James P Snell.

History of Sussex and Warren counties, New Jersey : online

. (page 85 of 190)
Online LibraryJames P SnellHistory of Sussex and Warren counties, New Jersey : → online text (page 85 of 190)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


thaniel Martin, respectively.

Henry W. Edsall is the postmaster, and the phy-
sicians are Jackson Pellet and Joseph Couse.

FRANKLIN FURNACE.

The hamlet of Franklin Furnace, which possesses
no interest apart from the works of the Franklin Iron
Company, is situated ten miles northeast from Newton,
at the junction of the Midland and Sussex Railroads,
the latter of which was built with especial reference
to the mining interests of the county. The settle-
ment is situated on the Wallkill River, and by its
railway connections is accessible from all points, —
north, south, east, or west. The spot is not an invit-
ing one, being inhabited principally by miners, whose
cottages are small and scattered at various points
without regard to symmetry of arrangement.

The Boston Franklinite Company erected the first
store, which was burned in 1871 and replaced by a
large brick building, 28 by 100 feet in dimensions,
with iron front. This was also consumed by fire, after
which the present store and offices of the New Jersey
Zinc and Iron Company were built, during 1878. A
store suitable for the demands of the mining popula-
tion, erected by Messrs. Smith & Longstreet, was
also opened. During 1876 a spacious school-building
was erected, and a church originally built by the
Baptist denomination is still used.

The post-office is located at the store of the New
Jersey Zinc and Iron Company, with W. W. Pierce as
postmaster and E. M. Wildrick as deputy.

GREEN SPOT.

The ground embraced in this hamlet, together with
a large area surrounding it, was originally owned by
James Scott, and was on his decease apportioned
among his children. By will and purchase it came
into the possession of James Mattison, and passed
from him to George W. Greer. It was purchased of
the latter by Robert Maybee, who divided a portion

* Soo " Sussex Beuth and Bar," in this work.



IIAKDYSTOX.



337



into building lots, the lir-t nl' which was secured by

Jesse Dennis, who erected a hotel, of which he is the
present landlord.

Other lots were sold for building purposes, and
among their purchasers was David McCarthy, who in
1876 erected a store, which was consumed by fire and
rebuilt. Henry Misel and W. C. Langdon had pre-
viously erected a building for business purposes, bul
it was burned and nol rebuilt. Mr. McCarthy con-
trols the general mercantile interest of the hamlet,
besides which there is a wagon- and blacksmith-shop,
owned by Robert Maybee.

II.WMiYSTn.NVll.l.t:.

This is a new hamlet, containing a hotel and a
Store, It was formerly known as I'pper Hamburg,
and is situated about a mile smith of Hamburg. It
possesses a fine water-power, which has been utilized
for milling purposes.

SSI I FROWN.

Another hamlet in the eastern portion of the town-
ship is known as SnufTtown. The Midland Railroad
passes through it, which affords it-, only claim to dis-
tinction.

IX.— IKON AMI ZINC MINES.

More than half a century since. Dr. Samuel Fow-
ler removed to Franklin Furnace or near it, and pur-
chased of his father-in-law. Robert Ogden, a tract of
land several miles in extent (including the famous
1 1 ill property, in Sparta) for the sum of
19000. He also owned all that tract of mineral land
at Franklin, with SIMM! acres of mountain, besides
Kracts at Snufftown and other places. He prospected

for and discovered v ir.scfzinc iron and frankhnite

ores, the rights of « Inch he sold to various companies.
The subjoined letter, written by I Ir. Fowler as early
SB 1826 to an eminent English scientist, contains an
adequate conception of the condition of the mines and
the mining interests of Hardyston at that early date:

"Fbankun, n. J., Judo ! i, 1826
" PBor&saon Brii7.ki.ii >. Lonhon :

