James Talboys Wheeler.

An analysis and summary of Old Testament history and the laws of Moses, with a connection between the Old and New Testaments (1852) online

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ANALYSIS AND SUMMARY



OLD TESTAMENT HISTORY



AND THE LAWS OF MOSES.



BY THE SAME AUTHOR.



Analysis and Summary of Thueydides ; with a Chronological Table of
Principal Events; Money, Distances, etc., reduced to English Terms;
a Skeleton Outline of the Geography ; Abstracts of all the Speeches,
etc. Post 8vo, extra cloth, Is. 6d.

" A perfect messenger from the gods to gentlemen ' cramming ' for their examina-
tions, but capable of being used, and that with great advantage, by students of a higher
class. It is clear, correct, complete ; a full summary of all the aid needed in the study
of the historian to whom it refers." — Eclectic Review.

■'This 'Analysis' has been prepared with much care and judgment; and while
adapted to be useful to every student of the Greek historian, is so constructed as to
furnish especial assistance to those who are preparing for a University examination." —
British Quarterly Review.

Analysis and Summary of Herodotus ; with a Synchronistical Table of
Principal Events ; Tables of Weights, Measures, Money, and Dis-
tances ; an Outline of the History and Geography ; and the Dates
completed from Gaisford, Baehr, etc. Post 8vo, extra cloth, bs. 6d.

" I have been much pleased with the plan of your Analysis and Summary of Herod
otus, and think that it will prove useful to the classical student." — Dr. Wm. Smith,
Editor of the Dictionaries of Greek and Roman Antiquities, Greek and Roman Bio-
graphy, etc.

" The object of this clear and pains-taking digest of the History of Herodotus is to
assist the student in ' getting up ' that author for examination, after a careful reading
of the text. It contains a summary of the important events recorded in the work in the
order in which they are written, but the sections or paragraphs being numbered, the
student, by means of a reference, is able to pass the digressions of Herodotus, and pur-
sue the narrative of any subject continuously, if he pleases. Illustrative tables of
various kinds are added, rendering the work an excellent companion to the study of
Herodotus. It furnishes as useful a coup d" ceil of history to any one beginning its
perusal, as does the analysis and summary for the purpose intended by the author." —
Spectator.

Analysis and Summary of New Testament History ; with Critical, His-
torical, and Geographical Notes ; and Chronological Tables of Jewish
History under the Tetrarchs and Procurators. Post 8vo., 5s. 6d,

Prepar biff for Publication,

Geography of Herodotus analyzed and arranged; illustrated by a di-
gested Commentary, compiled from the Researches of Rennell, Niebuhr,
Bredow, Heeren, Baehr, Forbiger, etc. ; and the works of Layard and
other modern Travellers. Small folio, with Ten Maps.



AN



ANALYSIS AND SUMMARY



OLD TESTAMENT HISTOBY



AND THE LAWS OF MOSES.



CONNEXION BETWEEN THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS.

BY

J. TALBOYS WHEELER,

AUTHOR OF "AN ANALYSIS AND SUMMARY OF HERODOTUS," AND "AN ANALYSIS
AND SUMMARY OF THUCYDIDES," ETC.

Third Edition, Eevised and Improved.




OXFORD: J. L. WHEELER.

CAMBRIDGE : J. TALBOYS WHEELER.

LONDON : SAMUEL BAGSTER AND SONS

AND ALL BOOKSELLERS.

MDCCCLI1.



JOHN CKJLDS AND SON, BUNGAY



CONTENTS.



PAGE

Preface ... . . . v

Introductory Outline of the History and Geography of

the Countries noticed in the Old Testament . ix

Outline of the Critical History of the Old Testament xxiv

Jewish Months ....... xxx

Chronological Table ..... xxxi



THE PENTATEUCH, or Five Books of Moses . . i

Genesis — Patriarchal history from the birth of Adam till the

death of Joseph, b. c. 4004 to 1635— about 2369 years 1

I. History of the world prior to Abraham

II. Lives of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph . 10

Exodus — History of the Jews as a, nomad family, from the
death of Joseph until the building of the Tabernacle and
consecration of the priesthood, b. c. 1635 to 1490— about
145 years ....... 34

I. History of the Exode from Egypt, the journey to Sinai, and de-
livery of the Law .... - 36

II. The Moral and Civil Law .... 46
Jewish Constitution . . . . .53

III. The Ceremonial Law, viz. 1. The Tabernacle . • 56



As complete analytical contents and tables will be found at the beginning of each
book, and a comprehensive index at the end of the volume, it is presumed that the
present condensed contents will be found sufficient for reference.

a



CONTENTS.



