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NYPL RESEARCH LIBRARIES



3 3433 06819818 7



SPRINGS AND WELLS

IN GREEK AND ROMAN LITERATURE
THEIR LEGENDS AND LOCATIONS



BY

JAMES REUEL SMITH



WITH TWO ILLUSTRATIONS



G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS

NEW YORK AND LONDON

Gbe "Knickerbocker press

1922



THE NEW YORK

PUBLIC LIBRARY

48682A

ASTOR. LENOX AND

TILDEN FOUNDATIONS

R 1922 L



Copyright, 192a

by .

James Reuel Smith

All rights reserved, including the right of translation into any foreign language
Made in the United States of America



•XN




To

HOWARD RUSSELL BUTLER

who has fondly pictured

"The Mother of Springs"

in every mood of her beauty

these sketches of some of her daughters are dedicated



PREFACE

Even the Queen and the King, in the days of fable.
were constrained to visit the sources of water supply
quite as forcibly as Mahomet was compelled to the
Mountain, and, just as, later, the idler at the village
pump, or the more aspiring Spa, learned all the news of
the neighborhood, so the reader, who leisurely traces the
path that meanders by the numerous fountains of the
ancient writers and makes the rounds of the Springs of
Mythology, becomes the entertained recipient of all the
gossip and the family history of that classic band of
beings of the brain that the early poets preserved and
transmitted to posterity.

The gossip at each successive Spring widens the reader's
circle of acquaintance, and, before the end of the path is
reached, there is little of interest in the records of the
masters of make-believe that has not been laid before
the literary loiterer and absorbed in the most pleasant
manner.

One of the first of the philosophic tenets likely to
present itself to the human mind would be Metemp-
sychosis, and Metamorphosis would follow by natural
suggestion. Given the factors of facial resemblance,
affection and absence, and the germs of the doctrine
would inevitably sprout in some thinking brain.

Later, in meditation, fancy and reasoning would find
no limit to the guises the vital spirit might assume. When
one had seen the yolk of a little egg change into an eagle



vi PREFACE

with a six-foot spread of wing and fly away out of sight
Heavenward; or had discovered that a tiny acorn could
assume the form of a tree and become a giant in size and
strength, it was not a stretch for the imagination but
rather a pastime to fancy a human being changed into
any conceivable object ; or even, as in the story of Deu-
calion and Pyrrha, or that of Cadmus, to suppose stones
transformed into men and women, or teeth into a fully
accoutered army.

A simple plot was thus naturally furnished upon which
to ring the changes of a thousand tales, going back even
to the creation of the world out of — nothing.

Every country and every tongue produced entertain-
ing fancies of this character, borrowed, interchanged and
elaborated through legendary medium, until, at last,
they appeared polished in rhythm, and then in writing.

Such tales came down from Hesiod, Homer and Ovid
in their best embellished form, and, among them all,
those relating to transformations into Springs are neither
the least romantic nor absorbing, for the thread of them
is, in many instances, spun from an ardent affection.

In these stories writers sometimes differ in giving
names, and, sometimes, more or less in their versions.
Perfect agreement among them, however, could hardly
be looked for when it is considered that ancient authors
frequently had to rely upon memory, as, with the com-
paratively few manuscripts then in existence, it was often
impracticable to verify names and details by referring
to the original work from which the account was
drawn.

Ovid's description of the Creation shows a common
origin with that of Moses — similarly, he mentions the
Springs as the first terrestrial features created — and a
serious interest attaches to Mythology from the fre-



PREFACE vii

quently overlooked fact that it was for two thousand or
more years the religion of millions of people, among
whom were some of the brightest intellects of which there
is any record. Mythology, giving the genealogy of the
gods from the beginning, was the Bible of those people
and they accepted its most wonderful relation with no
less gravity and respect than pious modern people, Mor-
mons, Mohammedans, and others, accept the miracles
in the basic books of their religions.

Temples were frequently built about or above Springs;
and on the 13th day of October the Festival of the Fon-
tinalia was held in honor of the divinities that presided
over all Springs and fountains.

The nymphs of the Springs were the naiads to whom
they were sacred, and this was not only poetical but
practical, for, when the Spring is the sole source of supply,
its waters need to be carefully protected so that they
may be clear and clean at all times, and, among the re-
ligiously superstitious Greeks and Romans, such purity
was best assured by appealing to their fears and call-
ing them sacred, thus making their pollution an act of
sacrilege.