< h ivi i ikon the llbortj of - Hug n small box of minerals to

n, of Now York, who hoe promised i" forward them to you. IIo

■ -jtv ilmi In- wuiii'l write to you on the Bub-

Jest, I re Ida 10I country rich nnd Interesting In minorala,

bBlh iih to tl i - vnrietlos of some Bud tho ImmeuBe quantities of

alhoni: [iillucle particularly to the frankllnlto and red oxide of due
The dlfttriilty we experience In working the i"r r I ituted In my cata-
logue, Inclosed in the Imix I senl you : the Inttei wo hnvo nol nttem| 1

B« Berthler.li xi nation ol tho fhinkllnlto, did

I" ■ le n i tho difficult) «•■ experience in rod ig tin ore, Re thought

DJDthlug aWiul wliii i the workmen call mlu latlonuf

tho ' the linn .i ■ honrth, which thereby obstructs the whole pro

lleexanil I bul one variety of tl re, which, I do nol know,

inn will ohsorvo from tho variety of the poclmoni i lend you that It
li In external nppi

"Thore hot I u oi vol Iml n vorj Imporfecl examinnUon of tho mln-

hi pla I allude parllcul irly to tho valloy comprising Fmnk-

Jh and Sparta, In N,.« Jersey, nnd Warwick, In N.<« fork, which la a

■DUnuBtlon ol Ihosn valley. Tin whole distance Is nlwut 2S miles.

II Is the regioii of the primitive or white carbonate ol lime In which all

our minerals occur Nourlj ill i d In re have rei lived nes founded

on the external charactor. if agroeable toy ii would alfonl niopleas-

ur,' ti. transmit In you spec sol Ihein all. I rouuoel uutlili

inn. Iml your opinion ;aud II j audovlsoi Ihodto work the U-



Unite and rod oxide of 7lur, ur either, yon will i onfei a lasting
New Jersey. The ore occurs here in sufficient quantity lo supply all
America wiili iron nnd glno, and we look i<> you with greater confidence
for Information on the subject than to any other pereon.

" I beg you win excuse m taktn, and I eUere me, witti

groal regard, yont rery bumble servanf,

"Samuel Fowleb."

IKON OBX8.

The Franklin mine is described in the "Geology of
New Jersey," published in 1868, as having two dis-
tinct reins of iron, — one in the gneiss, which can be
traced across the hill southwest of the furnace, and
one very mar the furnace and across the Wallkill,
and then along the side of Mine Hill, parallel with
the zinc vein, and only 40 or 50 feet from it, quite to
the Hamburg road. The northwest end of it has been
found too narrow to be worth mining. On the hill
south of the furnace there are several places where
Ore has been raised in quantities; this ore is hard,
firm, and quite rich. A sample of the ore ol' this vein
from the hill on the south gave the following results:

magnetic iron ore 80.8

Aliimlim •_'..;

Mi -iu x\S

Lime 4.7

Potash and soda 1

Phosphoric acid C

Sulphur on

Silica ln.i

101.*

Metallic Iron, 58.5 percent.

The other vein is in the wdtite limestone. Its prin-
cipal exploration has been in an old mine on the
northeast bank of the Wallkill, opposite Franklin
Furnace. It was opened in 1868, directly under the
furnace, and also in tWO or more places on the hill
farther southwest. From the mine on the bank of
the Wallkill it runs nearly parallel with the ore in
the gneiss, and but a few feet from it. The vein in
the old mine was from :; to x feci thick, and in the
opening under the furnace was thicker still, though
the walls were not uncovered at the time the mine

was visited. The ore in the limestone is dark-colored,
with a bright metallic lustre, compact, contains num-
erous small Hakes of graphite and more or less carbon-
ate of lime, magnesia, and manganese.

The following analysis of an average specimen of
the ore from this mine is given :

Magnotic ir. .n or.-

Protoxide of manganese

la

i c

ii. 7.8

Qraphll M

Phosphoric acid

snl |>li ii r 0.0

Water . I

This Ore has been worked at the charcoal-furnace
at Franklin.

