James P Snell.

History of Sussex and Warren counties, New Jersey : online

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Joseph Shldor.

- dpman,
John Bid | '
Paul Shlpman,



71



SUSSEX. AND WARREN" COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.



Joseph Shiver, dipt. Longstreet's company ; also Continental army.


John Uselton.


David Silsbury, Capt. Barker's company.


Nathan Van Akin.


James Simmons, also Continental army, (apt. Bond's company.


Benjamin Van Etten.


Simeon Simonsoit.


Gideon Van Etten.


James Simpson.


Peter Van Etten, also Maj. Westbrook's battalion.


Peter Sites, First Regiment, also Continental army.


Abram Van Gorden.


Thomas Slack.


Henry Van Gorden.


David Slacht.


John Van Gorden, Capt. Barker's company.


John Slacht.


Abram Van Leuven.


John Slife, First Regiment; also Continental army.


George Van Nest.


John Smith.


Joseph Van Noy.


Joseph Smith.


John Van Tassel.


Patrick Smith, also Continental army, Capt. Lyon's company.


Garret Van Vliet (?).


Peter Smith.


Jacob Van Vliet, also Maj. Westbrook's battalion.


Samuel B. Smith, ('apt. Bond's company, Continental army.


John Vogt.


Terrence Smith, also Continental army, Capt. Bond's company.


George Voorhees.


Henry Snook.


Nathan Wade, killed at Lackawaxon, July 2, 1770.


Henry Snyder.


Simon Wade.


Jacob Snyder.


Jacob Walter, Capt. Ribble's company.


Lndley Solomon.


Samuel Wandle.


Michael Sooth.


Nathaniel Washburn.


Samuel South.


George Washer.


Nathan Spencer.


John Watson, Capt. Allen's company.


Samuel Sprouls.


John Weaver, also Continental army, Capt. Bond's company.


Christian Staly.


John Welling.


Jacob Staly.


Peter Weuverling, Continental army, Capt. Bond's company.


Jonathan Stanton, Capt. Harkei's company.


Aaron Westbrook.


Jacob Stelle.


Abram Westbrook.


William Stenabock.


Henry Westbrook.


Cornelius Stevenson, Capt. Helm's company. Continental army.


John Westbrook.


Peter Stevens.


John J. Westbrook.


William StevenB. First Regiment; nls i Continental army.


benjamin Westl'all.


William Stewart, also Continental army.


Cornelius Wrstfall.


Robert Stewart, Capt. Bond's company, Continental army.


David Westl'all.


John Stift.


Jacobus Westl'all.


Benjamin Stiles.


James Westl'all, Capt. Ribble's company.


John Stivers, First Regiment ; also Continental army.


Samuel Westt'all, Capt. Kirkendall's company.


Adam Stout.


Thomas White, Capt. Shaver's company ; also Continental army, Capt.


Henry Stute.


Helm's company.


Daniel Sullivan, Capt. Hill's company, Second Regiment; also Conti-


Abram Wliitenigbt.


nental army.


John Whiteuight.


William Sullivant.


Michael Widenor.


Benjamin Sutton.


Peter Wlllelt.


Daniel Sutton.


Tuyloi Willctt (?).


Jesse Sutton.


John Williams, ulso Capt. Bond's company. Continental army.


John Sutton, Capt. Barker's company.


James Williams, Capt. Bond's company ; taken prisoner Apiil 1, 1777.


Zachariah Sutton.


Isaac Willis.


Samuel Swain, Capt. Bond's company, Continental army ; discharged for


William Wilson, Capt. Bond's company, Continental army.


disability Jan. 1, 1778.


William Willock.


Daniel Swartwood, Capt. Beimel's company.


Michuel Wilrick.


Peter Swartwood (?).


James Wilson, Capt. Bound's company, First Regiment.


David Sweazy.


Emanuel Winfleld.


Bergen Swick, Capt. Allen's company, Second Regiment; also Conti-


Ciaton Winings.


nental army.


Comfort WiiiBer.


Isaac Sylvester, Capt. Harker's company.


Peter Wiutermute.


Daniel Talruage, killed at Lackawaxon, July 22, 1779.


Henry Winterstcen.


Noah Talmage, also in State troops.


Jacob Wintorsteen.