The sacredness of the fountains being thus established,
and their waters being perpetual, they became preemi-
nently fitted to be called upon as witnesses when making
vows, and they were so called upon even in ordinary
assertion and exclamation, as, "By the Earth and all its
Springs," " Now by the Wells whereof our Fathers drank,"
"O Fount of Dirce and thou, spacious Grove, ye are my
witnesses."

Pausanias is one of the most prolific enumerators ot
Grecian Springs, but unfortunately he gives little data
from which their appearance may be pictured. The
poets, however, often portrayed the peculiarities of their



viii PREFACE

founts with minute detail, and it is to be hoped that their
likenesses were true to nature.

Pausanias did little more than enumerate, and his book
might be called a catalog of ruins from which one who is
not on the spot can seldom draw any but a hazy outline
of what he saw. The greater part of the temples and
towns that he seems to have seen had been in ruins for
centuries before he wrote about them, and were in a more
dilapidated condition than the cities and cathedrals in
the war-stricken districts of Europe in 191 8. The best
of the statuary had been carried off by conquerors, or
was buried in the wreckage of roofless temples, and such
wooden works of ancient art as remained were mutilated
and rotting with age.

It would be interesting to know where he spent his
nights on the road through these ruins, and on what he
subsisted ; he mentions no caravansary and no wine
shop — but one can almost tell how often he quenched
his thirst, by the names of the Springs he jotted down in
his diary.

In fact, mountains, Springs and watercourses are now
the best guides to the route he took in his travels. The
mountains and the rivers are shown more or less meagerly
in such atlases as furnish a very small scale map of
"Ancient " this or that, but no one can get an idea of the
whereabouts of the Springs without perusing the pages
of old travelers, or those of the poets, or laboriously and
often in vain going through Geographical Dictionaries,
and the present is the first attempt to group together
many of the Springs that classic authors of prose and
poetry have thought worthy of mention.

After the deluge of the Greeks, who perhaps derived
much of their mythology from the Egyptians, Deucalion
and Pyrrha, the leaders of such as had survived with the



PREFACE ix

animals, not in a ship, but by seeking the heights of Mt.
Parnassus, descended the mountain and began repeopling
the country in the vicinity of the Spring of Castalia.

That Spring, having been erroneously endowed by the
Roman poets with inspirational properties, has become
the most famous Spring in the literary world, so that,
though there is no fable of any transformation as its
origin, it may be regarded as the origin of many trans-
formations.

But incalculable harm has thereby been done to the
Spring of Aganippe, and it is time she came into her own.

Still, as Castalia, up to the present, has enjoyed the
honor of being the most noted Spring in the world, and
neither sought the undue honor nor could protest against
it, it would seem to deserve first mention in a list of
Springs. Its history, however, commences with the
flood, and there are antediluvian fountains whose age
claims precedence, especially those of Arcadia, as to
whose residents a suggestion is hazarded in the Foreword
to The Springs of Thessaly.

Greece was a dwarf country whose distances were im-
pressively magnified by the measure that was used to
express them; thus the great stretch of 1400 stadia, both
in length and in breadth, that was assigned to the Pelo-
ponnesus, represents 175 miles when the stadia are taken
at their modern value of a furlong each and eight of them
are reckoned to the mile.

In all languages "Spring" and "Well" are often used
interchangeably and the "Well" of the classics is nearly
always a Spring ; when, in rare cases, it is really a driven
well this is usually made clear either by the context, or by
the reports of modern describers who have rediscovered
the shaft.

An ancient author is cited in every case as a base



x PREFACE

from which the history and fortunes of any particular
fountain may be followed down in detail.

A series of intimate impressions of ancient springs as
modern features having been interrupted by the out-
break of the recent war, that phase of the subject has
for the most part been drawn from reports of scholarly
travelers of the 17th century and subsequent years;
and a concrete list of their names is substituted for
several thousand scattered references, to them and to
ancient writers, which have been deleted as being unduly
cumbersome in a book for popular reading.

J. R. S.
New York, December, 1920.



Authorities Cited for Legends or
Ancient Locations



About B.C.


A.D.


About B.C.


A.D.


^Eschylus


525




Martial


. .