ZINC 0BBS

The structure of the zinc vein- nr beds of ihis

localitj is the same as that of the magnetic irmi i. r.-
vein-. They arc cuiifavurahli' to the stratification of
the ruck- in which liny are imbedded; they pilch to

the northeast, they dip to the southeast, and there lie



338



SUSSEX COUNTY, NEW JEKSEY.



in a fold, or, in other words, have a synclinal axis
running through them.

FRANKLINITE

is a mineral of an iron-black color, metallic lustre,
and about as hard as feldspar. It is slightly magnetic,
and might easily be mistaken for magnetic ore. Its
specific gravity is 5.05 to 5.16. Its crystals are regu-
lar octahedrons. Small crystals are common in the
gangue rock, and those of 1, 2, 3, and rarely 4, inches
on each edge have been found. The average of four
carefully-made analyses of crystals of franklinite was
as follows :

Sesquioxide of iron 6S.3

Oxide of zinc H4.S

Bed oxide of manganese 10.5

103.6

The excess of products of analysis over 100 is prob-
ably due to the oxidation of iron, which must exist
in the mineral, — in part at least as protoxide of iron,
or else as magnetite. From the fact that specimens
of this mineral from Mine Hill contain more iron
than those from Sterling Hill, and also that they are
more affected by the magnet, there seems good reason
to suspect the presence of magnetite in the mineral,
and, as it gives off chlorine when hydrochloric acid
is poured on it, the manganese is probably a binoxide.

RED OXIDE OF ZINC.

This mineral is of a deep red color, varying in
specimens to orange color ; its streak is also orange-
yellow. Its lustre is not metallic. Occasionally
specimens are found which are partially transparent,
but generally the substance is quite opaque. Its hard-
ness is about that of limestone, and its specific gravity
5.4 to 5.7. Its structure is foliated ; it splits up
easily into tabular flakes. Its composition should be
zinc 80.26, oxygen 19.74, though it contains oxide of
manganese, which gives the mineral its red color. It
is easily soluble in acetic acid.

WILLEMITE, TEOOSTITE, OR ANHYDROUS SILICATE OF ZINC.

This mineral is found in abundance at Mine Hill,
and also at Sterling Hill. It is of various colors, from
an apple-green to flesh-red and to grayish white, and
when weathered is of a manganese-brown color. Its
streak is uncolored. It is nearly as hard as feldspar,
and the flesh-colored specimens have a splintering
and tough fracture, while the light-colored and green-
ish specimens have a lustre resembling feldspar. Its
specific gravity is 3.9 to 4.2. Its composition is oxide
of zinc and silicic acid, being 27.1 per cent, of the
latter and 79.9 of the former. It usually contains
some impurities, oxide of iron and manganese being
almost always present in small quantities.

The Mine Hill zinc vein has its outcrop on the
northwestern brow, and extends in a southwest direc-
tion from the Hamburg road to the southwestern end
of the hill, near the Wallkill. Here it turns oft' at an
acute angle and runs in an east-northeast direction
for nearly 600 feet. The higher portions of this out-



crop are 150 feet above the Wallkill. The ore consists
mainly of the same minerals as that of Sterling Hill, i
In color it is darker and duller, and the limestone less i
white and pure in appearance. The franklinite is not
so perfect in crystalline form ; it is more magnetic, j
softer, more reddish in its powder, and dissolves read- 1
ily in acid. An analysis of three specimens gives the
following result :

Sesquioxide of iron 74!8

Oxide of zinc 21.7

Red oxide of manganese 7.8

104.3

The green- and light-colored varieties of willemite
are most abundant, and make the largest part of the
mines which are worked. In all the northeastern
part of the vein near the Hamburg road two layers
of the ore can be recognized, — one containing red
oxide of zinc, and the other none of that mineral, and
the layers receive the names of the zinc vein and the
franklinite vein. Farther to the southwest, and to-
wards the curve in the vein, the red oxide is found in
two different streaks, and there is much difficulty in
tracing any regularity in its position in the vein. The
gangue rock is carbonate of lime and manganese, like
that at Sterling Hill. At the Hamburg road the vein
already worked is 10 feet wide. About 300 feet farther
southwest it is 6 feet wide, and the franklinite vein of
equal width. Near the. middle of the outcrop mixed
ore was uncovered 21 feet across ; southwest from this
the outcrop measures 29 feet. At the extreme south-
west opening the mass of ore was not less than 30 feet
thick. In the large opening on the east vein ore has
been quarried out in the open and almost vertical
vein for a length of 100 feet, 35 feet wide and 40 feet
deep.

