James P Snell.

History of Sussex and Warren counties, New Jersey : online

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private and secret enemy, and as it has been thought
Dogs would be of very great service not only in dis-
covering them in their secret retreats among the
swamps, rocks, and mountains, frequent in those
parts ; therefore be it enacted, etc., that it shall and
may be lawful for the Paymaster aforesaid to procure
upon the best terms they can Fifty good, large, strong,
and fierce Dogs ; and the same so procured to supply
with food necessary to their subsistence, equal to ten
men's allowance in quantity ; which said Dogs shall be
disciplined for and employed in the service in such
manner as the said Major, in conjunction with the
Commission officers, or the major part of them, shall
think proper."

We quote the following from Neville's "Laws," vol.
ii. page 202, which is said to have been the first re-



FRKXCII AND IXIHAX \\ r AR, 1755.



37



cognition of personal bravery by the Provincial
Legislature of New Jersey, and ie peculiarly appro-
print'- T i j : i - 1 1 1 1 1 < -1 1 as it refers to residents of Sussex
County. It is part of tin- rn-t of Aug. ]■>, 1758:

" Wher«a*i It Is not only strictly Just, but highly prudent, to reward
ini'l encourage such acts >>f martial Bravery as have h tendency to dis-
treiw the Enemy and defend Ourselves: And whereat [I credibly re-
ported that JoAn VantQt,a Sergeant in the pay "f this Colony, with a

party of nine more andei bis Co land, have lately exerted themselves

njJCiihiBt tin-' '"ii i in. »n Kminy u|M.n tlio frontiers of t tiin Colony in n "it; mil

Hftnner; and that a Lad, aged al t seventeen years, slrnami

when punned by the Enemy, *li"t one of them and a red bis retreat

from the Immlnonl dangei with which he was threatened, toeing his gun;

Thereforo, ns s jnnt Beward to those Persons, and t" excite others t- «

iin 1 1 nil' their heroic Example, Be i' further • Mooted, by Efts Authority afor**

■old, Thai it flint it and may be lawful R>i the Paymaster aforesaid, and he

Is hereby directed tn pay nnto the Haiti John VantUe tlio sum of twonty

.s,,„„i./, Ii-llius, iiml In .'in Ii uf Hi- party under his command the sum of

Ton Dollars n piece; and tothesald Lad, elrnamed Tit

ill- sum of Tbtrtj Dollars; and shall also procure for,and pi

the said John I'.iii/i/.-, ami the said Ud, elrnamed Tilmrt, with n Silver

Uedal each, of the size of a Dollar, wheroon shall be Inscribed the Bust

or Figure of an Indian, prostrate at the feet of the sold Pan/ft and Lad

aforesaid, Importing their victory over them, and to comme rate their

ad the Country's Gratitude upun the occasion. Which Medals
ill- said Vant Ie ami Lad aforesaid, shall ur may Mem- in view at all such

public occasions as they may happen to atl I, t.. excite an Emulation

and kindle R mnrtlal Hi- In the Breasts of the Spectators, so truly essen-
tial In tliin II f General War."

VIL— EXTRACTS FROM THE "NEW AMERICAN
MAGAZINE."*

Respecting affairs at this prri.nl in Sussex County,
the " New American Magazine," published at Wood-
bridge, V J., under date of .May 31, 1758, gives the
following :

"I'ti: i ti \mi:hv, May 31. — On Monday, the fif-
teenth instant, about two o'clock in the after a,

thirteen [ndians rushed into the bouse of Nicholas
Cole, in the county of Sussex, near Nbminaclc fort, in
the township of Walpack, in this province, adjacent

to the river Delaware, ami, Cole heing from I

they immediately killeil liis son, about eighteen years

old, who was asleep upon the bed ; they then finished
Cole's wife, and, dragging her out of doors, sin- tin re
saw her eldest daughter, aged thirteen, her son, aged

eight, ami her youngest 'laughter, about four years

old, a" murdered and scalped. The savage villains
then plundered the bouse, after which they carried
Off the mother ami her son .laeoh, about ten years of
age. Thej were soon after joined by two other ln-
diann, who had with them two Germans, whom they
had taken that day, and had killeil and scalped o
third in Anthony Westbrook's field, near Minisink,
in sail 1 county of Sussex. The Boldiers who were

guarding the frontiers proposed to join s lof the

neighbors and to cross the Delaware the next ru-
ing by daybreak to watch the road t" Wyoming.