I. and II. Samuel, and I. and II. Kings — History of the
Jews under a monarchy, b. c. 1095 to 588— about 508
years .......



PAGE



Leviticus — History of the Levitical priesthood, sacrifices, etc.
b. c. 1490 — about one month, viz. from the building of the
Tabernacle to the numbering of the people . . .62

The Ceremonial Law continued from Exodus, viz.

2. Priests, Levites, and Nethinim . . . .63

3. Sacrifices, oblations, and meat and drink offerings . 67

4. Annual feasts and festivals ; Sabbatical year and Jubilee . 75

5. Vows ...... 80

6. Purifications ...... 83

Numbers— History of the Israelites from the delivering of the
Law at Sinai to the conquest of the country east of the
Jordan, b. c. 1490 to 1451 — about 38 years and 9 or 10
months ....... 87

I. Wanderings in the wilderness 8S

II. Conquest of the country east of the Jordan . 92

Deuteronomy — Repetition and confirmation of the Law. b. c.

1451— about 2 months ... .97

The last acts of Moses ..... 98

Canaan prior to its conquest by the Israelites . . 100



THE TWELVE HISTORICAL BOOKS :

Joshua — History of the conquest of Canaan and settlement in
the country under Joshua, b. c. 1451 to 1426 — about 25
years .......



103



I. Conquest of Canaan . . . . .104

II. Settlement in Canaan .... 108

Judges— History of the Jews as a federative Republic, b. c.

1425 to 1095— about 330 years . . . .112

I. Period prior to the Judges . . . .114

II. The 7 Servitudes, or Tyrannies, and the 15 Judgeships . 116

(This period includes the first 10 chapters in 1 Samuel.)

Ruth — An episode in the history of the Judges— about b. c.

1320 129



130



I. History of the single monarchy . . . .137

Saul ...... 137

David ...... 147

Solomon ...... 160

Prefatory Review of the History of the divided Monarchies . 168



CONTENTS. in

PAGE

II. History of the divided Monarchies of Judah and Israel . 170

1st Period— from the Revolt of the Ten Tribes until Jehu de-
stroyed the dynasty of Ahab in Israel, and slew Ahaziah in
Judah ...... 170

2nd Period — from the simultaneous accession of Jehu in Israel
and usurpation of Athaliah in Judah, until Israel was carried
away captive by the Assyrian power . . .185

3rd Period — from the Assyrian Captivity of Israel until the Ba-
bylonian Captivity of Judah . . . .195
History of Assyria ..... 209

I. and II. Chronicles — b. c. 4004 to 536 — about 3468 years 209

History of the Chaldee-Babylonian empire during the seventy
years' Captivity, forming a Connexion between the II. Kings
and II. Chronicles and the Book of Ezra. b. c. 606 to 536 211

Ezra — History of the edict of Cyrus and first return from
captivity under Zerubbabel, and the governorship of Ezra.
b. c. 536 to 445— about 90 years . . . .216

Nehemiah — History of the government of Nehemiah. b. c

445 to 420— about 25 years . . . . .225

Esther — an episode. About b. c. 461 to 451 . . 227

Chronology of the kings of Media and Persia, with their names

as given in Scripture and in Profane History . . 229



THE FIVE POETICAL BOOKS:

Job . . . . . . . .230

Psalms ....... 234

Proverbs ....... 236

Ecclesiastes ...... 236

Solomon's Song ...... 237

THE SIXTEEN PROPHETICAL BOOKS :

The Four Greater Prophets :

1. Isaiah 240

2. Jeremiah (Prophecies and Lamentations) . . 243

3. Ezekiel 244

4. Daniel ...... 245

The Twelve Minor Prophets: viz. 1. Hosea. 2. Joel.
3. Amos. 4. Obadiah. 5. Jonah. 6. Micah. 7. Nahum.
8. Habakkuk. 9. Zephaniah. 10. Haggai. 11. Zecha-
riah. 12. Malachi ...... 251

a 2



iv CONTENTS.

