.
Until May, 1870, the Baptists residing at Clinton
worshiped at the Bethlehem Baptist church, but on
May 22d of that year sis persons, led by Rev. Henry
Westcott, formed a branch church at Clinton.
It was resolved straightway to build a church, and,
J. T. Leigh, J. D. Cregar, and Elisha Wene being
chosen a building committee, ground was broken in
the summer of 1871 ; October 25th the corner-stone
was laid, Revs. E. A. Woods, of Flemington, Andrew
Armstrong, of Easton, and Henry Westcott officiating.
In February, 1872, the Bethlehem Church resolved
that the church at Clinton should be an independent
organization, and accordingly, March 2, 1872, letters
were granted to 25 persons, who, with 12 others, united
in forming the Clinton Church. The names of the 37
constituent members were Rev. Henry Westcott, Mary
M. Westcott, Hattie E. Westcott, J. F. Westcott, John
T. Leigh, Mary Leigh, Emily Leigh, Samuel and Mary
Leigh, J. D. Cregar, Mary E. Cregar, Elizabeth Cregar,
A. C. Cregar, Zilpah Cregar, Henry and Ann Rocka-
fellow, William and Mary E. Chamberlain, Mary
K. Chamberlain, Edward and Mary Ann Barrass,
Sarah G. Barrass, Elisha and Mary A. Wene, Sarah
Ann Yauger, Mary C. Wagner, Hettie Bodine, David
Brown, John Hulsizer, Rachel Prall, Mrs. Wm. Briggs,
Ellen Volk, Ann E. Case, Julia Stewart, Mrs. Dilts,
W. D. L. Robbins, Amelia M. Robbins.
The church was recognized March 20, 1872, and
the edifice dedicated Aug. 1, 1872. The deacons first
chosen were Edward Barrass, John T. Leigh, J. D.
Cregar, and W. D. L. Robbins, who was appointed
clerk, and J. T. Leigh treasurer. Rev. Henry West-
cott, who was engaged as the first pastor, served to
Feb. 2, 1873. Rev. W. H. Shermer succeeded him
April 13, 1873, resigned Feb. 11, 1877, and in March
of the latter year was followed by Rev. G. B. Young.
Mr. Young retired in June, 1879, and then came Rev.
H. D. Doolittle, who served until his death, June 23,
The church is now in a flourishing condition, with
an active membership of 66. The pulpit is temporarily
supplied at present.
CHURCH OF THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION (ROMAN
Religious services were held by Catholic priests in
Clinton village as early as 1840, perhaps before. The
priests came from Easton and preached in houses of
professors of the faith, although the preaching was
not very frequent, â€” not oftener than once in two
months or maybe less. In 1850, Father Roaridon,
of Easton (still a priest there), visited Clinton once
in six weeks or two months, and held services in the
residence of Francis Mulligan. At the commence-
ment of his labors his congregation included some-
thing like eighteen families. I'm- whom he preached
several years. About lxiio, Francis Mulligan's bam
was fitted up as a church, and meetings were held in
that until the completion of the present house of
worship, in 1X7'.). The >u â€” is.- [ .;i - 1 . > i - : i ft . r Father
Rearidon were Kevs. .lago, Itolland, Leonard O'Neil,
and I'.raily, the priest now in charge. November,
1880, the congregation represented forty families, the
trustees then being James Mulligan and Barney ( larr.
The first physician resident in what is now the
village of Clinton was doubtless Benjamin Van Cleve
Hunt, brother to Ralph Limit, proprietor of Hunt's
Mills. Dr. Hunt made his home at Hunt's Mills
before 1810, in the house now occupied by James R.
Kline. In 1818, Dr. Hunt removed to Ohio.
In the same year William P. Clarke occupied the
field at Hunt's Mills, and remained until 1825. John
Manners located in 1818, and practiced until his
death, in 1853. Drs. C. Crawford, Henry Field, and
Moore were village doctors from 1829 to 1850, and in
1851 came Sylvester Van .Syckel, yet in practice. In
18G6, Joseph B. Bird became a partner with Dr. Van
Syckel, and remained until 1873. Dr. James, who
came in 1877, remained but a short time. Win.
Knight and J. M. Frace came in 1878, and, with Dr.
Van Syckel, comprised the list in November, 1880.
CLINTON NATIONAL BANK.
