James P Snell.

History of Sussex and Warren counties, New Jersey : online

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panying statement that there were " twelve hundred
[Indians] under the two Raritan kings on the north
side, next to Hudson's River, and those came down
to the ocean about little Egg-bay and Sandy Barne-
gatte; and about the South Cape two small kings of
forty men apiece, and a third, reduced to fourteen

* And they believed that sometimes the grandfather tortoise became
weary and shook himself or changed his position, and that this was tlio
cause of earthquakes.

men, at Roymont." From which it appears evident
that the so-called "kings" were no more than ordi-
nary chiefs, and that some of these scarcely had a
following. Whitehead, in his " East Jersey under
the Proprietary Governments," concludes, from the
above-quoted statement, "that there were probably
not more than two thousand [Indians] within the
province while it was under the domination of the
Dutch." And in a publication! bearing date fifty
years later (1698) the statement is made that "the
Dutch and Swedes inform us that they [the Indians]
are greatly decreased in numbers to what they were
when they came first into this country. And the In-
dians themselves say that two of them die to every one
Christian that comes in here."


Before the European explorers had penetrated to
the territories of the Lenape the power and prowess
of the Iroquois had reduced the former nation to the
condition of vassals. The attitude of the Iroquois,
however, was not wholly that of conquerors over the
Delawares, for they mingled, to some extent, the
character of protectors with that of masters. It has
been said of them that " the humiliation of tributary
nations was to them [the Iroquois] tempered with a
paternal regard for their interests in all negotiations
with the whites, and care was taken that no tres-
passes should be committed on their rights, and that
they should be justly dealt with." This means,
simply, that the Mengwe would, so far as lay in their
power, see that none others than themselves should
be permitted to despoil the Lenape. They exacted
from them an annual tribute, an acknowledgment of
their state of vassalage, and on this condition they
were permitted to occupy their former hunting-
grounds. Bands of the Five Nations, however, were
interspersed among the DelawaresJ probably more
as a sort of police, and for the purpose of keeping a
watchful eye upon them, than for any other purpose.

The Delawares regarded their conquerors with feel-
ings of inextinguishable hatred (though these were
held in abeyance by fear), and they also pretended to
a feeling of superiority on account of their more an-
cient lineage and their further removal from original
barbarism, which latter claim was perhaps well
grounded. On the part of the Iroquois, they main-
tained a feeling of haughty superiority towards their
vassals, whom they spoke of as no longer men and
warriors, but as women. There is no recorded instance
in which unmeasured insult and stinging contempt
were more wantonly and publicly heaped on a cowed

t Gabriel Thomas' " Historical Description of the Province and Coun-
try of West Now Joisey in America."

X The same policy was pursued by the Five Nations towards the Sha-
wanese, who had been expelled from the far Southwest by stronger
tribes, anil a portion of whom, traveling eastward as far as the country
adjoining the Delawaros, had been permitted to orect their lodges there,
but were, Uko the Lenape, hold in a statu of subjection by the Iroquois.



and humiliated people than on the occasion of a
treaty held in Philadelphia in 174l', w hen Connossa-
tego, an old Iroquois chief, having hcen requested I > \
the Governor to attend (really for the purpose of
forcing the Delawares to yield up the rich lands ol
the Minisink), arose in the council, where whites and
Delawares and [roquois were convened, and in the
name of all the deputies of his confederacy said to
the Governor that the Delawares had been an unruly
people and were altogether in the wrong, and that

they should he removed from their lands; and then,
turaing Superciliously towards the abashed Delawares,
said to them, " You deserve to he taken by the hair
of your heads and shaken until you recover your

senses and become sober. We have seen a deed,
signed by nine of your chief- over fifty year- ago, for
this very land. But how came you to take it upon
yourselves to sell lands at all? We conquered you;

we made women of you! You know you are women

and can no more sell lands than w en. Nor is it lit

that you should have power to sell land-, since you
Would abuse it. You have had clothes, meat, and
drink, by the goods paid you lor it, and now you
want it again, like children, a- you arc. What makes
you sell lands in the dark'.' Did you ever tell IIS

you had sold this land.' Did we ever receive any
part, even to the value of a pipe-shank, from you for
it? This i- acting in the dark, — very differentlj from
the conduct which our Six Nations observe in the

