James P Snell.

History of Sussex and Warren counties, New Jersey : online

. (page 2 of 190)
Online LibraryJames P SnellHistory of Sussex and Warren counties, New Jersey : → online text (page 2 of 190)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

Daniel H. Shnyder " 562, 563

" Peter H. Hagerty 563


Masonic Hall 571

Portrait of Philip H. Hann facing 576

Beatty 's Organ Manufactory 578

Portrait of Daniel F. Beatty facing 579

" William Sweeny " 580

" E. N. Dilts between 580, 581


Centenary Collegiate Institute facing 587

Portrait of George H. Whitney 588

" Daniel Axford facing 592

" T.G. Plate between 592,593

" T. S. Van Horn facing 693


Portrait of Daniel Hulshi/.er facing 603

" Robert S. Kennedy " 604

" Jesse Stewart " 605

John R. Dickson .-. 605


Portrait of William Maekey facing 614

" Levi Maekey between 614, 615

" Wesley Banghart " 614,615

" Goorge Koyser facing 615

" Benjamin B. Cooper " 616

" Michaol Boyor between 616,617

" Joseph M. Roseberry " 610,617

" Caleb Wyckoff. " 616,617

" William Chamberlin " 616, 617

" Marshall P. Maekey facing 617


Portrait of B. F. Howey facing 634

" Daniel C.Adams 636


View of Blair Hall facing 646

Portrait of John I.Blair " 655


HOPE. rjioF.

Portrait of Jomee K. Swayze facing 068

" Caleb Swayze " 609

« G. II. Beatty 070


Portrait of Peter Klino 677

William Merrill 077


Portrait of John F. Shipman botweon 082, 083

" Henry Seagraves " 682,083

" John O. Boyer " 082,083

" Ho»ldonco of John C. Buyer " 082,683


Portrait of Levi Lannlng facing 694

« Daniel Vllet " 695

" WllllamS. Van Horn 695


Portrait of James Lomorson facing 709

" John Cllno " 710

" William McKlnney " 711

" Abraham Hulshlzcr 711

" William Crovellng 712

" William Shlpmou between 712, 713

" NIcodcmUB Warno " 712,713


Portraltof Peter Cramer b

" John Gibson between 720, 721

" A.M. Munn " 72", 721

" Jacob WyckolT. " 720,721

" George P. Wyckoff. " 72", 7.1

" Michael B. Bowers being 721

" John Yanuatta 721

" Adam Wandliug 722

" George Vusler facing 722

•' William G. Dufford

" James Skinner 183


Portnit Of Wm. Ramsey facing 728

Thos. Shields 1 730

" Jno. B.FiBhor " 731

" Tunis H. Tuniaon " 731

" A. W.G. Weller 712

Jacob H. Miller 7

" Geo. W.Taylor facing 735

" Jno. C. Millor - 735


Portraltof Robt Ayors facing 738

" Jacob Cummins between 7 In, 711

" C. II. Albortsou " 7lu. 711

" Robert Ayors, Jr facing 711















The history of Sussex and Warren Counties is so
intimately interwoven with the early history of the
State of which they are a pari that a brief review of
the latter seems to be a necessary preliminary step to
I lie local work which is the design of the present

New York and New Jersey were discovered and oc-
pied by Europeans at nearly the same period, —the
earlj par) of the seventeenth century. Henry Hud-
son, i he discoverer of the noble river which hears his
name, and which forma a portion of the eastern boun-
dary of New Jersey, set sail from Amsterdam, Hol-
land, under the auspices of the Dutch East India
Company, on April 1, Infill, w ith a commission to dis-
cover the Northwest Passageor to verify the dream of
geographers of thai period id' a short cut between

Europe and < 'hina. Hudson did not find the North-
west Passage, hut, what is vastly more important to
commerce, he discovered the North River, and sailed
up its broad and beautiful channel lo alimii the poinl
which is still the head of navigation by those palatial
steamers which have taken the place of his "Vlie-
boat," the " Half-Moon."

Before this, however, Hudson had anchored in the
waters of New Jersey, in that grand old hay, the
Delaware, which torn,, the outlet oceanward o( the
noble river which courses along the western borders
of these c ities, and which, cutting through the an-
cient Pahaqualin .Mountain, forms within their limits

thai marvelous phenomenon of nature the Water Cap.