This, the oldest banking institution in Clinton, was
founded in 1866, under the general banking law, as
the Clinton Bank, with a capital of $100,000, of which
$80,000 was paid in. There were thirteen directors, â€”
Robert Foster, James P. Huffman, J. T. Leigh, J. A.
Young, Win. Egbert, E. A. Rockhill, J. H. Huffman,
Jos. Bos-. Peter Mclick, Peter Sigler, X. 8. Cramer,
Bonnet Van Syckel, and Whitfield Dunham, â€” of
whom Robert Foster was chosen president and N. W.
Voorhees cashier. I!u-incss was commenced in a
building standing just west of the post-office, but
about 1860 the presenl banking-house was occupied.
In July, 1SG">, the institution was reorganized as "The
Clinton National Bank," with a capital of $100,000.
In 1871, Mr. Voorhees was succeeded as cashier by
B. V. Leigh, and in January, 1875, Mr. Poster re-
tired from the presidency, when Joseph Van Syckel
was chosen to succeed liiin. \le - i-. \':ni Syckel and
Leigh are still respectively president and cashier, and
John T. Leigh vice-president. The director- for
1880 were. I. II. Bockafellow, J. V Ramsey, N.Boyd,
T. E. Hunt, Edward Bumphrey, Wm. Egbert, Eujah
Stout, S. Van Syckel. .1. Van Syckel, John T. Leigh,
A. J. Reeves, Fisher Pidcock, and Sydney Yard.
FTBST NATIONAL HANK.
The First National Bank of Clinton was incorpo-
rated Jan. 29, 1875, with a capital of $100,000. The
subscribers to the stock at the first meeting, held in
Weller's Hotel, numbered twenty-five, of whom Rob-
ert Foster, John A. Young, Samuel Parry, James R.
Kline, Whitfield Dunham, F. A. Potts, John F. Gran-
din, Win. Johnson, Benjamin E. Young, Jacob R.
I'i-le r, Peter A. Beavers, Peter Cramer, and Martin
Wyckoff were chosen directors. Robert Foster was
elected president and N. W. Voorhees cashier.
Under authorization, the bank commenced business
April 8, 1875. From the published report dated Oct.
1, 1880, it appears that at that time the loans and dis-
c its aggregated 1158,780; that there were due from
approved reserve agents $55,410, and from other na-
tional banks $4303 ; value of real estate held by the
bank, $2300; outstanding currency, $90,000; undi-
vided profits, $5304.00 ; deposits, $145,870 ; due other
national hanks, siln.Vi. 70. Robert l'o-ter lei- been the
president and N. W. Voorhees the cashier since 1875.
The directors for 1880 were Robert Foster, Peter A.
Beavers, Peter Cramer, Whitfield Dunham, J. R.
Fisher, J. F. Grandin, Wm. Johnson, J. R. Kline,
F. A. Potts, Samuel Parry, Martin Wyekotf, B. E.
Young, J. A. Young.
There were lime-burners in and near the present
village perhaps before the Revolution, and likely
enough among the first of them were the Hunts.
Peter Youug, father of John A., of Clinton, burned
lime in 1810 upon a field within the present borough,
where the same had been done long before. Gen.
Hope was a lime-burner, and, indeed, so were many
of the early comers. The lime-cliffs rising abruptly
upon the west bank of the river within the village
limits, and extending about two miles up Spruce Run,
were nol much quarried before L840, but since then
have been steadily worked. Ill the borough limits
the limestone hills are estimated to cover about 0411
acres. Although now the amount burned annually
aggregates liil.oilll bushels, there is less done than
there was a few years ago.
There was no village cemetery in Clinton until
1880, when the burial-ground at the Presbyterian
church was laid out. The oldest grave there is said to
be that of Mid-hipmaii lor, who died in the
naval service of the United States al l'ort Rogers in
the W( -' [ndies, Sept 1 1, L828, and in 188<
brought to Clinton and laid to rest in the new ceme-
tery. In that burial-place the striking architectural
features arc two handsome granite shafts. One com-
memorates the death of Brig.-Gen. Geo. W.Taylor,
WOUnded at the battle of Manassas, Aug. 27, 1802,
and died at Alexandria, Sept. 1. 1862. The second
records the death of Capt Archibald Taylor, of the
HUNTERDON COUNTY, NEW JERSEY.
Third Regiment New Jersey Infantry, who fell at
Cliancellorsville, Va., May 3, 1863, aged twenty.