Thomas Taspin, also in Continental army, Capt. Lyon's company.


Nicholas Winterstcen.


Ludowiek Tauny.


Peter Wolfe.


Christian Taylor, also in Continental army, Capt. Bond's company.


William Wood, also Continental army, Capt. Bond's company.


Henry Taylor, also Maj. Wcslbrook's battalion State troops.


Benjamin Woolever.


Henry Taylor, Jr., also Maj. Westbrook's battalion State troops.


Morris Workman, also Maj. Westbrook's battalion State troops.


John Taylor.


Charles Wright, ulso Maj. Westbrook's battalion State troops.


Stephen Theut.


Joseph Wrose. (See Hose.)


Walter Thimbal.


Peter W.vcliolt'.


Patrick Thompson.


James Wygant, Continental army, Capt. Helm's company.


Solomon Thorp, also Continental army, Capt. Bond's company.


James Young, Capt. Bound's company,


Martin Tilk, also Westbrook's battalion.


Philip Young, Capt. Bound's company.


Samuel Tingley, also Continental army, Capt. Ballard's company.




John Trance.


IV— MILITARY ROLL OF JOSEPH GASTON.


Stephen Truesdall, Capt. Edsull's company. Second Regiment; ulso Con-
tinental army, Capt. Lyon's company.
Thomas Truesdall.

John Tilttle, also Continental army, Capt. Bond's company.
Daniel Tuvey.
Henry liplrhouse, Capt. Bound's company.


Joseph Gaston, Paymaster to the Militia in the County of Sussex :

"Makcii 21, 17S4.
"Dr. To an order drawn by the Treasurer on the Collector of the
County of Sussex in his fuvor, £15(10.
"Credit by Abstract of Pay-Itolls discharged by Joseph Gaston, Pay-


Isaac Updegrove, «lso Continental army.


master of the Militia of the County of Sussex :



SLAVERY AND SERVITUDE IN SUSSEX AND WARRKN.



Mo. of
I'ulla.


Time "t Service.


Beglmenti


1


Jnne 10, 1780.


2.1 Suaaoz.


2


July 21, 1770.




a


Dec 1 . 177 - .


3d "


4


ii i. 1 :. 177-t.


'2.1 »


.i


.Ill 1 V 24, I77-.


l»t »


6


Aug. 1. 1780.


Nt "


7


April 1, 1777.


l~t "


8


April I. it 90


3d


D


\|i.ii '., 178U.


:i,| "


in


Jill; '21. 17MI.


2.1 "


11


May ii, mi.


11


12


May 4, 1781




1:1


.till v 1, I78U




14


April 18, 1781.




If


July*, 1780.




1*1


June : I, 1780.




17


April 1, 1781.




IS


April 1. 1781.




I'.l


mm is, mi.


3d "


2<i


A 30, 1781,


•2.1 "


■21


.Mhv 1 l, 1781.


2,1 "


22


May B, 1781.


2il "


2 1


July 1, 1777.




21


Sept, i, 17811.


lei "


•-'.'.


Sept. 7,1' U


2.1 "


2(1


July 4. 1781.




■n


Nuv 27, 1780.




28


.1 2», I7SH.




'J'l


April 28, 1781


"


:ui


June 22, I77U.




:il


July 20, I78ii.


lut "


.'12


April 1, 1781.


2 1 "


31


July 4. 17711


l»t "


:i4


July 22, 1778.


1*1 "


:.U


April, 1782, and '83.


\ .'.,i ■


38


Sept. 1. 178(1.


1-1 S,i - .-\


o







N... of
Men.


Ofllcem* Nnme*.




Oil. A llniikiliaou.




M.,i Meeker,




M.,i Weetbrook.




Capt 1 Cole,


1*


.In- \ llet, Capt.


8


■ Coppluger.


18


Capt I I'etly.


311


'• l.Skll r.


ill


" Huvet.


4'.


" Allen


81


'• lUlllO




•• SmcKtraet.


27


" iiuii.


II


" Juhnetnii.


3D




■17


I.i. hi Austin.


13


•• Mull


21


i 'u|.i: .Mill lH IE


16


I.i. 111. MlllT.ll.


.'17


I'u|.c. llBKg


Ml


lleckwltli.


::- i.i. -in Nlsenei


2.;


I'nnl Dodderer.