In sailing towards the east coast of America, Hudson
encountered the ice-floes on the Hanks of Newfound-
land and changed his course southward. In conse-
quence of this he entered Chesapeake Bay, and.
coasting northward, soon cast anchor in the Dela-
ware. Proceeding along the eastern coast of Not

Jersey, he finally anchored inside of Sandy Hook on
Sept. 3, 1609. On September 5th he sent his
ashore southward in the vicinity of the Horseshoe to
lake the Boundings of the depth of the water.
" Here the boat's crew landed and penetrated into
the woods in the present limits of Monmouth
County," N. J. These were probably the first Eu-
ropeans who set foot upon the soil of the State.

Passing over the subsequent operations of Hudson
and his return to Holland, we bestow a passing notice
upon the first settlement of the New Netherlands by
the Dutch, which immediately preceded the first
colony planted in New Jersey by the Danes or Nor-
wegians. In 1610 it appears that at least one ship
was sent hither by the East India Company for the
purpose of trading in furs, which it is well known
continued for a number of years to be the principal
objeel of commercial attraction to this part of the
Ne« World. Five years after Hudson's voyage a
company of merchant-, who had procured from the
States-General of Holland a patent for an exclusive
trade on Hudson's River, had built forts and estab-
lished trading-posts at New Amsterdam New York),
Albany, ami the mouth of the Rondoul Kill. The

latter was a small redoubt on the site of what is now
a part of the city of Kingston. N. Y. It was known
as the " Konduit." firom whence comes the name of
Rondout.* The fort near Albany was upon Castle
island, immediately below the present city, and the
.me at New York was erected on what is now the

On the llih of October, 161 i. the " United Com-
pany" of merchants, above referred to, received their
special grant. This conferred upon Qerrit Jacob
Wit-en, former burgomaster of the city of Amster-
dam, and his twelve associates, -hip-owner- and mer-
chants of Amsterdam, the exclusive right to "viail

,i . Mai . i \,» York, rol i p 7



and navigate all the lands situate in America be-
tween New France and Virginia, the sea-coasts of
which lie between the fortieth and forty-fifth degrees
of latitude, which are now named New Netherlands,
and to navigate, or cause to be navigated, the same
for four voyages within the period of three years, to
commence from the 1st day of January, 1615, or
sooner." Having thus obtained the exclusive right to
trade in the new country, they assumed the name and
title of " The United New Netherland Company."
This company took possession of the Hudson River,
then called by them " De Riviere van den Vorst Mau-
ritius," and carried forward their enterprise with
commendable zeal. The Hollanders were a trading
people, and their bartering- or trading-posts were es-
tablished at points which were natural outlets for all
the trapping regions tributary to the Hudson. This
■led in a short time to the settlement of those points.
Determined upon the settlement of a colony, the
States-General in 1621 granted the country to the
West India Company; and in the year 1025, Peter
Minuet arrived at " Fort Amsterdam" as the first
Governor or director.*

The first emigrants under Minuet appear to have
been from the river Waal, in Guelderland, and,
under the name of " Waaloons," founded the first
permanent settlement beyond the immediate protec-
tion of the cannon of Fort Amsterdam. They settled
at Brooklyn, opposite New York, and were the first
who professionally pursued agriculture. t

Meanwhile, a number of Danes or Norwegians, who
accompanied the Dutch colonists to the New Nether-
lands, had effected a settlement at Bergen, — so called
from a city of that name in Norway. This was about
the year 1G18. In 1623 the West India Company
dispatched a ship loaded with settlers, subsistence,
and articles of trade. The vessel was commanded by
Cornelius Jacobus Mey. He entered Delaware Bay
and gave his name to the northern cape, which still
retains it,— Cape May. He explored the bay and the

* Hist, and Antiq. of the Northern States (Barber), p. CO.

t At this period the English government seems to have heen indiffer-
ent concerning the continued occupation of the Dutch. The only meas-
ure adopted to effect their removal was the issuing of a grant, June 21,
li:l4, to Sir Edmund Ploydun for the land they occupied. It conferred
upon Sir Edmund the country between ("ape May and Long Island
Sound, for forty leagues inland. This tract was erected into a free
county palatine by the name of New Albion, and over it, with the title
of "Earl Palatine," Ployden was made governor, ho having, as it Is
stated— although tho fact may well he doubted,—" amply and copiously

I pled the same with five hundred persons." He, however, visited the

province, and resided therein seven years, exercising his office as gov-
ernor; but, although he may have assumed, on paper, his rights as lord
of the soil by granting to various individuals largo tracts of land, it is
doubted that Ids authority was ever established over the few inhabitants
that then dwelt within tho limits of his domain, excepting thoBO who
may have come over wilh him. There was, however, some emigration
to " New Albion" as late as 10.10. — U'liilvlimd'ti Kant Jersey under the Pro-
prletary Government!, pp. 8, '■>■ [The grant hero referred to is given at
length i" " Hazard's Collection of State Papers," vol. i. p. ICO.]