Just north of the village there is a tastefully laid
out cemetery belonging to the Methodist Episcopal
church, and a third burial-ground at the Catholic
"Stewart Lodge, No. 34, F. and A. M.," named in
honor of E. Stewart, then M. W. G. M., was organ-
ized Dec. 1, 1854, at White House, in Readington
township. Present at the first meeting were J. C.
Rafferty, W. M. ; E. R. Hall, S. W. ; G. T. Blake, J.
W. ; J. A. Apgar, Treas. ; M. D. Trefren, Sec. ; J. R.
Kline, S. D. ; S. Clark, J. D. ; P. Cook, Tiler. Jan.
10, 1855, a charter was issued to the lodge. In 1865
its quarters were removed to Annandale (then called
Clinton Station), and in 1873 a second removal was
made, to Clinton. The Masters of the lodge since
1854 have been J. C. Rafferty, M. D. Trefren, A. E.
Sanderson, Joel Bryant, J. R. Ewing, R. H. Gano,
W. E. Hoffman, H. Altemus, W. D. L. Bobbins, and
W. H. Baker. The membership, November, 1880,
was 90, when the officers were William H. Baker, W.
M. ; James R. Kline, S. W. ; John Lunger, J. W. ; J.
B. Weller, Treas. ; R. Laquay, Sec. ; Herman' Alte-
mus, S. D. ; Watson Corson, J. D. ; H. Crampton,
" Clinton Lodge, United American Mechanics,"
was organized July 8, 1869, with the following as
members : John Bosenbury, Samuel W. Smith, John
Manning, Daniel Stires, Whitfield Sweazey, Emanuel
Manning, J. E. Van Syckel, Robert S. Rodenbough,
J. H. Lowe, T. T. Bosenbury, Frederick Lunger, A.
G. Manning, J. R. Allen, H. Altemus, Samuel Man-
ning, Jesse Teats, Theodore Madison, R. P. Holeman,
William C. Reeves, Alfred Fritts. The first coun-
cilor was J. H. Lowe. After him the councilors to
1880 have been T. T. Bosenbury, J. R. Allen, J. Bo-
senbury, R. H. Rodenbough, William L. Rodenbough,
William H. Waldron, A. D. Manning, Samuel Man-
ning, Charles H. Matthews, R. H. Rodenbough. Al-
though the lodge has had as many as 111 members at
one time, the number has now fallen to 38. The offi-
cers in November, 1880, were R. H. Rodenbough, C. ;
John Bosenbury, V. C. ; A. M. Trimmer, Sec. ; T. T.
Bosenbury, A. Sec. ; W." H. Waldron, F. Sec. ; B. C.
Smith, Treas.; O. Urich, Inductor; James Altemus,
Ex. ; Jacob Eike, J. P. ; A. D. Manning, O. P.
" Capoolong Lodge, No. 185, I. O. O. F.," was or-
ganized June 29, 1875, with the following members :
William Knight, N. G. ; Daniel Cowel, V. G. ; A. V.
Lunger, R. S. ; J. J. Aller, P. S. ; E. R. Hartpence,
Treas. The membership is now 45. The officers are
E. V. Blue, N. G. ; A. Bunn, V. G. ; William Hum-
mer, R. Sec. ; P. Wagner, P. Sec. ; J. H. Lowe, Treas.
The Noble Grands of the lodge since 1875 have been
William Knight, L. B. Baker, A. V. Lunger, E. R.
Hartpence, G. W. Gebhardt, M. F. Proof, William
Lunger, R. Laquay, and E. V. Blue.
"Independent Gospel Temperance Union" was or-
ganized June 21, 1878, in Dr. Everett's office. Gospel
temperance meetings are held monthly in the Clinton
churches and in the Stone church at Bethlehem.
The officers are Rev. J.R. Ewing, President; Rev. J.
H. Ruth, I. G. Williamson, and J. T. Leigh, Vice-
Presidents ; George Fleming, Recording Secretary ;
G. W. Everett, Corresponding Secretary ; Peter Case,
At a county Sunday-school convention held in
Bloomsbury, Oct. 15, 1873, the county was divided
into three Sunday-school districts, of which No. 1
was to be the townships of Bethlehem, Lebanon,
High Bridge, Tewksbury, Clinton, and Union, and
the borough of Clinton. The first president of No. 1
was B. E. Young, and the first secretary Rev. T. D.
Frazee, chosen at the first meeting of the institute,
May 26, 1874. The officers in November, 1880, were
Rev. S. W. Roe, D.D., of Lebanon, President ; Wil-
liam S. Wyckoff, of Clinton, Vice-President ; William
H. Baker, of Clinton borough, Secretary and Treas-
urer. The present representation in the institute in-
cludes forty-four Sunday-schools.