The pitch of these veins is not distinctly marked.
The dip in all the front vein is southeast 55° to 65°.
The east vein is vertical. The fine crystals of willem-
ite or troostite which are from Mine Hill have been
found in cavities near the surface of various points.
Fowlerite is found at the southwest opening. Fluate
of lime is found in small grains in several places in the
mass or ore. The new asbestiform mineral of Profes-
sor Brush, sussexite (a borate of magnesia and man-
ganese), is found at the mine near the Hamburg road.
Large magnesian garnets and crystals of jeft'ersonite
have been obtained from a cavity near the large
gneiss rock on the hill. Most of the ore from the
zinc mines is worked into white oxide of zinc, to be
used for paint.

The Hill Vein and Furnace Vein are now being
worked by the New Jersey Zinc and Iron Company;
the Hill vein, at the beginning of the present year
(1880), had reached a depth of 190 feet in the shaft
near the furnace. A new opening farther southwest
than any of the present workings has shown a good
vein of ore. The mining on this vein has demonstra-
ted the existence of shoots and intervening pinches.
The walls are of gneissic rock. The ore is adapted to
Bessemer metal.



IIAUDYSTON.



339



The Furnace Vein is in the white crystalline lime-
stone; it is worked northeastof the Wallkill. The prin-
cipal slope is on the southwest point of Mine Hill, a leu-
rods from the creek. It is 300 feet long, and descends
on the foot-wall at an angle of about 60 . The working

in it has thus far opened three si bs, one above the

other, and pitching towards the northeast Between
them the vein is narrow, or pinche». The horizontal
drifts sh..w v.ry plainly these variations in size as one

goes fr southwest to northeast. There are no clear,

well-defined walls, but ore and limestone arc mixed,
and the mining stops where the latter predominates.
They stand up firmly, and no timber is necessary. At
the bottom Mr. I '. I'. Pierce, the superintendent, is
driving westerly and expects to strike the Hill vein.

X.— INDUSTRIAL LNTEBBSTS.

THK KHAN-KLIN [RON-WOBK8.
The earliest company organized with a view to the
development of the iron interests of the vicinity was
known a- "The Boston Franklinite Company," and
was composed mainly of Boston capitalists. The
whole property of this company was in 1867 purchased

by William E. Dodge, Moses Taylor. John I.Blair,

Joseph II. ScrantOIl, and Others, who were stock-
holder- of the Lackawanna Iron and Coal Company,
of Scran ton, Pa. In 1872 the company was reorgan-
ized under a new charter, becoming known as "The
Franklin Iron Company."

While in the hands of the original owners little was
done towards the development of the mines. The

n mufacture of char il pig iron was begun, bul was

not financially successful.

The domain of the present company, to whom the
lands were sold, cmhraees |.">,000 acre- in Sussex and
Passaic Counties, which abound in valuable mineral
ores.

I In present furnace, which was completed in 1873,
i- located a short distance south of the old charcoal-
furnace and near the furnace-pond. It was first put
in blast in January, 1*7 1. hut, owing to the deprcs-cd
condition of the iron market, remained in operation

but lour ii lh-, v\ hen it was blown out. It remained

idle until 1879, when ii was again blown in, and re-
mained in blast ' year, when the industry was

again suspended from a similar cause. During the
year of its activity L'i.',7 I" tons of Bessemer pig iron
wen- produced. Ii was again started in December,

■80, and is now run to its lull eapaeii \

The company employ- 2o0 men, of whom 200 are
engaged in the 1'uruace. I rider favorable circum-
stances the product of the furnace i- 150 gross tons
pci week. It is fed by ores from Spain. Africa, New
Jersey, and New i..ik, the ores of the latter State
Coming from tin- company's mine- in Putnam I

The property embraces the customary buildings,
such as machine- and blacksmith-shops, tenement-
Bouses, ami a Store for the accommodation of the

Workmen. The iron is shipped to Scranton, Pa.,



where it is converted by the Lackawanna Iron and
Coal Company into Bc - cmer steel rail-.