river, and at length landed and built a fort upon a
stream called by the natives Sassackon (now Thunder
Creek), which empties into the Delaware below Cam-
den. The fortification was called " Fort Nassau,"
and its erection may be regarded as the first attempt
to establish a settlement on the eastern shore of the

In the winter of 1630-31, David Pietersen De Vries,
in command of a vessel, arrived in the Delaware, but
found that Fort Nassau had fallen into the hands of
the Indians. He erected a fort, colonized his immi-
grants, and returned to Holland. During his absence
a feud arose with one of the native tribes, which ter-
minated in the massacre of all the colonists. De
Vries returned soon after with a new company, and,
while he mourned the loss of his former companions,
he narrowly escaped a similar fate. He was saved by
the kindness of an Indian woman, who inform d him
that treachery was intended. But, " disheartened by
repeated disasters, the Dutch soon after abandoned
the country, and for some years not a single European
was left upon the shores of the Delaware."^


In 1637 two Swedish ships arrived in the Delaware,
bringing a number of settlers. They were soon fol-
lowed by other companies, and, in 1642, John Printz,
a military officer, was sent over as Governor of the
colony. He established himself upon the island now
known as Tinicum, which was given him by the
Queen of Sweden. Here he built a fort, planted an
orchard, and erected a church and several dwellings,
including a fine house for himself, which was called
" Printz Hall." At the same time with the Governor
came also John Campanius Holm, a clergyman and the
future historian of the colony ; and in the same com-
pany was Lindstrom, an engineer, who afterwards
published a map of the Delaware and its adjacent
parts. ||

In the government of New Sweden, as that portion
of New Jersey was then called, Printz was succeeded
by his son, John Papegoia, who soon returned to
Europe and left the control to John Claudius Rising.
In 1655 the Dutch sailed from Manhattan with seven
ships and six hundred men, under command of Gov-
ernor Peter Stuyvesant, and fell unawares upon the
Swedish settlements. Fort after fort fell into their
hands ; the officers and principal men were made
prisoners and carried to New Amsterdam, while the
Dutch retained possession of the country. They held
the mastery of it and of the New Netherlands, how-
ever, but a short time; for, in 1664, Charles IF., King
of England, sent over Col. Nichols with a fleet and
army ; he made a complete conquest of New Amster-

J Hist. Coll. New .Jersey, 1844, p. 11.
■{,, Barbel's Hist. Coll. of N. J.

|| Clay's " Annals of the Swedes." See also Plautageiu't's
lion" and Whitehead's " East Jersey under tho Proprietors*



dam and the surrounding country, and all tin- Dutch
possessions fell into the hands of the English.


Immediately after the surrender of New Amster-
dam by Governor Stuyvesant, Charles If. granted the
territory including New York and New Jersey to his
brother James, the Duke of York and Albany, who in
turn conveyed that portion of it now known a* New
Jersey to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret.
This latter conveyance is said to be the firs( instru-
ment in which the bounds of New Jersey arc regu-
larly defined. Berkeley and < larteret formed a consti-
tution for the colony, and appointed Philip I larteret, a
son of Sir George, a* its Governor. He came in 1665,
fixed the seat of government at Elizabethtown, pur-
chased land of the Indians, and offered such favorable
terms to the settlers in New England as inducements
to emigrate to Jersey that many came hither and lo-
cated, principally at Elizabethtown and Newark.

In 1678 the Dutch retook New York, but by the
treaty of the following year the territory of both that
province and New Jersey reverted to the English,
who continued in undisturbed possession until the
war which secured the independence of the United
States of America. Doubts having arisen as to the
validity of the title of the Duke of Y'ork, a new
patent was issued in 1674, and Edmund Andros was
sent over as Governor. Philip Carteret, who had re-
turned to England in M7J, returned in 1675, and was
welcomed by the people, who had been uneasy and
disaffected under the arbitrary rule of Andros.