8


1.1. 'il. 8 ,-y.


in


.ili.T.




• apt Juliustnn.


13


jergt.l uraun.


11


•■ l-.li,. I.i .i.i.




•■ H..1-I.


30


Oapt Shaver.


12


1,1. -lit. All, -ii.


48


Copt. Allen.


21


•• Mullah.


12


■■ Heaven.




•■ Bimnel.


20


•■ i lin ird.



Under Whom.



Gunnl.

SUBBBX.

.Mm i-l.,!..



Col. Boeecrani
Col. Hanklua.



Col. H,,necnins.
i !ol. Seward

l'.,l. l|;i,,ki,,-,„i



,1 i-

10 12 .

-I II '•



44 12 11

7 13 1"

28 II I

38 14 ii

,V2 14 II

41 in



Mini-ink. Col. Hankiuaon.
Col. tlaukinaoD.

-ink. i'oi'viVsi!



Gnard.
Mluliluk
Guard.



11


2


i.


4 i


::


6


21


1


1


13


7 111


14n 13 11


1- 10





4 12


H


1- 12


"


10





'•'


7 11


4


2


II


-


41


s


(1


12 13 11


31


1"


"




3


2


21


7 1"


111


8


"


1 in





I'.i:. 18


.■■


8 11


2







"





"I certify Hi'' within to be a ti »py "i the account of Joseph Gas-
ton, Esq., as paymnater to the Mtlltiaol Sua I ■■ ■ ■> allowed and

stated In Liber A ol accouuts, folio 103, remaining In tho Auditor's

.'111'!..

"John Beatty, >'-.',/.
"TiiK.sr.'N, N,,v,'in' 18th, 18111."

Endorse.] mi i!n' liiiik i, found tlio following:

-7c

Joeepb Qaatun

with

Joseph Gaston, Esq., resided in the township of
Hardwick. II.' was "i Irish descent, ami ram.

iiiully I'r Western Pennsylvania. He married a

Bister "I' Judge Linn, by whom he hail two daughters,
One of them married Dr. Elijah Everett; the other
Rev. John Boyd, pastor of the Hardwick Church.

llr was esleenieil as a wry jmliciotlS, upright man.

II.' died of bilious colic, almui ism; ,,r ism, ajreil

Bb0U( sixty-live years.

We add the i i > 1 1 • • \s i 1 1 lt from Col. Charlea Scranton'a
historical address respecting Sussex (then including
Warren] in the war of L812 :

"The »ar of L812 again tested the heroism of tin'
sons of the Revolutionary fathers. « >nr armies, under

Harrison, Jackson, Scott, and other imanders, won

penown; while the navy, under the gallant Perry,
Lawrence, McDonough, and other equally bravi
tnanders, made our nation famous in its naval history.
i i "i time will not allow me i" apeak at more
length "ii this ami the war with Mexico. It i- for to-

* Uannaoripl bj Dr, SobaJTer,



.la \ enough t<> say that i In- old flag in every crisis had
brave defenders. It has been sustained, ami those
who have borne its stars ami stripes aloft have tri-
umphed owr every toe until now it is de foclo 'The
Bag "i' "iir Union, the flag of the free.'

"The Seeiniil li.i'im. nt ..I' New Jersey was in ser-
viee I'r. mi Sept. ii, isr_>, t.. Dee. '.i. 1814, ami was com-
manded by Col. John Seward, of Susses County.
Attached t'i the regiment were two ami probably
three companies, — Capt William Vliet, two officers,

ami sixty-live enlisted nun; Capt Alexamler Read-
ing, two officers, and sixty-five enlisted men; Capt.
William Swayze, two "iliecrs, ami sixty-two enlisted
men. In the Third Regiment, commanded by Col.
John Frelinghuysen, one company from Belvidere,
commanded bj Capt Francis Dunlevy, with three
officers ami thirty-one enlisted men."



c 11 A PTEB \ 1.

SLAVERY AND SERVITUDE IN SUSSEX AND
WARREN.

UROES AND OTHER SLAVES in mi: EARLY

l' \\ ~.