sales of land. But we find you are none of our

blood; you act a dishonest pari in this as in othei
matters. Your ears are ever open to slanderous reports
about your brethren, for all these reasons we charge
you to remove instantly/ We do not give you liberty to
think about it. ) 'ou are women/ Take the advice of
a wise man. and remove instantly/ You may return
to the other Bide of the river, where you came from,
bul we do not know whether, considering how you

have demeaned your-elve-, you will lie permitted to

live there, or whether you have not already -wallow ed

that land down your throats, as well as the hind on

this side. You may go either to Wyoming or Shamo-

kin, and then we shall have you under our ej e and

can >ee how you behave, Don't deliberate, but go,

and take this bell of wampum." lie then forbade
them ever again to interfere in any matter- between
while man and Indian, or ever, under any pretext, to

pretend to sell lands; and as they (the Iroquois), In-
said, had -nine business of importance to transact with

the Englishmen, he commanded them to imi liately

leave the council, like children and women, as they

Heckewelder, however, attempts to rescue the good

name of the humbled Delawares by giving some of
their explanation-, intended to show that the epithet
"women," as applied to them liy the [roquois, Was
originally a term of distinction rather than reproach,
Blld "that the making women of the Delaware- was

not an act of compulsion, bul the resull of their own

free will and eon-, in." lie gives the story, as il was

narrated by the Delawares. substantially in this way:

The Delawares were always too powerful for the

[roquois, so thai the latter wen- at length i vinced

thai if war- between them should continue, their own

extirpation would become inevitable. They accord-
ingly sent a message to the Delawares. representing
that if continual wars were to be carried on between
the nations, this would eventually work the ruin of
the whole Indian race; that in order to prevent this
it was necessary that one nation should lay down
their arms and be called the woman, or mediator, with
power to command the peace between the other na-
tions who might be di-po-ed to persist in hostilities

against each other, and finally recommending thai

tin- pin of the woman should be assumed b\ the

Delaware-, a- the most powerful of all the nations.

The Delawares, upon receiving this message, and
not perceiving the treacherous intentions of tin [ro-
quois, consented to the proposition. The [roquois

then-appointed a council and feast, and invited the

Delaware- to it. when, in pursuance of the authority
given, they made a solemn speech, containing three
capital points, 'fhc first was that the Delaware- he
and they were declared women, in the following
words :

"We drees you in a woman'- long habit, reaching
down to your feet, and adorn you with ear-rings,"
meaning that they should no more take up arms.

The second point was thus expressed: "We hang a

calabash fille I with oil and medicine up,.:, your arm.

With the oil you -hall cleanse the ears of other na-
tions, that they may attend to g 1 and not to bad

Words; and with the medicine you shall heal those
who are walking in foolish ways, that they may return
to their senses and incline their hearts to peace." fhc
third point, by which the Delaware- were exhorted to
make agriculture their future employment and means

of subsistence, was thus worded: "We deliver into

your hand- a plant of Indian corn and a hoe." Each

of these points was confirmed by delivering a belt of
wampum, and these belt- were carefully laid away,
and their meaning frequently repeated.

"I'he [roquois, on the contrary, a— ert that they
Conquered the Delaware-, and that the latter were
forced to adopt the defenseless state and appellation

of a woman to avoid total ruin. Whether these differ-
ent account- be true or false, certain it is that the
I Delaware nation has e\cr since been looked to for the

preservation of peace and intrusted with the charge

of the ureal belt of peace and chain of friendship,

which tiny must take care to preserve inviolate. Ac-
cording to the figurative explanation of the Indian-,
the middle of the chain of friendship i- placed upon
the shoulder of ihc Delawares. the n-t of the Indian
nation- holding one end and the European- the




It is evident that the clumsy and transparent tale
of the Delawares in reference to their investiture as
women was implicitly believed by Heckewelder and
other Indian missionaries, who apparently did not
realize that which no reader can fail to perceive, —
that if their championship and explanation were to
have any influence at all on the world's estimate of
their Indian friends, it could hardly be a favorable
one, for it would only tend to show that they had suf-
fered themselves to be most ridiculously imposed upon
by the Iroquois, and that they were willing to ac-
knowledge themselves a nation of imbeciles rather
than admit a defeat which in itself brought no dis-
grace on them, and was no impeachment of their
courage or warlike skill.