Lord Berkeley, dissatisfied with the pecuniary out-
look of his colonization scheme, disposed of his in-
terest i" John Fenwicke, in mist for Edward Iiyllinge,
both members ol the Society of Friends. He received
the Mini of one thousand pounds for the tract of land
then called "New Weal Jersey," embracing about
one-half of the State as now constituted. The division
between East and HY.-i .hr-cy was made by Carteret
and the trustees of Byllinge, July 1, 1676. The line
of partition was agreed on "from tin- east side of
Little Egg Harbor, straight north, through the coun-
try, to the utmost branch of Delaware River." This
line was extended from Little Egg Harbor as far as
the .South Branch of the Kantan, at a point jut
of the old York Road. Ii was run by Keith, tin' Bur-
veyor-general of East Jersey, but »:i* deemed by the
West Jersey proprietors to be too far west, thereby
encroaching on their lands, ami tbej objected to it*
continuance. On the 5th of September, 1668, Gov-
ernors Coxe and Barclay, representing the respective
Interests, entered into an agreement, to terminate the
dispute, it was thai this Line, so far as run, should

be the hound, and that in its extension it should take

the following course: From the point where it touched
the South Branch, "along the back of the adjoining

plantations, until it touches the North Branch of the

Raritan, at the falls of the Allamitung, thence run-
ning up that stream northward to it* rise near Surra-

sunny." From that point a short straight line was t"
In- run to touch tin- nearest part of the Passaic River.

Such a line would pa*- about live mile, north of

Morristown. The line was to he continued by the

e se of the Passaic a- tar a- the Paquanick, and up

that branch to forty-one degrees north latitude, and
from that point in "a straight line due east to the

partition-point on Hudson River between East Jersey

and New York." This line gave to the northern part
of West Jersey the present counties of Warren and
Sussex, and portion,* of Morris, Passaic, and Bergen.
The Coxe- Barclay agreement was not carried into ef-
fect, although the division-line constituted the eastern
boundary of Hunterdon County until Morris County
ted, in 1 788.
Edward Iiyllinge became so embarrassed in his
financial ventures that in 1676 he was compelled to

assign bis interests to William Penn, Gawen Lowrie,
ami Nicholas Lucas, all Quakers, "to be used for

the benefit of his creditors." Prior to this, however,

he had sold a number of shares, and the trustees
sold many of them to different purchasers, who
thereby became proprietaries in common with them.

Fenwieke soon alter made a similar assignment. A-

these trustees were Quakers, the purchasers were mostly
members of that body. Two companies were formed,

one in Yorkshire, 'l' r other in Loudon, both intent on
colonization in America, and in the same year some
four hundred persons cam.' over, most of them of
considerable means. Daniel Coxe was connected
with the London Company, and one of the largest
shareholders; subsequently he became the owner ol

i \ 1 1 DSive tracts of land in old Hunterdon County.
At that time persecution in England was driving

the Quakers to America a.* to a haven of religious tol-
eration and social equality. Emigration com;!.
in the spring of L677, and on the loth of .tunc in that
year the ship "Kent" arrived from London with two
hundred and thirty pas.*engers. this was the second
*hip " to the Western part*." Next arrived the " Wil-
ling Mind," John NewCOmb commander, with sixty
or seventy more. Several settlement* uer. started,

and West Jersey became, as early as the yeai

quite populous. Burlington was founded, and he-
came the principal town. There the land-office for

the whole province of West Jersej was located, and

there all dei d* were recordi d.

In 1681, Samuel Jennings, having received a com-
mission from Iiyllinge a* deputs -governor, came to
West Jersey, called an assembly, and with them

agreed upon a ■ -titution and form of government

From this ti m assemblies w< re beld each year,

court* were established in several place*, ami "jus-
tice was administered in due course of law." Jen-
nings' successors in the executive department were




Thomas Olive, John Skeine, William Welsh, Dan-
iel Coxe, and Andrew Hamilton. The last named
continued as Governor until the proprietary charter
was surrendered to the Crown.

On the 16th of October, 1680, the Duke of York
relinquished all his pretensions to East Jersey in favor
of the grandson and heir of Sir George Carteret,*
soon after which Andros returned to England. Sir
George died in 1680, and by his will, dated Dec. 5,
1678, left his widow, Lady Elizabeth, executrix of his
estate and guardian of his grandson and heir, George,
a son of Sir Philip, and devised to Edward, Earl of
Sandwich, John, Earl of Bath, Hon. Bernard Gren-
ville, brother to the Earl of Bath, Sir Thomas Crewe,
Knight, Sir Robert Atkyns, Knight of the Bath, and
Edward Atkyns, one of the barons of the Exchequer,
and their heirs, among other lands, all his property in
East Jersey, in trust for the benefit of his creditors.
These trustees, failing to find a purchaser by private
application, offered it at public sale to the highest
bidder, William Penn with eleven associates, most of
whom were Quakers, and some already interested in
West Jersey, becoming the purchasers for three thou-
sand four hundred pounds.f Their deeds of lease
and release were dated the 1st and 2d of February,
1681-82, and subsequently each of them sold one-half
of his respective right to a new associate, making in
all twenty-four proprietaries. J In the following year
the Duke of York confirmed this sale by issuing a new
grant to the proprietors, their names there appearing in
the following order: James, Earl of Perth, John Drum-
mond, Robert Barclay, David Barclay, Robert Gor-
don, Arent Sonmans, William Penn, Robert West,
Thomas Rudyard, Samuel Groom, Thomas Hart, Rich-
ard Mew, Ambrose Rigg, John Heyivood, Hugh Harts-
home, Clement Plumstead, Thomas Cooper, Gawen
Lawrie, Edward Byllinge, James Brain, William Gib-
son, Thomas Barker, Robert Turner, and Thomas
Warne, those in italics being eleven of the twelve
original purchasers; Thomas Wilcox, the twelfth,
having parted with his interest, Feb. 27, 1682, to
David Barclay. \