Ir we will go back t" a period about one hundred
ami eighty years ago and during the century succeed-
ing, we will find that the inhabitants of this section
of country, in common with those ofother portions "t

the Slate, ami with every Colony ill the New World,

considered the holding "i their fellow-men in bondage



70



SUSSEX AND WARREN COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.



as perfectly right and legitimate. It was not consid-
ered a crime, and even at that early day it had be-
come, with this State, one of her institutions. The
Quakers at Burlington, as well as the Dutch and
English settlers in the Raritan, Delaware, and Mini-
sink valleys, brought servants with them ; so that in
1740, it is said, three-fourths of all the corn planted
and hoed or the flax raised and dressed was the labor
of negro slaves. The early records of these counties
show that in the first ten years of the present century
a large number of the old families still held slaves
upon their farms.

Under the proprietors, persons were imported into
the province as " servants" ; these, while they did not
absolutely forfeit their personal liberty by their en-
gagements with their masters, were still in all essen-
tial particulars bondmen, held in servitude and entirely
controlled by those who had brought them into the
province for their profit. It was slavery in every-
thing save the name, for the servitude was for life,
and in some instances included their children also.

In 1664 the " Concessions and Agreement of the
Lords Proprietors of New Jersey," signed by Lord
Berkeley and Sir George Carteret,* to encourage plan-
ters, promised every freeman who should embark with
the first Governor, or should meet him on his arrival
provided with a " good musket, bore twelve bullets to
the pound, with bandeliers and match convenient, and
with six months' provisions for himself," one hundred
and fifty acres of land, and the like number for every
man-servant or slavef brought with him provided with
the same necessaries. To females over the age of
fourteen seventy-five acres were promised, and a
similar number to every Christian servant at the ex-
piration of his or her term of service. Those going
before the 1st of January, 1665-66, were to receive
one hundred and twenty acres, if master, mistress, or
able man-servant or slave, and weaker servants, male
or female, sixty acres; those during the third year
three-fourths, and during the fourth one-half, of
these quantities.^

Many of the early settlers were sent out in the cm-
ploy of the different proprietors under such agree-
ments as would afford them the benefits of the head-
lands granted to each individual brought into the
province. Fifty acres were allowed to each master of
a family and twenty-five to each person composing
it, whether wife, child, or servant, each servant to be
bound three years, and at the end of that time to be
allowed to take up thirty acres on his or her own ac-
count. Under this plan there was a shipment from
Scotland in 1682 in the interest of Rudyard and



* Sec appendix to Smith's " Hist, of the Colony of Nova-Ca'saria," pp.
012-61(1; also Bancroft's "History of the United States," vol. ii. p. 310,
ninth edition.

f In the " Concessions" of the West Jersey proprietors this subject is
treated in almost the samo language, except the words "or slave" are
omitted. — JSitUorlcal Collections nf Nov Jersey, p. 38.

I Whitehead's " EaBt Jersey under the Proprietary Governments," pp.
::h, 30.



Groom, and another the following year, of thirty-one
servants, under two overseers, on board the " Ex-
change," Capt. Peacock. The records show that this
was the beginning of an extensive traffic in servants.

Native Indians as well as negroes were at one time
held in slavery in New Jersey. " Indian slaves" are
mentioned in ancient records, and there is documen-
tary evidence to show that this slavery was legally
recognized. But of its extent or the period of its du-
ration nothing is definitely known.

The earliest instance of the holding of negro slaves
in New Jersey which is found recorded is that of Col.
Richard Morris, of Shrewsbury, who as early as 1680
had sixty or more slaves about his mill and planta-
tion.j! The inhabitants of North New Jersey nearly
all had slaves as early as 1690. Their increase was
rapid, inasmuch as in .1790 there were eleven thou-
sand four hundred and twenty-three slaves in the
State. After 1800 their number very rapidly declined.