Alter a litigation of twenty years, involving the

rights to certain minerals in .Mine inn and Franklin
Furnace, the adverse interests have been consolidated
into a new company called "The New Jersey Zinc

and Iron Company," who now become owners of all
the zinc and franklinite ores at Mine Bill and a large
and valuable vein of zinc and franklinite at Sterling
Hill, near Ogdcnsburg, N. J., together with extensive
works for the manufacture of zinc oxide spelter and
-piegelcisen. near Newark, N. J. The ore is shipped
to the company's work-, at Newark, and to the Pas-
saic Zinc-Works, at Jersey City.

WINDSOB I.I M i:\voltKS.
These works are located near the village of Ham-
burg, and arc owned by Messrs. Sayre & Vandcr-
hoof. They have two kilns, the first of which was
erected in October. 1X70, and the second in August,
1877. Both these kilns are constructed with separate
fire-chambers, two on the sides of each kiln, and in
such a manner that the (lame only is in contact with
the lime-tone. They will produce 200 barrel- every

twenty-four hours, or 100 barrels each. The lime is

burned with wood from white lime-tone obtained at
the quarry of the firm, located at Budeville, 2\ miles
from the works. The stone is transported by means
of a tram-road built for the purpose. The market is
found in Paterson, Newark, Jersey city. New Bruns-
wick, Trenton, Camden, Long Branch, and New York.

THK STONE MILL.

The stone null at Hamburg was built in 1X0X, and
burned and rebuilt about 1840, Mr. George Collvcr, of
Lafayette, millwright, having done the work and fur-
ni-hed the castings when rebuilt. Ii was owned and
operated a number of years by the late Tin. mas p.
I'.d.-all, and about 1860 a distillery was erected adjoin-
ing by Mr. Edsall, Mr. F. M. Ward, millwright.
Inning superintended its construction. The mill was
afterwards operated by Mr. Ward for several year-.

About 18 u the pr iperty was purchased by John II.
Brown, of Franklin, and afterwards sold to the Wall-
kill Cement and Lime Company, the distillery having
been closed by John II. Brown. Cement-kilns were

erected on the property bj the Ce nt and Lime

Company, as also a mill having turbine-wheel, and
two run of -tone were added to the distillery-build-
ing by them for grinding cement A very fine cemenl

was made, but for the present its manufacture has

been abandoned.

The cement company also burned a large quantity
Of lime from white rock lime-tone, mined at their

quarry, on the Bade farm, at Budeville, and were the
first to put up lime in air-tight packages for white-
washing purposes.

The property is now owned by Alexander Bonnell,
of New York, and has been operated for the pasl
three years by W. II. [ngcrsoll. The lloiir-mill ha-



340



SUSSEX COUNTY, NEW JERSEY.



four run of stone and does all varieties of grist and
custom-work, manufacturing wheat-, rye-, and buck-
wheat-flour, and all kinds of feed. Mr. Ingersoll also
grinds large quantities of plaster every year, and
deals largely in lime and coal. A stone dam was
erected in 1879, and during the past year the new and
latest improved buckwheat machinery has been added
and various other improvements made.

Both the Midland Railroad of New Jersey and the
Sussex Railroad pass within 100 yards of the mill,
affording fine shipping facilities. A switch from the
Midland Railroad has been laid immediately in front
of the mill for the special accommodation of the busi-
ness, which greatly facilitates the receiving of Western
grain and the shipping of coal, plaster, stone, etc.
The cement-mills have been recently fitted up for
grinding feed, and are powerful and capacious.