PAGE

PRINCIPAL PROPHECIES, INTIMATIONS, AND TYPES

OF THE MESSIAH IN THE OLD TESTAMENT . 256

CONNEXION BETWEEN THE OLD AND NEW TESTA-
MENTS, including the History of the Jews from the adminis-
tration of Nehemiah to the birth of Jesus Christ . . 261

I. Jewish History from Nehemiah to the Revolt under the Mac-

cabees ... ... 263

II. History of the Maccabees, or Asamonean Princes . . 272

III. History of the Jews under the Herodians to the commence-
ment of the New Testament History . . . 295

Jewish Sects ...... 304

THE FOURTEEN APOCRYPHAL BOOKS :

I. Esdras; II. Esdras; Tobit ; Judith; rest of the chapters
of the Book of Esther ; Wisdom of Solomon ; Ecclesiasti-
cus, or Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach ; Book of Ba-
ruch ; Song of the Three Children ; History of Susanna ;
Bel and the Dragon; Prayer of Manasses ; I. and II.
Maccabees . . • 306

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS : including the Cambridge Ex-
amination Papers for various years in chronological order . 309

INDEX of names, places, etc. ..... 325



v * ; ^




PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.



The success which attended the publication of an
" Analysis and Summary of Herodotus," has induced
the author to compile an " Analysis and Summary of
Old Testament History" on a similar plan. According-
ly the present work contains an Analytical Summary of
all the most important events recorded in the Old Testa-
ment Scriptures, arranged in chronological order, but
retaining the canonical division into Books. Each Book
of this Summary is separated into divisions, excepting
where one Book contains merely a repetition of the
history of a preceding one ; and each of these divisions
is again subdivided into paragraphs, all of which have
the Contents appended in a peculiar type. These Con-
tents are also thrown together and reprinted at the
beginning of each Book ; full references are also given
at the end of each paragraph to the chapters or verses in
the Bible, in which the original facts are recorded.

By means of these Analytical Contents, the Biblical
student can at once see the exact scope and subject
matter of every Book ; and by reading the Summary he
will easily call back a multitude of facts and events, the
relation of which frequently spreads through several






VI PREFACE.

chapters in the original ; whilst the references will at
once enable him to obtain from his Bible a more ex-
tended account of any particular period of the History
which he may require.

In carrying out this general design every opportunity
has been seized for explaining or illustrating any ob-
scure part of Jewish History, and particularly those
portions which are more frequently the subjects of
College Examinations. The authorized Chronology of
our Marginal Reference Bibles, which is based upon
that of Archbishop Usher, is added to every page ;
the History of the divided Monarchies of Judah and
Israel is printed in parallel columns; the Scriptural
and Profane names of the Kings of Media and Persia
are given at page 229 ; a Chronological Table of
the Prophets at page 240 ; a Table of the Principal
Prophecies, Intimations, and Types of the Messiah, at
page 265 ; Examination Questions, including the Cam-
bridge Examination Papers in Old Testament History
for various years, in chronological order, at page 309 ;
and a complete Index of Names, Places, &c. at the end
of the Volume. To these are added an Introductory
Outline of the Geography, Political History, &c. of
every Country mentioned in the Old Testament, and an
Outline of the Critical History of the Scriptures ; to-
gether with Chronological Tables. Moreover, in order
to complete the Book as an Analysis of Jewish History,
two connecting Chapters have been inserted. I. A
History of the Chaldee-Babylonian Empire during the
Seventy Years' Captivity, which forms a connexion be-
tween 2 Kings and 2 Chronicles and the Book of Ezra.
II. Jewish History from the Governorship of Nehe-
miah to the taking of Jerusalem by Titus, which forms



PREFACE. vii

a connexion between the Old and the New Testament.
A Comprehensive Analysis of the Mosaic Laws and
Ordinances has also been included. The Moral and
Civil Law is classified under each Commandment, both
for the convenience of reference, and because by such
arrangement they are made to form a very useful and
practical commentary upon the Decalogue. This Classi-
fication is based upon a Harmony of the Mosaic Law,
taken from a Manuscript presented to St. John's Col-
lege, by Archbishop Laud, and reprinted in Home's
Introduction, and other similar works. The Ceremonial
Law has been chiefly arranged according to the classifi-
cation of Michaelis.