It is not to be wondered at that the introduction of
negro slaves into this State was coeval with its settle-
ment, when it is remembered that the mother-country
not only recognized their existence as property, but
also engaged in the slave-trade, and that the adjoining
provinces possessed them, not even Puritanic New
England being exempt. ||

II.— "KEDE.MPTIONEKS"— PERSONS SOLD FOR THEIR
l'ASSAO E-MONEY.
Another species of servitude prevailed in this sec-
tion and in the adjoining provinces, the subjects of it
being known as " redemptioners." These were per-
sons who sold themselves for a term of years to pay
the price of their passage to the shores of America.
These emigrants, before embarking, signed a bond to
the master of the vessel authorizing him, on arrival
here, to sell them into service for a term sufficient to
pay the price agreed upon for passage. "After gaining
their freedom many of them succeeded in placing
themselves in comfortable circumstances, and some
even became wealthy men and large landowners.
Servants of this class were first found along the Dela-
ware River about 1662. and for a quarter-century after
that time domestic or mechanical labor was seldom
employed for wages. Redemptioners from German
and Dutch ports were frequently brought over on
speculation, and when landed were sold at public
sale. The purchaser had the right to resell the ser-
vices of the redemptioner, who often passed through
several hands before he had served out his term. The
prices paid were usually very low. In 1722, German
redemptionists in Philadelphia sold at ten pounds
each for five years of servitude, but in some cases they
brought more than that for a single year. After the
middle of the eighteenth century this form of servi-



g Gordon (p. '20, " Gazetteer") says that in 1C80 there were hut one
hundred and twenty slaves in the province. This conflicts witll tin
records extant, and tlio conclusion of the writer is that either Gordon 01
the p] inter of his hook left off one cipher.

|| "Hist. Colls. New Jersey," pp. 88, 80.



SLAVERY AND SERVITUDE IN SUSS FA AND WARREN.



77



tude gradually died out, and finally disappeared,

though there were occasional instances of its practice
down to, and even alter, the close of the Revolution.

HI.— LAWS RESPECTING! SLA VERT— ACTIOH OF THE
QUAKERS.

Many of the early colonial laws relate to this sub-
ject. The settlers were forbidden, under heavy penally,
to trade with slave3 save by consent of their owners.
A negro, if found five miles from his home, was ap-
prehended and whipped, the party arresting him re-
ceiving five shillings therefor. "Runaways" from
another province were flagellated by the nearest con-
stable. If convicted of conspiracy to kill a white
person, of rape, murder, or arson, the penalty was
"death in such manner as the enormity of the crime
in the judgment of the justices and freeholders seemed
meet."* The owners, however, were paid for slaves
so executed, thirty pounds for males and twenty

pi Is fur females. This was to prevent owners, to

avoid the loasofwhal they esteemed to be their prop-
erty, from being under the temptation of secreting
slaves who had committed crimes. The fund for in-
demnifying the owners of slaves was created by an
assessment made by the justices of the peace. t

The Quakers, although among the earliest to hold
slaves, were not quite easy in their consciences in
regard to it. The Yearly Meeting in 1696 advised
Friends " not to encourage the bringing in of any
more negroes," and sundry Meetings during the next
twenty-live years reiterated this advice. While their
action was rather in the tone of caution than of cen-
sure, it ultimately had the desired effect, for the
records of Woodbridge Meeting, June 17, 1738, in-
form us that "it hath bin three or four years Since
friends have bought of them thai was Imported, and
not since to their Knowlidg "J A report to the
Monthly Meeting at Plaintield in August, 177 I, stales
that within the jurisdiction of the Society only one
negro "tit for freedom" remained a slave.?

Everything considered, it is remarkable that so few
crimes wen- committed by the slaves. Pilfering,

though common, was of a petty nature, and perpe-
trated mostly to obtain some disallowed luxury.
Murder, arson, and the like were extremely rare;
still more so eases of blacks murdering white-, -

of the firsl offenders in the latter regard were burned

alive. || This mode of punishment, as well as the ra-
pidity of its execution alter the commission of the
crime, may have had a salutary effecl in restraining
the passions of the colored race.

• Aol ..rnii (N.Mitr's- i.c*,.- [ p it

I Bee atao Iho Governor'! ipeeob to the v- ily In itht, In tha

"JonrnalandVoteeof theHoneeof Bopreaenl i \.i>;,"

|i. 128.

I •• w Ibrtdgeand Vicinity," p. 74.

i lui.l . !

J In Someiiel County, Jacob Van Koat'e alava eraa baroed »t lha -.ink"'
n( Hlllatone, 1 1 ■ ,. ounnty-eeat, elnnl r 1 1, ■ fan d tya aflat tli" Diutdei ;

and In Perth Atnboj'al an early day, two ileTetw burned within

two weeka of tba perpotmUon of Ibelr offenaaa.