Ami as four of them were going to the place of ren-

devous, about two o'clock in the night, they heard
the [ndians coming down the hill in the main road

* This magailne was edited by Si let Hevill, who pml led as prlncl-

iniiiii; the Drat courts held In Sussex County, n was the
Aral publication of the kind in tiew J



to cross the Delaware; when one of the four fired
among them the savage- immediately Bed, Betting up
a most dismal yell, and leaving Cole's wife and son at

liberty, who made the hest of their way along the road

to one McCarty's, to which place the Boldierssoon after
came. The woman said the Indians talked English

and Dutch, and she was sure one »;i- a white man.

('apt. Gardner i- gone with two parties to waylay the
road tn Wyoming and Cochecton. The Indians,

thinking they were discovered, killed the two < br-
maii prisoners, and after scalping them cut off oni of
their Inads and tixed it on his breast, the two bodies

being since found.

"On the Thursday following, the daughter of the
Willow Walling, near Fort Gardner, between Goshen

and .Mini-ink, was killed by three Indian- a- -lie was

picking up chips for the tire. Her shrieks alarming

the house, her brother ran up-stairs, and, seeing the
Indians scalping his sister, he fired at them from the
garret-window, and i- sure he wounded one of them.

The mother and other daughter in the mean ti

made their escape, and the son likewise got off clear."

Tin- same magazine for June SO, L768, has the fol-
lowing:

"Perth A\ v, June 30. — On the 12th instant

one W'alt.r Vantile, a sergeant of the forces stationed
upon the frontier of this province in the county of
Sussex, having received information that ti party of
Indian- bad crossed the river Delaware into Pennsyl-
vania, took nine soldiers with him and went over the

river in pursuit of them. They made diligent Bearch

alter the (ndians in different ways, but could make
no discovery of them. However, for that night they
encamped upon the river, about >i\ miles abovi •
Fort, and in the morning they scouted back from the

river about four miles; at last they discovered an In-
dian walking towards the place where thej bad lain
the night before, whom they pur-tied, but he got into
a swamp ami made hi- escape. The si rgeant and bis

party then took the same course towards the river
which the Indian was steering, and when they eame
to the bank ol the Delaware they heard some Indians
Chopping on a small island in the river, and >a\\ ten
Of them making a raft in order to CTOSS the river.

Vantile and his men watched them very strictly the

whole night In the morning, early, the [ndians
packed up their Clothes and other thing- and waded

the river, drawing their raft after them. Vantile, per-
ceiving by their course that they would land higher
up than where he and hi- men were posted, crept pri-
vately up the river until they came within one hun-
dred yards of them, » hen they -aw a smoke upon the
-bore and an Indian rise up, who eame toward- the
soldier-, but be -oon returned to the lire ami took up
hi- gun: upon which about fifteen Indians rose up
and laid hold ot their guns. The sergeant then or-
dered his men to tire upon them, and the Indian- re-
turned the tire and advanced; the aforesaid ten In-
dians who were coming from the island also fired verv



38



SUSSEX AND WARREN COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.



briskly. The sergeant and his men sustained the
attack with great courage, and after fighting six
rounds and boldly advancing towards the enemy the
Indians fled in great confusion, leaving behind them
four guns, four tomahawks, three pikes, fifteen pairs
of moccasins, fifteen pairs of stockings, and other sun-
dry things. These are supposed to be the same In-
dians who had attacked Uriah Westfall's and Abra-
ham Cortwright's houses.

"His Excellency Governor Bernard hath sent up
orders to the officers upon the frontiers to restrain the
soldiers from leaving their quarters and straggling
into the woods to hunt and shoot, as the same is cer-
tainly a dangerous and pernicious practice; for on
Friday last William Ward was shot and scalped as he
was hunting within a half mile of No. 3, in the county
of Sussex ; and the same day about noon a house was
burnt ou the opposite side of the river. The Indians
shouted and fired several guns while it was burning.

" Some days since a man and a boy, traveling along
the public highway in the said county of Sussex, were
attacked by the Indians. The man was shot dead ;
the boy was surprised, but, finding one of the Indians
in pursuit of him, he had presence of mind, as the
last refuge, to turn and fire upon him, and saw him
drop. The other Indian still pursued, and the boy,
perceiving that his gun so retarded his flight that he
must be taken, broke it to pieces against a rock, that
it might not fall into the enemy's hands, and made
his escape from them. He then alarmed the people,
who immediately went out upon the scout with guns
and dogs, and, coming to the place where the boy shot
the Indian, they found a great deal of blood, but not
the body. They searched very diligently about the
woods, when at last one of the dogs began barking;
and, going to see what was the matter, they found
him barking at a bunch of brush, and, turning it
aside, they found the Indian buried with his clothes
and tomahawk, upon which they scalped him and
brought away the things they found buried with him.
On Tuesday, the 16th of June, Justice Decker, of the
county of Sussex, brought the said Indian scalp and
tomahawk to the city of Perth Ainboy. This savage
proves to be the notorious bloody villain well known
by the name of Capt. Armstrong, a noted ring-leader
of the Delawares, who, with other Indians, was con-
cerned with Benjamin Springer (lately executed in
Morris County) in the murder of Anthony Swartwout,
his wife and children."