Gen. William Henry Harrison, afterwards Presi-
dent of the United States, in his " Notes on the
Aborigines," said, in reference to the old missionary's
account of the Delawares' humiliation, —

"But even if Mr. Heckewelder had succeeded in making his readers
believe that the Delawares, when they submitted to the degradation pro-
posed to them by their enemies, were influenced, not by fear, but by the
benevolent desire to put a stop to the calamities of war, he has estab-
lished for them the reputation of being the most egregious dupes and
fools that the world has overseen. This is notoften the case with Indian
sachems. They are rarely cowards, but still more rarely are they de-
ficient in sagacity or discernment to detect any attempt to impose on
them. I sincerely wish that I could unite with the worthy German in re-
moving the stigma upon the Delawares."

It was not a lack of bravery or military enterprise
on the part of the Delawares which caused their over-
throw; it was a mightier agent than courage or
energy :. it was the gunpowder and lead of the Iro-
quois, which they had procured from the trading
Dutch on the Hudson almost immediately after the
discovery of that river, which had wrought the down-
fall of the Lenape. For them the conflict was a
hopeless one, waged against immeasurable odds, — re-
sistance to the irresistible. Under a reversal of con-
ditions the Delawares must have been the victors and
the Iroquois the vanquished, and no loss of honor
could attach to a defeat under such circumstances. It
is a pity that the tribes of the Lenape should vainly
have expended so much labor and ingenuity upon a
tale which, for their own sake, had better never have
been told, and in which even the sincere indorsement
of Heckewelder and other missionaries has wholly
failed to produce a general belief.

When the old Iroquois chief Connossatego, at the
treaty council in Philadelphia, before referred to,
commanded the Delawares instantly to leave the
council-house, where their presence would no longer
be tolerated, and to prepare to vacate their hunting-
grounds on the Delaware and its tributaries, the out-
raged and insulted red men were completely crest-
fallen and crushed, but they had no alternative and
must obey. They at once left the presence of the
Iroquois, returned to the homes which were now to
be their homes no longer, and soon afterwards mi-

grated to the country bordering the Susquehanna,
and beyond that river. This forced exodus of the
Delawares was chiefly from the Minisink, the section
of country now embraced in Sussex and Warren

There were traditions among the descendants of the
Minisink people that the tribe from which that place
derives its name made frequent expeditions down the
river and came back with white men's scalps hanging
at their belts. They stole down on the Pennsylvania
side, and crossed over to this State a little below the
Hopewell hills ; then, returning on this side of the
river, they would lie in ambush along the yet wild
and rugged shores and pick off any unfortunate trav-
eler who might be passing along the river-path. An
old Indian sachem used to relate that the steep hills
along the Delaware had been the scene of more than
one ambush and murder.

It was only the Indians from the upper country,
however, who committed these acts of violence and
bloodshed. Those whose domain embraced what are
now the counties of Hunterdon and Somerset were
uniformly peaceable and friendly in their intercourse
with the settlers, by whom they were treated with
justice and consideration. Their numbers in this
region steadily decreased as the years passed, but it
was the natural decadence of their race, and not the
steel of the white man, that swept them away. But
a very small remnant of the tribe was left here at the
opening of the Revolution, and of these a few served
in the army under Washington. In a very few years
after the close of the war they had entirely disap-


At the treaty of 1758 the entire remaining claim
of the Delawares to lands in New Jersey was extin-
guished, except that there was reserved to them the
right to fish in all the rivers and bays south of the
Raritan, and to hunt on all uninclosed lands. A
tract of three thousand acres of land was also pur-
chased at Edge Pillock, in Burlington County, and
on this the few remaining Delawares of New Jersey
(about sixty in number) were collected and settled.
They remained there until the year 1802, when they
removed to New Stockbridge, near Oneida Lake, in
the State of New York, where they joined their
" grandsons," the Stockbridge tribe. Several years
afterwards they again removed, and settled on a large
tract of land on Fox River, Wis., which tract had
been purchased for their use from the Menominee
Indians. There, in conjunction with the Stock-
bridges, they engaged in agricultural pursuits, and
formed a settlement which was named Statesburg.
There, in the year 1832, there remained about forty
of the Delawares, among whom was still kept alive
the tradition that they were the owners of fishing
and hunting privileges in New Jersey. They re-
solved to lay their claims before the Legislature of