In conclusion, the Author must acknowledge his many
obligations to the following works : to the valuable In-
troduction to the Study of the Holy Scriptures, by the
Rev. T. H. Home ; the Historical Researches and
Manual of Ancient History, by Professor Heeren, of the
University of Gottingen ; the Commentaries of Patrick,
Lowth, Whitby, etc. ; the Oxford Chronological Tables,
published by the lamented Mr. D. A. Talboys ; and the
Works of Dean Prideaux, Jahn, Calmet, Michaelis,
Tomline, Bp. Home, etc. etc.

J. T. W.

Cambridge,
Jan. 20, 1850.



PREFACE.



TO THE SECOND EDITION.

In preparing a new edition of the present work for
the press, the author has found it necessary to re-write
a large portion, and thoroughly revise and re-digest the
whole. A number of foot-notes have also been added to
assist the general reader ; fresh Analytical Tables and
Examination Questions have been inserted ; the Scrip-
ture weights, money, length, etc., have been reduced
into corresponding English terms ; every section has
been numbered for the convenience of reference ; and
numerous other improvements have been adopted.



TO THE THIRD EDITION.

In issuing a third edition of the present work, the
author cannot but express his satisfaction at the rapid
sale which has exhausted a large impression within a
few months. He has now made only a few verbal cor-
rections, and added some hexameter lines of Memoria
Technica, which it is hoped will assist the student in
bearing in mind the more important dates. Two large
maps have also been engraved, one of " The Countries
mentioned in the Old Testament," and the other of
" Canaan according to its Ancient Divisions," which
may be had with the present work, or separately, as
mav be desired.



INTRODUCTORY OUTLINE



I. THE HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY OF THE COUNTRIES
NOTICED IN THE OLD TESTAMENT.

II. THE CRITICAL HISTORY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT,



I. THE HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY



ANALYSIS.
The "World" of the Old Testament— in four divisions ; viz.
I. Egypt.

Boundaries and divisions. — Political history. — Religion.— Commerce and manu-
factures.

II. Countries between the Mediterranean and the Euphrates.

1st, Asia Minor— in 12 provinces.

2nd, Syria Proper.— Geography.— Political history.

3rd, Phoenicia. — Geography. — Political history. — Colonies. — Sea trade. — Land
trade. — Home manufactures.

4th, Arabia. — Geography. — Political history. — Divisions : Moabites, Ammonites,
and Edomites.

5th, Palestine. — Geography: divisions, viz. 1st, Into 12 tribes; 2nd, Into a single
monarchy ; 3rd, Into two monarchies of Judah and Israel ; 4th, Into five districts. —
The Philistines.— Political history: 1. The nomad state, 1921-1426 ; 2. The federative
republic, 1426-1095 ; 3. Tne single monarchy, 1095-975 ; 4. The divided monarchy of
Judah and Israel, 975-588 ; 5. The province and principality, b. c. 588 to a. d. 70. —
Productions. — Commerce.

III. Countries between the Euphrates and the Tigris.

1st, Mesopotamia, or Aram, or Padan-aram.

2nd, Armenia — containing the garden of Eden.

3rd, Babylonia, or the land of Shinar.— Geography. — Political history.— Com-



INTRODUCTORY OUTLINE.



IV. Countries between the Tigris and Indus.

Eleven provinces, sometimes forming one empire. — Character of the great Asiatic
empires. — Ruling empires of south-western Asia : viz.

1st, Assyria. — Geography of Assyria Proper. — Political history.

2nd, Media. — Geography. — Political history.

3rd, Persia. — Geography. — Political history.— Religion.



SUMMARY.



The "World" of the Old Testament.— The nations whose his-
tory is noticed in the Old Testament, lay between the 40th de-
gree north lat. and the Equator, and were included in the
tracts of south-western Asia and the territory of Egypt.* The
" World " of Old Testament history was therefore bounded, on
the east by the rivers Oxus and Indus ; on the south by the In-
dian Ocean; on the west by the Libyan desert (Zahara) ; and
on the north by the Caspian and Euxine Seas, with the inter-
vening range of Caucasus, whose lofty summits were never
crossed by any Asiatic conqueror before Ginghis Khan.