43


Apollodorus


443




Ovid




18


Apollonius






Pausanias




170


Rhodius


235




Philostratus




182


Aristophanes


444




Plautus


254




Athenaeus




200


Pliny;






Callimachus


260




the elder




79


Cicero


106




Pliny;






Claudian




400


the younger




no


Diodorus


50




Propertius




H


Euripides


406




Ptolemy




100


Florus


65




Servius




400


Herodotus


400




Strabo




24


Hesiod


850




Suetonius




40


Homer


950




Theocritus


30c




Horace


65




Theophrastus


350




Hyginus


10




Thucydides


471




Juvenal




96


Virgil


19




Livy


59




Vitruvius


100




Lucan




65


Xenophon


435




Authorities


FOR .


Modern Locations




Clavier, E.






Pococke, Ed.






Dodwell, Edward




Smith, Dr. Wm






Fellows, C.






Spon & Wheeler






Hamilton, W. J






Texier, C. F. M






Irby & Mangles






Wheeler, Spon &




Leake, Wm. M






Wilkins, Wm.






Mangles, Irby &




Wilkinson, Sir J


. G.




Mure, Wm., of Caldwell


Wordsworth, Christopher


Murray, Hugh













CONTENTS





PAGE


Preface .......


V


List of Basic Authorities


xi


Synopsis


XV


Springs and Wells of: —




Greece


i


Peloponnesus ....


. . i


Central Greece ....


140


Northern Greece .


• 257


Magna Gr^ecia ....


• 293


Asia Minor


• 312


Greek Islands ....


• 383


Foreign Countries ....


. 421


Homer


• 537


Virgil


• 554


Italy


. 568


Italian Islands ....


. 661


Indexes: —





A — Names and Characteristics of Springs and

Wells ........ 683

B — Divinities, People, Places and Subjects . 694

C — Countries, Divisions, Districts and Islands . 721



xm



SYNOPSIS

SPRINGS AND WELLS OF

GREECE

PELOPONNESUS:

Arcadia: - - - - - i

Neda-Hagno, Arne, Three Wells, CEnoe, Tritonis, Linus,
Mt. Elaion, Tegea, Leuconius, The Blacksmith's Well,
Well at Phigalia, Jay's Well, Lymax, Melangeia, Mt. Ales-
ium, Alalcomenea, Orchomenus Well, Wells called Teneae,
Nonacris (Styx), Maenalus, Stymphelus, Clitorian Spring,
Crathis, Well Alyssus, Lusi, Menelaus', Philip's Well,
Well of the Meliastas, Olympias, Alpheus, Ladon, Eryman-
thus, Brentheates, Buphagus.Helisson, Scolitas.Bathyllus,
Theater Spring, Dionysus', Hill Spring, Lusius-Gortynius,
Nymphasia, Tragus.

Argolis: 47

Adrastea, Perseus', Amymone, Physadea, Hippocrene,
Hercules' Well, Hycessa, Inachus, Treton, Asopus, Erasi-
nus, Hyllicus, Methana, Wells of Hermione, Well of Cana-
thus, Wells and Fountains of ^Esculapius, Dine.

Laconia: - - - - - 75

^Esculapius', Gythium, Pellanis, Lancea, Dorcea, Envoys'
Well, Tiassus, Messeis, Polydeucea, Marius, Nympheeum,
Water of the Moon, Taenarum, Pluto's Springs, Atalanta's,
Belemina, Fortunate Springs, Anonus, Gelaco, Naia, Ger-
onthrse.

Messenia: 94

Dionysus', Clepsydra, Pamisus, Pharae, Well Achaia, CE-
chalia, Plataniston, Mothone.



xvi SYNOPSIS

Elis: 104

Piera, Pisa, Salmone, Cytherus, Letrini, Arene, Aniger,
Cruni.

Achaia: - 116

Patras, Pharae, Well of Argyra, Well of ^gium, Mysaeum,
Cyros, Sybaris, Dirce, Cymothe.

Sicyonia: - - - - - - - - - - 123

Dripping Well (Dropping fountain.)

Corinthia: 126

Corinth (foreword), Peirene, Glauce, Well of Lerna, Bath
of Helen.

Megaris: 138

Fount of the Sithnides.

CENTRAL GREECE:

Attica: - - - - 140

Athens' Springs, Erechtheium Well, Callirrhoe, Halirrho-
thius, Semnae, Clepsydra, Pan and Apollo, Panopus, Calli-
chorus, Well of Flowers, Eridanus, Cephisia, Macaria,
Larine, Attic fountain.