HISTORY OF SOMERSET COUNTY.
OH \ I'T ER I.
THE PHYSICAL FEATURES OF SOMERSET
I Extantâ€” Bouodarie*â€” Phytlcal Featuresâ€” Geological Forma-
II," Bed Sandal Red Sbala, UmeatODe, Trap, and other
l: - I. ^â€”Mineral* ati'l Minos, etc.
EXTENT AND BOUNDARIES.
Somerset County is situated very nearly in the
geographical centre of the Stiite, lying between 40
22' and 40Â° 45' north latitude, and extending from
74Â° 27' westward to74 47'wesl of Greenwich. Its
centra] latitude is40Â°S4 / . to climate is mild and
healthful, [t contains nearly one hundred and ninety-
six thousand acres, or three hundred and six square
miles, of surface. It is bounded on the north by
Morris and Union Counties, on the east by Onion and
Middlesex, on the south by Middlesex and Mercer,
ami on the west hy Mercer and Hunterdon Counties.
TOPOGRAPH! , Etc,
The predominant aspect of the surface is that of a
sofi and gentle pastoral landscape, except in its
northern part, where its hills, in graceful outlines,
harmoniously blend with the woodlands, meadows,
and iic-lds of its central and southern portions. No
towering mountains or steep acclivities are hereto he
found; yel from man; an eminence views are obtained
as tine and as wide-spreading as can he had in some
localities only from mountain-tops.
The Burface in the larger pari of the county is roll-
ing or Undulating, â€” neither Hal nor hilly, hut so com-
posed of hill and dale as to insure proper drainage,
and yd present no obstacle to agriculture and tillage.
Its mountains, so called, rise to an altitude of from
Onlj one hundred and fifty to three hundred feet.
They are of the trap formation, hut it nowhere as-
sumes the columnar form.
The South Branch of the Raritan, rising in Brook-
lyn Pond, in Morris County, a few miles north of
Drakesville, courses along the western base <>( Fox
Hill, i', 'reive- the water- of I'.ihM'- Lake, and drains
the German Valley; it then passes wesl of Round
Mountain and enters upon the reel-shale district, flow-
ing to the northward of Flemington, theme nearly
eastward to Ncshanie, where il change- its course, its
direction being nearly northeasterly to the point where
it joins the North Branch in forming the Raritan
â€¢ By Hot. Abram Moaalcr, 1).D.
River, through which its waters are discharged into
the hay at Amboy.
The North Branch has its head near Calais, in
Morris I kranty, not far from the Bource of the South
Branch ; hut this stream i- nol dii erted by the range
of Fox Hill, and therefore naturally finds a channel
more directly towards the red-shale district, and, flow-
ing nearly southerly, meets the South Branch and
sends its waters occanward hy the same channel. It
has a larger Branch, and a longer, called, first. Black
River, then the Lamington, which first receives the
water- of the North and South Bockaway. These
principal streams discharge almost all the waters of
Hunterdon and Somerset Counties. They all flow
through broad valleys, whose rich alluvial soils afford
a sure reward to the husbandman's labor. The South
Branch is the westernmost stream in New Jersey
which finds it- way to the Atlantic.
The valley of the Raritan forms a prominent fea-
ture in the topography of Somerset County. The
river of that name has only one principal branch,
coining into it from the south, the Millstone with its
several affluents. When the first settlers came to
the vicinity of Somervillc, its broad alluvial lauds
were found without trees, with extensive meadows
rich in pasture and ready for the hand of the agri-
culturist. The Indians had used them long before as
corn-lands. It i-ihis broad valley, with its contiguous
table-lands, which gives to S â– rsct the title of '' the
garden of the State."