This region may be divided into four tracts: viz. 1. Egypt.
2. Countries between the Euphrates and the Mediterranean and
Red Seas. 3. Those between the Euphrates and the Tigris. 4.
Those between the Tigris and the Indus.

I. Egypt : Boundaries. — Egypt is redeemed from the surround-
ing desert by the waters of the Nile, and is bounded on the
north by the Mediterranean; on the east by the Red Sea; on
the south by the Nubian desert and Ethiopia; and on the west
by the Libyan desert.

Divisions. — 1st, Upper or Southern Egypt, or Thebais, extending
from Syene to Chemmis ; crowded with temples, palaces, tombs,
huge obelisks, colossi, sphinxes, etc. Capital : Thebes.

2nd, Central Egypt, from Chemmis to Cercasorus; divided into
7 nomoi or governments ; contained the pyramids of Gizeh and
Lake Mceris. Capital : Memphis.

3rd, Lower or Northern Egypt, comprising the Delta and land
on both sides. Full of cities, of which Sais was the most re-

* Some allusions are made to the " isles of the sea," which included the islands
and coasts of the Mediterranean (Isa. xi. 11 ; Ezek. xvii. 3, etc.) ; also to " Ja-
van," or " Greece" (Isa. lxvi. 19, etc) ; and to " Tarshish," or " Tartessus," a
Tyrian colony on the southern coast of Spain (Isa. xxiii., etc.). India is twice
mentioned in the Book of Esther, but must have been unknown to the Jews.



INTRODUCTORY OUTLINE. xi

markable ; but subsequently Alexandria became the capital,
and the first trading city in the world.

Political History. — Egypt was governed by a monarchy and 4
sacerdotal aristocracy.

1. The Pharaohs. — 1st dynasty — Menes and his successors.
2nd dynasty— Shepherd kings, who were Bedouin Arabs, and
termed Hyksos. 3rd dynasty — Sesostris the Great to the over-
throw of the oligarchy of 12 princes, about b. c. 650; Shishak
(probably Cephrines) invaded Judah in the reign of Rehoboam,
b. c. 972 (sect. 375). 4th dynasty — Psammetichus, sole king to
the conquest of Egypt by Cambyses, b. c. 650—525 : Pharaoh-
Necho, who defeated Josiah, (sect. 528,) and Pharaoh-Hophra,
or Apries, who tried to assist Zedekiah, (sect. 548,) belonged
to this time.

2. The Persia?is, 525—323. — Egypt was conquered by Cam-
byses, and was a Persian province, though frequently revolting,
until the overthrow of the empire by Alexander the Great, who
died b. c. 323.

3. The Ptolemies, 323 — 30.— Ptolemy Lagus, first governor
and afterwards king of Egypt, which remained an independent
monarchy until the death of Cleopatra, b. c. 30, when it became
a Roman province.

Religion. — Animal idolatry ; but different animals were sacred 5
in different districts, except Apis, who was the national god of
all Egypt.

Commerce, Manufactures, etc. — Imports. Gold, ivory, and slaves 6
from Ethiopia ; incense from Arabia ; wine from Greece and
Phoenicia; salt from the African desert.

Exports. Corn, linen, and cotton. The Egyptians did not
themselves export these wares : the African caravans were
chiefly composed of nomad hordes.

Manufactures. Weaving, dyeing, working in metal and pot-
tery.

Productions. The byblus, from which the papyrus was pre-
pared; the lotus; flax ; various kinds of grain, pulse, etc : no
lofty trees but the date and sycamore.

II. Countries between the Mediterranean and the Euphrates. — 7
These comprise, 1st, Asia Minor, 2nd, Syria Proper, 3rd, Phoe-
nicia, 4th, Arabia, and 5th, Palestine.