Boeotia: - - - - 167

Thebes', Dirce, Ares', Strophie, Antiope, Well of CEdipus,
Aulis, Potniae, Hercyna, Tilphusa, Amphiaraus', Hysiae,-
Maenads', Well of Dirce, Fountain of Cithaeron, Platasa,
Gargaphia, Asopus, Cissusa, Lophis, Acidalia, Orcho-
menus, Arethusa, Epicrane, CEdipodia, Psamathe, Melas,
Cyrtones, Donacon, Thespiae, Libethrias and Petra, Aga-
nippe, Hippocrene, Other Helicon Springs.

Phocis: - - - - - 222

Phocis (foreword), Castalia, Cassotis, Coryrian cave's,
Crow's Spring, Cirrha, Hyampolis Well, Cephissu?, Pano-
peus, Stiris, Saunion Wei!.

^tolia: - - - - - 244

Callirrhoe, Orea, Hyrie, Phana, Mt. Taphiassus Spring.



SYNOPSIS xvii

Acarnania: 253

Crenae.

EastLocris: 254

Thermopylae, ^Eanis.

NORTHERN GREECE:
Epirus: - - 257

Achelous, Athamanis (Dodona), Lyncestis, Royal waters,
Chimerium.

Illyricum: - - - - - 265

Apollonia, Cephissus (see Phocis).

Thessaly: - - 266

Thessaly (foreword), Hypereia, Messeis, Cerona, Neleus,
Peneus, Titaresius, Dyras, Cranon, Pagasae, Inachus, Eury-
menas.

Macedonia: - 280

Pimplea, Baphyra, Fountain of Inna. JEa, Pella, Litae,
Nonacris.

Thrace: - - - 288

Well Libethra, Teams, Tritonian lake.



MAGNA GRiECIA

Bnittii,Iapygia, CEnotria: - - - - 293

Foreword, Fountain of Blood (Sybaris), Thuria, Medma,
Locria, Well Lyca, Leuca, Ela.



ASIA MINOR

Mysia: - - - 312

Caicus, Astyra, Royal fountain, Dascylum, Artacian foun-
tain, Cleite, Jason's, Perperena.

Bithynia: - - - - - 319

Pegae, Amycus, Azaritia, Pliny's Bithynian.



XV111



SYNOPSIS



Paphlagonia:

Paphlagonian fountain.

Pontus: -

Thermodon, Cainochorion, Apollonia, Phazemonitae.

Lydia: - - - - -

Niobe, Hypelaeus, Calippia, Smyrna, Claros, Pactolus,
Clazomenae.

Phrygia:

Marsyas', Rhyndacus, Cla3on, Gelon, Pipe fountain
(Maeander), Lycus, Midas' Well, Themisonium, Caruru
Boiling Springs, Hierapolis, Gallus, Dorylaeum, Menos-
come, Lion's village Spring, Sangarius, Arms of Briareus,
Fountain of Midas.

Cappadocia:

Asmabaean Well.

Caria:

Cnidus, Petrifying Spring, Labranda, Phausia, Salmacis,
Byblis, Branchidae, Achillean fountain, Mylasa.

Lycia: -

Mela, Dinus, Limyra, Myra, Cyaneae, Plane tree fountain.

Cilicia: - - - - -

Pikron Hydor, Py ramus, Cydnus.

Colchis: Fountains of Hephaestus.

GREEK ISLANDS

Ithaca: -

Arethusa, Penelope's Spring.

JEgina: - - - -

Psamathe.



SYNOPSIS xix

Euboea: - 391

Foreword, ^depsus, Hercules', Arethusa, Lelantum.

Tenedos: - - - 397

Tenedos.

Lesbos: - - 398

Lesbos (Sappho's Spring).

Cydonea: - 401

Cydonea.

Andros: 401

Andros (Dionysus').

Samos: - 403

Samian Spring, Gigartho, Leucothea.
Ceos: - 405

Carthea, Iulis, Cea.

Tenos: - 409

Tenos.

Delos: - - - - - - - - - - 410

Delos (Latona's).

Cos: 414

Burkina.

Nisyrus: - 416

Nisyrus.

Crete: - - - 417

Gortyna, Sauros, Ceres' Spring.

FOREIGN COUNTRIES

Africa: - - - 421

Foreword, Nigris, Serpent Spring, Sandhills' Springs, Augi-
la, Garamantes, Debris, Atarantes, Atlantes, Fountain of
the Sun, Flora's, Tacape, Cinyps, Tunis, Zama, Carthage,
Cyrene, Thestes, Ex pede Herculem.



xx SYNOPSIS

Egypt: - 447

Nile, Well of Syene, Blackthorn Spring, Memnon, Wells of
Apis, Pyramid Well, Marea, Cairo, Rhacotis, Pharos,
Bitter Springs, Tatnos.