Yet, a- a rule, the negroes were peaceably disposed.
And it may be noted, as an evidence in favor of the
gentlene-s and amenity of domestic slavery in our
country, that when the slaves w ere invited by the

British, during the Revolution, to abandon their

homes and seek refuge within their lines, very few of
them responded. There were, in fact, slaves enough
in the country to have decided the contest ad
to us had they generally joined the armies of our ene-
mies.

The first legislative action having for it.s obi
abolition of slavery in this Slate u a- I
1821. It was then enacted that the children of all

slaves in New Jersey born subsequent to July i. is" 1,

should have their freedom upon attaining to thi

of twenty-five and twenty-one years for males and
females respectively. Under the operations of this
philanthropic' action slavery gradually declined.

[V.— ABOLITION- OF SLAVERY IX NEW JERSEY-
STATISTICS— LAST B I. k V E5S.

The act entirely abolishing shivery in New Jersey
was passed April 18, 1846. We give the following
statistics of slaves in Sussex County, taken from the
census returns for sixty years, from 17!>o to 1850, in-
clusive: L790, ISO; 1800,514; 1810,478; 1820,878;
1830,51; 1840,13; 1850,1. This last slave in Sus-
sex County was Ca'sar Soults, an aged and faithful

servant belonging to the Dewitt estate, in Walpack.

When the law abolishing slavery was passed he re-
fused to accept his freedom, choosing rather to remain
at his Old home and with those who had always treated

their slaves kindly. Cawar died March 11, I860, be-
fore the census for that year was taken. Some two or

three year- before his death Mr. Peter Dewitt, now of
Bomerville, N. J., kindly provided for the board and
care of the faithful old servant in the family of Ab-
salom Reamer, a respectable colored man in the
neighborhood, where he spent the remainder of his

days, being frequently visited and cared for by Mr.
Dewitt personally. Mr. Dewitt says, speaking of that

uncertain quantity, the age of a colored person, " I
was never able to learn the correct date of his birth.

Ms grandfather used tosay that when he was a young

married man just beginning to farm, ( 'asar was a boy
old enough to ph.w. and from that circumstance I

judge he was in the neighborhood of one hundred

s ear- old when he died."

The last slave in Warren County- John Wooly— is

slill living, in Oxford township, near Belvidere. He

e of the late Philip Mowry, de-

. and upon the death of Mr. Mowry, who hit
no will, the heirs made pro\isi,, M for him in the sum
Of four thousand dollars, the interest of which is used

for his support. He is now quite aged, probably

ninety years old, and is taken care of l.s one of the
sisters of Mr. Mowry. who resides on tie



SUSSEX AND WARREN COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.



CHAPTER XII.

THE IRON INTERESTS OP SUSSEX AND
WARREN COUNTIES.*

I.— EARLY HISTORY OF THE IRON INTEREST.
The aggressive, defensive, inventive, and progres-
sive power of a state or a nation, if it has not always
been so, is in the present age of the world measured
very well by its employment and consumption of one
of the most common as well as most useful metals,
iron. In every age it has been used by some portion
of the human family, and history, ancient as well as
modern, serves to show that the state or nation pro-
ducing or consuming most iron in the arts of peace
and of war has been the most highly civilized and
powerful, as well as enjoying, from its use in various
forms, the most comforts of life. Now that our coun-
try, "the United States of America," only a century
old, ranks second in population in the list of civilized
nations, it is a remarkable fact that it is also only
second in the production of this great staple, and the
child is now born who will live to see the production
of iron in its various shapes in this country far ex-
ceed that of any other country, — perhaps double.

But, while we speak somewhat boastingly of our
present status, it will be interesting to take a glance
backward over our history as colonies and as a union
of States and mark the progress made; and in doing
so I shall confine myself mainly to the counties of
Warren and Sussex, it being, as I understand, the
main object of the compilers of this History to col-
lect such data as will serve to illustrate the iron in-
terest from its earliest commencement in what was
then Morris County, now Sussex and Warren Coun-
ties, covering a periodof over one hundred and thirty-
seven years.

The first account we have of pig iron being made
is at Oxford Furnace (then Morris County), then
known as Upper Greenwich. Two men, Axford and



Online LibraryJames P SnellHistory of Sussex and Warren counties, New Jersey : → online text (page 18 of 190)