1st, Asia Minor, anciently consisted of 12 provinces, which 8
are mentioned only in the New Testament ; viz. Bithynia, Paph-
lagonia, Pontus, Mysia, Lydia, Caria, Lycia, Pisidia and Pam-



Xll INTRODUCTORY OUTLINE.

phylia, Cilicia, Phrygia and Lycaonia, Galatia, and Cappa-
docia.
9 2nd, Syria Proper: Geography.— Syria, or Aram, in its widest
signification, included not only all the countries between the
Mediterranean and the Euphrates, but also those between the
Euphrates and the Tigris, and even Assyria Proper, and was
thus the first habitation of mankind after the deluge, and in-
cluded the birth-place of Abraham, and probably the garden of
Eden. Syria Proper was, however, bounded on the east by
the Euphrates, west by the Mediterranean, north by Cilicia,
and south by Phoenicia, Palestine, and Arabia Deserta. Cities :
Damascus, Antioch, Riblah, Helbon, Hamath, Seleucia, Tad-
mor or Palmyra, Baal-Gad or Heliopolis, now Baalbek, and
Tiphsah or Thapsacus. Rivers : Abana, Pharpar, and Orontes.

10 Political History. — 1. Independent states, ante 1040. — Syria
Proper was divided into cantons, such as Zobah, Damascus,
Hamath, Geshur, Rehob, Ishtob, Maachah, etc. ; and these were
governed by petty kings.

2. A Jewish province, cir. 1040 — 975. — David reduced Syria to
a Jewish province, but in Solomon's reign Rezon seized Damas-
cus, and erected a kingdom.

3. Kingdom of Damascus, 975 — 740. — The kingdom of Damas-
cus now comprised the greater portion of Syria ; the kings of
the other cities became tributary, and it soon became a flourish-
ing monarchy, and extended its boundaries chiefly at the ex-
pense of the divided monarchies of Judah and Israel (see sect.
491) ; but it was at length overthrown by the Assyrian con-
queror, Tiglath-pileser.

4. A dependent state, 740—64. — Syria was successively in sub-
jection to Assyria, Babylonia, and Persia, and was at length
reduced by Alexander the Great ; but after his death, b. c. 323,
it formed part of the kingdom of Syria, which extended from
the Mediterranean to the Indus, and was governed by the Se-
leucidee until b. c. 64, when it became a Roman province.

1 1 3rd, Phoenicia : Geography. — Phoenicia was a mountainous tract
extending along the shore between Syria Proper and the Me-
diterranean. Cities : Tyre, built first on the mainland, after-
wards on an island ; Sidon, Byblus, Berytus, Tripolis, and
Aradus. Mountains : Lebanon, consisting of two parallel
ridges, Libanus and Anti-Libanus, which extended from Sidon
to Damascus, and enclosed the fertile vale of Coele-Syria, now
Baalbec



INTRODUCTORY OUTLINE. Xlll

Political History. — Consisted of several cities and their territo- 12
ries under separate governments, of which Tyre was the head.

1 . Tynan kings, cir. 1050 — 586. — This line of kings, extracted
by Josephus from Menander, commence with Abical, the con-
temporary of David, and conclude with the sacking of Tyre by
Nebuchadnezzar. Hiram, successor of Abical, allied with Da-
vid and Solomon. Three remarkable females belonged to this
line : Jezebel, daughter of EWibaal L, and wife of A hab— pa-
ganized Israel ; Athaliah, daughter of Jezebel and Ahab —
usurped Judah; Dido, sister of Pygmalion— founded Carthage.

2. Tributary to Persia, 586 — 332.— New Tyre was afterwards
founded, with tributary kings under the Persian rule, but was
taken by Alexander the Great, b. c. 332.

3. Decline.— Phoenicia was now ruined and its trade transfer-
red to Alexandria. It often changed its Syro-Grecian and
Egypto-Grecian masters, and at length fell into the hands of
the Romans.

Colonies. — The Phoenicians were originally pirates, and anci- 13
ently possessed many islands in the Archipelago, but were ex-
pelled by the Greeks. They subsequently formed settlements
on the south of Spain — Tartessus, Gades, Carteia ; on the north
coast of Africa— Utica, Carthage, Adrumentum ; on the north-
western coast of Sicily— Panormus and Lilybaeum ; and also
probably settled in the Persian Gulf, on the islands of Tylos



Online LibraryJames Talboys WheelerAn analysis and summary of Old Testament history and the laws of Moses, with a connection between the Old and New Testaments (1852) → online text (page 1 of 36)