Ethiopia: - - - - - 469

Fountain of Health, Liparis, Tisitia, Red fountain, Cucios.

Arabia: - 472

Arabia, iEnuscabales, Coralis, Daulotos, Dora, Arsinoe,
Red Sea Spring, Seven Wells, Petra.

Phoenicia, Palestine: - - - 47°

Joppa, Hiericus, Engadda, Callirrhoe, Jordan, Tiberias,
Aradus.

Mesopotamia: 4 8 °

Callirhoe, Chabura.

Armenia: - - - - - 488

Armenia, Euphrates, Tigris.

Assyria, Syria, Persia: 49 l

Thisbe's Spring, Babylonian naptha, Ardericca Well, Cas-
talian Spring (Daphne), Typhon, One Thousand Springs,
Dardes, Euleus, Bagistanus, Golden Water.

England: - - 501

Aquae Sulis.

France, Belgium: - - - - 502

Bormo, Aquas Calidae (Vichy), Orge, Aquas Convenarum,
Aquae Tarbellae (Aqs), Aquae Sextiae (Aix), Aquae Gratianaj
(Aix-les-Bains), Nemausus, Wound-cure Springs, Fons
Tungrorum (Spa).

Switzerland: - - - - 5*°

Rhone.

Spain: - 512

Tartessus, Pillars of Hercules, Tamaricus, Magnet-like
Springs, False Goldfish, Ilerda, Aquae Calidae, Ana.



SYNOPSIS xxi

Germany: - 521

Danube, Rhine, Paralysis, Mattiacum.

Russia, Scythia: 527

Exampaeus, Librosus, Lethe.

India: 531

Fountains of Calanus, Ganges.

EPIC POETS

Horner^ - - - - 537

Foreword, Meles, Fountains of Mt. Ida, Scamander,
Simois, Laestrygonia, Lotos-Land, Lachaea, Apollo's Isle,
Ogygia, Phseacia, Ithaca, Pharian Isle, Ithaca, Unnamed
Springs.

Virgil: 554

Foreword, Bucolics' Springs, Theocritus' Springs, Geor-
gics', Castalia, Peneus, Clitumnus, ^Eneid's, Arethusa,
Timavus, Eridanus, Xumicus, Silvia's Fawn Spring,
Libyan, Avernus, Cocytus Mire Spring, Lethe.

ITALY
Latium: 568

Rome, Bona Dea, Tarpeia, Ausonia, Faunus and Picus,
Egeria, Juturna, Mercury's, Apostles' Springs, St. Peter's,
St. Paul's, Virgin's Spring, Egeria (Aricia), Albunea, Fonte
Bello, Sinuessa, Pliny's Laurentian, Labanas, Golden
Water, Neptunian, Feronia, Ghost -Laying Springs.

Campania: - - 621

Baias, Posidian, Cicero's Water, Salmacis, Araxus, Acidula,
Well of Acerra, Fountain of Sarnus.

Apulia: - 628

Bandusia (Horace's Spring).

Calabria (see also Magna Graecia, page 293) : - - - 630

Brundusium,



xxii SYNOPSIS

Peligni: - 631

Martian, Ovid's Spring.

Sabini: - 634

Albula, Neminia, Cotyliae.

Etruria: 636

Pliny's Tuscan founts, Aquae Tauri, Pisa, Vetulonia, Caere-
tana, Feronia, Aquae Apollinares, Aquae Passeris, Clusian.

Umbria: - - - - - 646

Rubicon, Clitumnus.

Liguria: - - - - -*- 650

Eridanus, Aquae Statiellae, Padua, Aponian Springs.

Gallia Transpadana : - - 655

Pliny's Wonderful Spring.

Venetia: - - 658

Timavus, Monte Falcone.

ITALIAN ISLANDS

Sicily: - - - 66:

Enna, Cyane, Arethusa, Acis, Founts of the Palici, Agri-
gentum, Plinthia, Leontium, Temenitis, Archidemia, Ma-
gaea, Milichie, Anapus, Amenanus.

Sardinia: - - - - - 681

Aq. Lesitanae, Aq. Hypsitana?, Aq. Neapolitanas.



ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE

Neda; The Oldest Spring .... Frontispiece
Byblis Changing into a Spring . . . Opposite 365



xxm



SPRINGS AND WELLS



GREECE; PELOPONNESUS
ARCADIA

i
Neda; Hagno

Arcadia offers a most suitable starting point for a read-
ing ramble through southern Greece.

Circling over Mt. Cyllene, which is more than a mile
and a quarter high and lacks less than two hundred feet
of being the highest peak in the peninsula, one would see
the latter making its own map and describing the form of
a mulberry leaf, a shape that suggested the present name
of Morea and displaced the earlier one of Pelops' Isle
or Peloponnesus.

Arcadia has been called the Switzerland of the Pelo-
ponnesus of which it is the second largest country, having
a territory equal to a tract forty miles square, as against
Laconia's square of forty-three and a half miles.

The Arcadians claimed an antiquity greater than that
of the moon, a boast that becomes remarkably suggestive
when considered in connection with a theory of one of the
leading astronomers of the XXth century that the earth's
satellite was thrown off from the western part of North
America.

Among the Greeks the Arcadians were considered the
rudest of their countrymen, and their religious ceremo-
nies included human sacrifices down to the Macedonian
period.



4 GREECE; PELOPONNESUS

supplied himself with nothing more than a hazel twig, is
fully equipped to locate the spot that shall, on digging or
boring, produce the needed water, after, as of yore, a
certain sacrifice having a pecuniary value has been made
by the landowner.

Near the Spring of Hagno were two very notable
groves, in one of which, the sacred Grove of Despcena,
were specimens of grafting, far antedating and out-
wizarding the works of Burbank, that showed trees of
different kinds, such as the oak and the olive, growing
from the same root. In the other grove, that flourished
long before the days of " Peter Schlemihl," men and
beasts cast no shadows at any season of the year, al-
though, as it was understood that any man who entered
this grove would not live more than a year, it is per-
haps not very surprising that in those days of rampant
superstition no men's shadows were ever seen in the
enclosure.

This ancient wonder was itself only an improvement on
the account of a similarly shadowless forest, of Syene in
Ethiopia, in which animals and trees cast no reflections,
during that part of the year when the sun was in Cancer.
(See No. 324.)

Perhaps it was somewhere among these scenes of the
genesis of Jove that he afterwards had made that wonder-
ful creation of the Grecian mind — the first woman; for
Mt. Lycseus was known also as Mt. Olympus, and it was
the Olympian body collectively that under Jove's com-
mand produced the composite creation Pandora. The
account is more elaborate than the Mosaic relation, and
it is only a coincidence that Eden read backwards sug-
gests the name of Neda.

Jove having given his instructions, the Olympians
began their composite labor; Vulcan, mixing earth with



ARCADIA 5

water, "fashioned one like unto a modest, fair and lovely
maiden: Venus endowed her head with grace: Minerva
girdled and arrayed her ; and around her skin the Goddess
Graces and august Persuasion hung golden chains. The
fair tressed hours crowned her about with flowers of
spring ; and Pallas adapted every ornament to her person.

" But Mercury endowed her with a shameless mind, and
in her breast wrought falsehoods and wily speeches, and
tricksy manners, and a winning voice. And all bestowed
on her a mischief to inventive men, to whom she was
given that they might delight themselves at heart and hug
their own evil, and against which all man's arts are vain."

And perhaps if the Spring of Hagno could have spoken
when she first looked in its mirror she would have heard,
like Eve at Eden's Spring, "What there thou seest, fair
creature, is thyself."

This Spring produces an impetuous river, now called
Buzi, which during its journey to the west performs much
important and delicate w T ork in defining the boundary
lines of three countries; first adjusting the borders of
Arcadia and Messenia, and then outlining the strip that
separates Messenia from Elis at whose southern extrem-
ity it passes into the Ionian Sea.

Callimachus; Hymn to Jupiter. Pausanias; VIII. 38.



2

Arne

Some ten stadia beyond the plain of Argum and near
the highroad was another plain in which was the fountain
of Arne, Lamb Fountain. It is second in interest only
to the Spring of Neda, for Poseidon, the brother of Zeus,
was reared at this fountain and fed with the lambs of the



6 GREECE; PELOPONNESUS

flocks it watered, when his mother Rhea had deceived
Cronus in order to prevent him from eating the baby



Online LibraryJames Reuel SmithSprings and wells in Greek and Roman literature, their legends and locations → online text (page 1 of 46)