this State, and request that ti moderate sum (two
thousand dollars) might be paid them for its relin-
quishment. The person selected to act for them
in presenting the matter heforc the Legislature was
one of their own nation, whom they <-:i 1 1 < -c 1 Shawus-
kukhkung (meaning "wilted grass"), bul who was
known among tin' white people as Bartholomew 8.
Calvin. He was born in 1756. and was educated at
I ' :eton College, al the expense of Che Scotch mis-
sionary society. At the breaking out of the Revolu-
tion be left his studies to join the patriot army under
Washington, and he Berved with credit during the
Revolutionary struggle. At the time when bis red
countrymen placed this business in his hands he was
seventy-six years of age, yel he proceeded in the
matter with all the energy of youth, and laid before
the Legislature a petition In his favor signed by a
large number of respectable citizens of New Jersey,
togi ther with a memorial, written by his own hand,

as follows :

"My Hhi.tnukn: I him old and u<-;ik and poor,and therefore a fit
tative of my poople. Yon are young and strong and
B< ropreeeotaUves of your people. Uut let hil< bog youfora
moment to laj ai [do the n collccUons "i your Btrengtb and of unr weak-
ness, Uial yoar minds nun be prepared t-> examine with candor tlio ttub-
■ claims.
"Our tradition Informs us— and I believe it corresponds witii your
tbat tho rinlit of Balling In all the riven and I ays south ..i the
Rarltan, and "I hunting In all unlncloeed lands, was never relinquished,
but, on tho contrary, was expressly reserved In our last treaty>held al

i iii 1768. Having myself bee f the parties to the sale,

— I boliove, in ism,— l leuow thut these rights were u<>t sold or parted
"We ii"« oifor to sell these privileges to the State of Wen Jersey

Tli. ■ % we ;e "i greal value to us,and we apprehend that neither ti

ii.ii distance nor il ii-ii*!' .it our rights im* al all affected them, but

tluit the c ts here would consldol oni i lainis valid were we '

thei raelves or delegate them to oth I

thus to exclto litigation. We consider the State Legislature the proper
purchaser, and iin"\* ourselves upon Its benovoloncc and magnaulmlty,
Ijrustlng that feeling of Justlci and llboralltj will luduco you to give us

wlnii you deoi sumpeusation. And, as wo ii ive evei looked up tu the

leading chnractorMl Uie United States and to tho leadlo cbs

iIhh Slate in parti ulai I s lathers, proto tors, and friends, we now

look up to you as such, aud bumblj beg tbat you will look upon ns with
that oyo "I plty.aswo havo reason t" think our poor uututored fore-
fathers looked npon yours when they tir-t arrived upon our thou .-x t.-n-
slvo bul uncultivated dominions, and sold them their lands, In many

Instances foi trifle . In i oni| , .i- 'light a-, air.'

" Kr your humble petitioner,

" Babtuolohi w B. CaIA iv.

" h, h, )„,lj,.j I,, I

Iii the Legislature the aubject was referred to n
committee, which, after patienl hearing, reported
favorably ; whereupon the Legislature granted to the
Delawares the sum of two thousand dollars, -tlie I'nll
amount asked for, in consideration of thi> relinquish-
ineni ni' their last rights and claims in ihe State of
New Jersey. Upon this result Mr. Calvin uddn ssed
in the Legislature a letter of thanks, which was read
before the two houses in joinl session, and was received
with repeated rounds of mosl enthusiastic applause,

We add to this chapter a few Delaware Indian

names of local iti

Susses and Warren t lounties.

with their explanations, whieh will he of a - i-tanrc

to the reader.

In the Indian deed made by KowyockhickoD and
other chiefs to William Penn, dated duly 15, 1682,
the name given to the Delaware River was Mackeris-

hickon. In another location and survey it wa- called

Zlinikoway. The Delaware Indian- railed it I.niapr-
whittuek, — i.e., "the river of the Lenapfi." It was
al-o called Kit-hanne (in Minsi Delaware, Gichfc-
hanne . signifying "the main stream in its region of
country." The Dutch, who were the first Europi ans
to sail u|i the Delaware, named it, in contradistinction
from the North now Hudson) River, Zuydt or South
River, and later the Fishkill. In a single instance
(affidavit of Johannes Decker, in 1786] the Indian
name of the Delaware is given as Lainasepose, signi-
fying "fishkill." The river take- it- present name
from Lord de la Ware, Governor of Virginia, who
passed the Capes and sailed into Delaware Bay in