VIII.— CONFERENCES— NEGOTIATIONS FOR PEACE.

The Legislature appointed a committee, who met
the Indians of this State at Crosswicks in the winter
of 1756. Their grievances were heard patiently, and
then reported to the Legislature, which passed acts to
relieve them.

In June, 1758, Governor Bernard, of New Jersey,
consulted Gen. Forbes and Governor Denny, of Penn-
sylvania, as to the measures best calculated to put



a stop to the unpleasant warfare, and through Teedy-
escung, king of the Delawares, he obtained a con-
ference with the Minisink and Pompton Indians,
protection being assured them.* The conference took
place at Burlington, Aug. 7, 1758. On the part of
the province, there were present the Governor, three
commissioners of Indian affairs of the House of As-
sembly, and six members of the council. Two Mini-
sink or Munsey Indians, one Cayuga, one Delaware
messenger from the Mingorans, and one Delaware
who came with the Minsics were the delegates on
the part of the natives. The conference opened with
a speech from the Governor. He sat holding four
strings of wampum, and thus addressed them :
" Brethren, as you are come from a long journey
through a wood full of briers, with this string I
anoint your feet and take away their soreness ; with
this string I wipe the sweat from your bodies; with
this string I cleanse your eyes, ears, and mouth, that
you may see, hear, and speak clearly, and I particu-
larly anoint your throat that every word you say
may have a free passage from your heart; and with
this string I bid you welcome." The four strings
were then delivered to them. The result of the con-
ference was that a time was fixed for holding another
at Easton, at the request of the Indians, that being,
as they termed it, the place of the " old council."

The act passed in 1757 appropriated sixteen hun-
dred pounds for the purchase of Indian claims; but,
as the Indians living south of the Raritan preferred
receiving their portion in lands especially devoted to
their occupancy, three thousand and forty-four acres
in the township of Evesham, Burlington Co., were
purchased for them. A house of worship and several
dwellings were subsequently erected, forming the town
of Brotherton ; and, as the selling or leasing of any
portion of the tract was prohibited, as was also the
settlement of any persons upon it other than Indians,
the greatest harmony appears to have prevailed be-
tween its inhabitants and their white neighbors.!

On Oct. 8, 1758, the conference commenced at Eas-
ton. It was attended by the lieutenant-governor of
Pennsylvania, six of his council, and an equal num-
ber of members of the House of Representatives,
Governor Bernard, of New Jersey, five Indian com-
missioners, George Croghan, Esq., deputy Indian
agent under Sir William Johnson, a number of mag-
istrates and freeholders of the two provinces, and five
hundred and seven Indians, comprising delegates from
fourteen different tribes. The business of the confer-
ence was conducted mainly by Governor Bernard,
who in its management evinced no small degree of
talent and tact. It was closed on the 26th of October,
and the result was a release by the Minisink and
Wapping Indians of all lands claimed by them withip
the limits of New Jersey for the sum of one thousand



• Smith'

f Alliaul



' Now JciBP.v," l»p. 447, 448.
" Lawa," p. til.



FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR, 1755.



39



pounds. Deeds were also obtained from the D
wares and other [ndians,and it was declared "thai by
these two agreement the province of Nen Jersey is
entirely freed and discharged from all [ndian claims."
At least, such was the opinion of (iovernor Bernard
and the Indians ; but the Assembly the ensuing March,
in answer to the Governor's speech, mention a small
claim of the Totamies and Borne private claims still
outstanding. The minutes of 1 1 1 i -~ interesting confer-
ence are printed ;it length in Smith's "Historj of
New Jersey." The amicable relations thus happily
begun remained undisturbed for several

In 17U4 a frontier guard of two hundred men was
again kept up si time in consequence of disturb-
ances in Pennsylvania, I >u t the alarm soon sub ided
In 1769, Governor Franklin attended a convention
held with the Six Nations by several of the colonial

i ■-, .in' I informed the Assembly on his return

thai they bad publicly acknowledged repeated in-

of the jus tii f the New Jersey authorities

in bringing murderers of Indians to condign punish-
ment, declared thai they had no claim whatever upon
the province, and in the most solemn manner con-
ferred on itsgovernmenl the title oiSagoriyhiviyogatha,
or the "Great Arbiter," or " Doer of Justice," a name
which the Governor truly remarked reflected high