There was a strange mingling of professions, re-
ligions, and characters in these proprietaries, among
them being, as an English writer observes, "high-
prerogative men (especially those from Scotland),
dissenters, papists, and Quakers." || The first twelve

* Bill in Chancery, p. 8.

f Orubame, ii., p. 280; New Jersey Laws, 1834-35, p. 175. Copies of
the lease anil release tu the twelve are in the Secretary of State's office,
Trenton, presented by descendants of Clement IMunistend, one of the

J Heat Jeraey under the Proprietors, pp. 100-103.

j* Hi hi., p. 11M. Guidon given, us the additional twelve, thirteen names,
among them sir George Mackenzie, Hubert Burnet, Peter Sonmans,
Thomas Cox, and William I lock win, who were all subsequent purchasers.
Hubert Turner he calls Gawen Turner, and Thomas Warne, Thomas
Kalme, — possibly clerical or typographical errors.

I Wynne's British Umpire, i., p. 2U0.

purchasers, however, were mostly, if not all, Quakers,
and, as some of their associates were of the same re-
ligious faith, they had a controlling influence in the
body, which fact may explain why Robert Barclay, of
Urie, a Quaker and a personal friend of William
Penn, was selected to be Governor of the province.
It was a worthy choice, as he was a man of learning,
of religious zeal, and of exemplary character.^ Such
was the esteem and confidence in which he was held
by his fellow-proprietaries that they subsequently
commissioned him as Governor for life; nor was he
required to visit the province in person, but was
allowed to exercise his authority by deputy. For
this office he selected Thomas Rudyard, an eminent
lawyer of London and one of the proprietaries.

Soon after his arrival Rudyard selected as his coun-
selors Col. Lewis Morris, Capt. John Berry, Capt.
John Palmer, Capt. William Sandford, Lawrence
Andress, and Benjamin Price, before whom he was
sworn into office (Dec. 20, 1682) as deputy-governor.
The previous "Concessions" were confirmed, and the
Assembly called by Rudyard, which held three ses-
sions during the year 1683 at Elizabethtown, " passed
several acts of importance tending to the well-being
of the province." Among these were acts remodeling
the criminal and penal codes, etc., and " An Act di-
viding the province into four counties, and appointing
a high sheriff for each." The county of Bergen in-
cluded all the settlements between the Hudson and
Hackensack Rivers, and extended to the northern
bounds of the province; Essex, all the country north
of the dividing-line between Woodbridge and Eliza-
bethtown and west of the Hackensack ; Middlesex, all
from the Woodbridge line on the north to Cheese-
quake Harbor on the southeast, and back southwest
and northwest to the province bounds ; and Mon-
mouth comprised the residue. A point of variance
between the deputy-governor and Groom, the sur-
veyor-general, led to Barclay's supersedure by Gawen
Lawrie, a London merchant and a proprietary, who
was already deeply interested in West Jersey:

Although most of the proprietaries resided in Great
Britain, still emigration and transfers of proprietary
rights soon brought to East Jersey many persons who
were directly interested in the soil, — resident prop-
erty-holders, — who Aug. 1, 1684, established a " Board
of Proprietors," composed of "all the proprietaries
that might be from time to time in the province," and
was designed "to act with the deputy-governor in the
temporary approval of laws passed by the Assembly,
the settlement of all disputes with the planters," etc.
This board continued to have prominent control
within the province " of those concerns which were
connected with the proprietary titles to the govern-
ment and soil."** Great pains was taken by the pro-

Online LibraryJames P SnellHistory of Sussex and Warren counties, New Jersey : → online text (page 2 of 190)