There are also the Hamburg Lime Company, under
the management of J. E. Sheldon, and the Hamburg
Paper-Mills, both located in the vicinity of Hamburg
village.

XL— CHURCHES.

THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH.

A historical sermon was delivered by Rev. A. A.
Haines, pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Ham-
burg, in July, 1879, which is so rich with historical
facts as to make its presence in this history invalu-
able. The historian therefore avails himself of its
contents, and gives copious extracts from its pages:

"It is interesting to note how great religious movements in many dis-
tant countries had their bearing upon the first settlement of this region.
Thus, the revival of the Moravian Church iu Bohemia, the expulsion of
the Huguenots from France, and the quickening of religious life in Hol-
land and Great Britain sent our ancestors across the ocean and brought
them to seek new homes in the wilderness. For causes unknown to us
the Indian population had greatly decreased, and the warlike spirit of
the savage tribes had departed. They were once numerous, as we learn
from their sepulchres, which we frequently invade wherever there are
excavations, as in the repairing of roads and the construction of our rail-
roads. We have some account of the massacre of families and the tor-
ture and murder of defenseless whites, hut they are not common.

" Previous to 1700, families of Huguenots driven from France and ex-
iled from Holland had settled on the Hudson at the mouth of the Wall-
kill. By penetrating into the country they reached the mouth of the
Neversink, whore another settlement was formed. From Kingston, fol-
lowing up the Wallkill, families of Huguenots and Hollander strayed
into this region, where they established settlements. The French and
Dutch names still linger here, and in somewhat corrupted form are borne
by some of our families. Then the pious Moravians who settled Goshen,
Hope, and Bethlehem passed through on the road of communication be-
tween these towns. Between 17^0 and 1750, families of English descent
began to arrive. Some of these came from Massachusetts Bay colony,
and from Connecticut and Long Island, by way of Atnboy and Elizabeth-
town.

" Proprietors of New Jersey favored this immigration, and made giants
of land for small sums to settlers. I cannot now mention many names,
but Joseph Walling, Sr.. built his house where Shorili Edsall's house now
stands, about 1760. This was enlarged, and was the Ryorsun house,— a
landmark of this village (Hamburg) for over a century, till it was con-
sumed by fire. The house which Joseph Walling, Jr., built, ami whore
he died, is still standing as the Samuel Biggs house. The first English
settlers wore Presbyterians, and some members of the Church of England.
Id 1770 several families came horn Rhode Island and Bottled in tho vi-
cinity of this village. They were Baptists, and formed tho first society
of Baptists En the county, of which tho Papakating church is the Suc-
cessor. A house of worship free to all denominations had been built on
the hill above Mr. Lawrence's. This, as far as I know, was tho second



church edifice erected within the county limits, the Frankfort church,
at Augusta, being prior. In 1782 this house of worship was taken down
and rebuilt on the site of the present Papakating church. I suppose
some of the old timbers may form part of the frame of tho existing edi-
fice. The Hardyston Presbyterian church was built at the head of the
Wallkill near the close of the Revolutionary war, and still remains the
church at Sparta. A grant of 65 acres of land was given for a glebe by
the proprietors of East Jersey.

"The inhabitants of Northern Hardyston complained at the location,
and proposed building a church of their own. They applied to the pro-
prietors, and a second grant Of 65 acres was made to the township. The
land given is a part of the farm of Asa Munsou, and still known in the
record deeds as ' the parsonage lot.' The church, however, was not built
there.

"Grants of land were made by tho proprietors of East Jersey to the
leading denominations of each town. In Newton the farm was given
to the Episcopalians, they being the most numerous. In Hardyston the
Presbyterians enjoyed a similar grant. Col. Cary, of Hardyston, had
much influence, and insisted that the church should be built on a hill n



Online LibraryJames P SnellHistory of Sussex and Warren counties, New Jersey : → online text (page 85 of 190)