In. nor upon the pro\ in i

IX.— TKEDYUSCUXG.
Teedyuscung, the last king of the Delaware-, was
in main respects a very remarkable and noble char-
Although he took up the tomahawk against
the whites in 17'">. and was the chief leader in that
struggle, it was because he believed he had a jusl
cause. He was made king of the Delawares wesl ol

the mountains in 1756. In May of that year he and

his Indians left their headquarters at Wyoming and

repaired to Diahoga, a strong Indian town at the

I oil.- "i t],,- Susquehanna, now Athens, Pa. In July,
1766, he visited Bethlehem, at the invitation of the
Governor, preparatory to the Brsl conference held at
Easton, and is Bpoken of by Reichel a- follow.- in his
" Memorials of the Moravian i 'lunch :"

"Capt. Newcastle returned to Bethlehe a the

evening of the 17th. With him came Teedyuscung

and upwards of thirty Other Indian-, men. women,

and children, pursuant to the Governor's invitation ;
this was the iir-i appearance ol the chiel within the
settlement since be had taken up the hatchet, tin
the 18th he mel Maj, Parsons in conference in Jus-
Uorafield's oilier. Ii was a memorable interview,
in a- far a- on that occasion Ceedyuscung for the tir-i
time proclaimed his kingship. Hi- private coun-
sel, n . Tapescawen, or Tapescohung, Newcastle, « 'apt.
tnsley, from Fori Allen, and a few others, were
present; John Pompshire interpreted. Producing a
string of wampum wherebj to confirm what he de-



1 n.-« Vork Juaru J,



sired to say, he dictated this message to the < iovernor
in replj t" tie- inv i tat ion he had received to meel him
at Tulpehocken: ' Brother the Governor of Pennsyl-
vania, I have received tie- word by your mi -
kindly. Upon it 1 have come, a- you have given mo

good words, which are called eouiieil-iire. At tin-
Forks of Delaware We will -it down, and wait tie re,
and shall he ready. I am exceeding glad that there

are such thoughts and methods taken in respect to

our women and children. I shall, I hope, he ready to
let you know a little further when we -hall meet. This
what I have now in -lent spoken i- not only from me,
hut also from my unele the Mohawk the Six Nation- .
and from four other nation- [the Delaware-, Shawan-

■ -.. Monseys, and Mohicans], which in all ma:

and these tin have hut two heads <;/' kingt betwei a

them.' "

I edyuscung ami his companions were escorted to
Easton on the 19th, pursuant to the (iovernor- order
issued to Map Parsons. On July 24, 1756, three
members of tin- council were sent t. tifj Teedyus-
cung that the ( Iovernor was come. < >n attempting to

use John Pompshire, "on.- of tin- best and dis<

of the Jersey Indians," as interpreter, the kin

I .'ted, and iguihcd a- hi chou I Inlian Dejamin

"an impudent, forward youth who had enlisted in the

Jersey companies and afterwards deserted, going over
to the enemy at Diahoga." I pon this Pompshire de-
clared In- would not he concerned in interpreting it
Benjamin were allowed to speak, lie carried his
point, and ubsequentlj became the king'- favorite
interpreter.

After tin- treat} Teedyuscung loitered for a while
at Fori All.ii. Aug. 17. 1756, In- returned to Beth-
lehem with a f.w of bis associates, for the twofold
purpose ol enticing hie m ce Theodora aw 17 and cl
prevailing with the Christian Indians to accompany
him to Diahoga; he set out the n.-\t day for the fori
without having accomplished his object. On the 21st

his wile and children arrived. The king, the) stated,
had gone to the Mini-ink to am -t hi- Indian.- in their
depredations in that quarter.!

Monday, Nov. 8, 1756, the second treats with Tee-
dyuscung was opened at Ka-ton. Besides the (Iov-
ernor. William Logan, and Richard Peters, of his
council, there were present, of the commissioners,
Benjamin Franklin, Joseph F"\, William Masters,
and John Hughes; of the officers of the Pennsyl-
vania provincial forces, Lieut.-Col. Weisser, Mai.
Parsons, Capt. Withershold, Capt John Van Etten,
and ('apt. Reynolds; Beveral other officers and a
large number of gentlemen and citizens from
Jersey ami Philadelphia, Teedyuscung was attended

bj -i\I. .11 "I hi- nation, four Indian- of 1

-. two Shawanese, and six Mohicans. John

Pompshire was interpreter. The king opened the

ace by stating that he had kept the promise



1 11.11 ii..-. 11 i.i.,.i-i



40



SUSSEX AND WARREN COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.