The Paulinskill was railed, in the Indian language,
Tockhockonetkong. It- present name is said to have
been derived from Pauline, the daughter of a Hessian
soldi.r who was taken prisoner by Washington at the
battle of Trenton, and who, after the close of the
Revolutionary war, continued to reside in the neigh-
borhood of Stillwater. Several surveys were located
on this stream OS early as 171(1, and in one of the an-
cient returns an Indian town is spoken of called Tok-

hok-nok, near the head of the stream. From the
large quantities of heads, arrow-heads, Hint-, etc.,

found where the Newton brickyard now stand- it is

quite evident that an Indian village was once located
there. It is also at the head of the West Branch of
the Paulinskill. <>n Germany Flats, nearer to the

East Branch, there -till remain the traces of an In-
dian burying-ground. It may be that the ancient
village of Tok-hok-nok was located within the pn sent
limits "i" the town of Newton.

The Indian name of the Pequest was Pophannunk,
afterwards corrupted to Poquassing, and still later to
it- present name. William Penn and Col. John Al-
ford located two large surveys of twelve hundred and
fifty acres each at the month of the Pophannunk
River, and below the noted hill Penungauchung.
I ih-i nart- comprised Belvidere and the Burround-
untry, the surveys being made by John Reading,
deputy surveyor, < >n. 8 and 9, 1716. William Perm's
Richard, Thomas, and William, Bold the land
to Robert Patterson in 1769, and on the Pequest he
built the saw-mill then called Patterson's Mills.
Penungauchung i- the Manunka Chunk of the pres-
ent day. So anxious was the elder Martin Ryerson
to preserve the correct orthography and pronuncia-
tion of the word that hi' wrote it out and underscored
it in one of his ancient returns to the surveyor-gen-
eral's office a- Pe-Nun-gau-chung,

•• Musconetcong" is corrupted Prom the Indian name

Ma-khaniuunk, which Blgnifies "u rapid stream."



According to an old survey, in 1716, there stood on
the Musconetcong an Indian village called Woponi-

The name "Blue Mountain" first occurs in the land
records in 1773. The original Indian name was Pa-
haqualong, from which Pahaquarry is a corruption.
An Indian village and burying-ground located on the
farm owned by the late Judge Andrew Ribble bore
the original name. It has since been called the Kit-
tatinny Mountain, Minisink Mountain, Blue Ridge,
etc. In the report of the commissioners to divide
Sussex County into precincts, 'dated April 17, 1754, it
is called "Packoquarry Mountain," and in a couple
of old documents written in 1755 it is called "The
Great Mountain."

According to Heckewelder, who is good authority,
"Walpack" is a corruption from Wahlpeek, which in
the Indian language signified a tarn-hole or whirlpool
in the water. It is compounded of the two Indian
words, woa-lac, "a hole," and tup-peek, "a pool."
The name "turn-hole" — a provincialism now obso-
lete — was used to designate a sudden bend of a stream
by which the water when deep was turned upon itself
into an eddy or whirlpool. The turn-hole in the Le-
high, above Mauch Chunk, was many years ago an
object of interest to travelers in that wild region.
Howell's map of 1792 indicates the exact spot. There
is a "turn-hole" in the bend of the Delaware at the
mouth of the Flat Brook, from which Walpack doubt-
less took its name. It is visible in low water, and
during great floods it becomes a powerful whirlpool,
sucking in large pieces of timber and carrying them
out of sight.

Heckewelder also says that Wantage is a corrup-
tion of the Indian word Wundachqui, signifying "that

Allamuchy is the site of an Indian village called
Mamuchahokken. John Lawrence, who surveyed
the East and West Jersey line in 1737, makes men-
tion of this place in his field-notes.

Emhowlack was the name of an Indian village on
the Pequest, just below the new Pequest furnace.



The first settlement in Sussex County, including
the present county of Warren, was made in the upper
valley of the Delaware, and was part of a general
movement westward from the Dutch settlements at
Esopus, New Paltz, and Kingston, on the Hudson
River. The settlers were of the same Huguenot and
Holland stock, — the former born in France, from

Online LibraryJames P SnellHistory of Sussex and Warren counties, New Jersey : → online text (page 5 of 190)