The bills in the north part of the county can hardly
be called mountains, yel they give variety to the
sccmry. In the trap range north of Soimrville is a
romantic gorge which has become ipiitc celebrated as
a resort for pleasure-parties. It forms the passage
tin-,, ugh which Middle Brook (called hy the Indians
"Raweighweros" i finds its way to the Raritan. En-
tering the gorge from the south, a narrow dell i
on the wc-t ride of which the Bound Top rises nearly
three hundred feet; on the east the wall of trap is
marly perpendicular, and upon it re-ts a rock about
twelve feel ill height and li\c or six Bquare, resem-
bling an old broken stone chimney. This is the
famed " Chimney Bock." A short distance beyond
is a precipice nearly as high as thai upon tfa
gide. Here the two branches of the little stream
Unite. -lust above, upon the right-hand branch, is a
beautiful cascade, known as"Buttermilk Falls." The
left-ban, 1 Stream winds around the precipice and leads
SOMERSET COUNTY, NEW JERSEY.
the romantic visitor into Washington Valley, around
which cluster memories of the Revolution. This
gorge was protected by cannon, and formed the
avenue of communication from the north to the
south side of the mountain during that exciting
The woodland in the north part of the county is
yet abundant and increasing ; it consists principally
of the oak in all its varieties, ash, maple, elm, hickory,
and chestnut. In the red-shale district of the county
especially the foliage has a vivid brightness â€” due,
perhaps, to the peculiar soil â€” which has caused it to
be designated "the greenest place" in New Jersey.
Whatever the cause, this brightness and freshness of
foliage is often remarked. It is a natural beauty for
which Somerset is distinguished.
Geologically considered, the area of Somerset County
is made up almost entirely of five distinct formations.
The first and the largest is the argillaceous sandstone,
or red shale, one of the most extensive of the Triassic
formations. The second is the variegated conglomer-
ate, upon which the red shale rests along its northwest
line in an unconformable manner. The third em-
braces the trap ranges protruded from it ; and fourth
the older gneiss rocks, upon which the conglomerate
rests. This, as a formation of the Azoic Age, occu-
pies a position next to the primitive granite. Asso-
ciated with this rock is, fifth, the blue limestone, which
crops out in a few places only within the boundaries
of the county, but which is of great economic value
when it is used in architecture and in agriculture.
These several formations will be treated in the order
THE BED SANDSTONE AND RED SHALE.
This formation presents to view commonly a dull-
red, highly-argillaceous sandstone, in which, when
the proportion of the clay is in excess, the rock as-
sumes a slaty texture and fracture ; in other instances
the sandy particles are more predominant, though
very fine, and then it assumes a massive form. Then,
again, it appears in a condition in which it has em-
bodied a small quantity of mica, which modifies its
form, and it can be broken up in masses for building
purposes or split into flagstones. Several beds of the
series, especially low down in the mass of the strata,
resemble somewhat a coarse conglomerate, showing
that they have been formed from the rocks of an
older class and assuming a yellowish hue. Ranges of
this form of the rock are seen almost everywhere in
Somerset County, and when denuded or exposed near
the surface are employed extensively in agriculture
The prevailing red hue of the strata is obviously
due to the fact that they contain a portion of the red
oxide of iron. Some of the beds of the shale and
fine-grained sandstone, from local causes, have a
bluish-green hue, while other large tracts have a dull-
brown color, the effect of the heat of the adjacent
trap rocks, and in some localities they have been so
baked that they have a ringing sound when struck
like clink-stone. We give an analysis of the red
shale in the vicinity of New Brunswick, which will
show all the materials of which it is composed. In 100
parts, 73 are silicic acid and quartz ; peroxide of iron,
10 ; alumina, 3.20 ; lime, 4.93 ; magnesia, 0.98 ; potash,
0.73 ; soda, 0.97, with a trace of sulphuric and car-
bonic acid and water. The soil of a large part of
Somerset County is made up of this compound mass,
and its value is sufficiently evident from these com-
ponent parts. The lime, iron, potash, soda, and mag-
nesia are specially noticeable as valuable ingredients.
In the vicinity of New Brunswick, from thence
northwest to Bound Brook, and perhaps even as far
as the vicinity of New Germantown, the red sand-
stone and shale are of a soft and argillaceous char-
acter, decomposing rapidly when exposed to the
action of the atmosphere. There are only a few
layers scattered through it which furnish a stone that
is of any value. The soil resting on the top of it
always presents a tinge of color which has been de-
rived from its decomposition. In many places it
comes up so near the surface that the growth of trees
is rendered difficult and uncertain, and the vegetation
produced on it is peculiarly liable to injury from
drought ; yet in a good season it yields the farmer a
profitable remuneration for his labor, and when it has
been treated with lime, which absorbs and preserves,
in time of drought, the moisture of the atmosphere, it
claims to be called fertile land. There are only two
portions of the State of New Jersey which are more
desirable as agricultural lands, â€” the valleys of the
Musconetcong and Paulinskill, in Sussex and Warren
Counties, and the marl district in Monmouth.