made by him at the last treaty, having since then
informed all the Indian nations of the disposition of
the English for peace. On being asked by the Gov-
ernor of Pennsylvania whether he, the Governor, or
the province had ever wronged him, and why he and
his Indians had struck the English, the chief pro-
ceeded to state that the false-hearted French king
had tampered with the foolish-hearted young men of
his people, but chiefly they had taken up the hatchet
because the English had defrauded them of their
land. " I have not far to go for an instance," con-
tinued the speaker : " this very ground that is under
me" (striking it with his foot) " was my land and
my inheritance, and is taken from me by fraud. I
mean all the land lying between Tohicon Creek"
(a stream heading near Quakertown and emptying
into the Delaware fifteen miles east of that place)
" and Wyoming." The Governor hereupon offering
him redress, Teedyuscung closed the conference by
stating that he was not empowered to accept it ; that
he would meet the Governor at some future time, and
then he would lay before him the extent of his griev-
ances, and they could treat for a settlement of all
disagreements and for a lasting peace.

This opportunity came at the third treaty of Easton,
July 27 to Aug. 7, 1757. Teedyuscung having de-
manded a secretary to take down the minutes for his
revision, the demand was reluctantly granted him,
and he chose Charles Thomson, " master of the pub-
lic Quaker school in the city of Philadelphia," — the
same Thomson who was afterward secretary of Con-
gress and author of the " Enquiry," in which he
calmly and truthfully sets forth the injustice of the
treatment of the Delawares in the land transaction
of 1737. After an exchange of the compliments
usually preliminary to business on such occasions,
and the utterances of mutual assurances of regret for
the past and good hopes for the future, the king
stated that the purchase of lands by the proprietaries
from Indians who had no right to sell, and their fraud-
ulent measurement subsequently, whether by miles or
by hour's walk, had provoked the war. This charge
he demanded should be closely investigated, and, on
evidence appearing that injury had been done to the
Indians, they should have redress. " In that case,"
he said, " I will speak with a loud voice, and the na-
tions shall hear me." Hereupon he stated his pur-
pose to settle with his countrymen in Wyoming,
adding that he would build a town there such as the
white men build, and provide for the introduction of
the Christian religion among his countrymen and for
the education of their children. In conclusion, he de-
manded that the deeds by which the lands in dispute
were held should be produced, that they be publicly
read, and that copies be laid before King George and
published to all the provinces under his government.
" What is fairly bought and paid for," he went on to
say, "I make no further demand about; but if any
lauds have been bought of Indians to whom these



lands did not belong, and who had no right to sell
them, I expect satisfaction for these lands. And if
the proprietaries have taken in more lands than they
bought of true owners, I expect likewise to be paid
for that. But, as the persons to whom the proprieta-
ries may have sold these lands, which of right be-
longed to me, have made some settlements, I do not
want to disturb them or to force them to leave them,
but expect full satisfaction will be made to the true
owners for these lands, though the proprietaries, as I
said before, might have bought them from persons
who had no right to sell them."

After some hesitation on the part of the province, —
in consequence of difference of opinion as to the pro-
priety of complying with the Delaware's request, in as
far as Sir William Johnson had been commissioned
by royal appointment to hear the particulars of the
charge brought against the proprietaries and the pro-
prietaries' defense, and in consequence of Teedyus-
cung's reluctance to treat with the baronet and his
Indians, some of whom, he said, were parties to the
unauthorized sale of lands, — the deeds relating to the
purchase north of the Tohickon were produced and
read. Agreeably to his request, furthermore, copies
of them were promised him to dispatch to Sir William
Johnson, to be transmitted by the latter to King
George for his determination. Upon this the Dela-
ware rose to his feet, and, taking up two belts tied
together, spoke as follows : " I desire you would with
attention hear me. By these two belts I will let you
know what was the ancient method of confirming a
lasting peace. This you ought to have considered,
and to have done ; but I will put you in mind. You
may remember when you took hold of my hand and
led me down, and invited my uncles (several of whom
are present), with some from each of the Ten Nations,
when we had agreed, we came down to take hold of
one of your hands, and my uncles came to take hold
of your other hand. Now, as this day and this time are
appointed to meet and confirm a lasting peace, we, —
that is, I and my uncles, as we stand, and you, as you
stand, in the name of the great king, three of us stand-
ing, — we will all look up, and by continuing to ob-
serve the agreements by which we shall oblige our-



Online LibraryJames P SnellHistory of Sussex and Warren counties, New Jersey : → online text (page 9 of 190)