James Wayland Joyce.

England's sacred synods : a constitutional history of the convocations of the clergy, from the earliest records of Christianity in Britain to the date of the promulgation of the present Book of common prayer; including a list of all councils, ecclesiastical as well as civil, held in England, in whic online

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Online LibraryJames Wayland JoyceEngland's sacred synods : a constitutional history of the convocations of the clergy, from the earliest records of Christianity in Britain to the date of the promulgation of the present Book of common prayer; including a list of all councils, ecclesiastical as well as civil, held in England, in whic → online text (page 14 of 83)
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Oswy


Soames, 72. Collier,


See Spelm.






Cedda




i. 222. ConcM. B.
i. .37. Hody, 21


Cone. i. loO,
and Cone. M.
B. i. 37, note.


673


Hertford


Theodore


Lotharlus


Spelm. Cone. i. 152. National Synod.










Soames, 80. Cone.












M. B. i. 41. Hody,




1






22. Johnson's Ca-










nons, i. 88




680 1 Hatfield

1


Theodore


Lotharius, Eg-
frid, Ethelred,


Spelm. Cone. i. 168.
Hody, 24. Conc.M.


National Synod.




1 Aldwulf


B.i. 51. Soames, 83


680 INorthumbria . . .


Eata of Lindis-lEgfrid


Hody, 28. Coll. i.24f;. Mixed Council.






fame




Cone. M. B. i. 55





[685 Twiford,



126



ANGLO-SAXON SYNODS AND COUNCILS.



[chap.



A.D. 601
803-4.



place during the period now before us is appended in accordance
with the plan laid down in the previous chapter ; but such of
their circumstances and acts are alone dwelt upon, as seem
necessary for the proper elucidation of the present subject.
,, ,, . , It is desirable again to remind the reader

II. Necessity of . ° • i p

distinguishing at that dunng the present period of our history,



LIST OF ANGLO-SAXON SYNODS AND COUNCILS, A.D. 601—803-4 {continued).


Date

A.D.


Place.


Archbishop or
Bishop.


King. 1 Reference.


Nature of
Assembly.


685


Twiford, by river Theodore


Egfrid Hody, 27. Cone. M.


National Synod.




Alne 1


B. i. 55




686


Bregforde Theodore


Ethelred Hody, 28


Uncertain.


692


Bapchild, near Berthwald ....


Withred Spelm. Cone. i. 189.


Mixed Council.




Sittingbourne






Hody, 30. Soames,
91. Coll. i. 267.
Johnson, i. 125.










Cone. M. B. i. 50




693


Laws of Ina, king of West Saxons, made about this Spelm. Cone. i. 182.
time, by which Church and State became more Hody, 33.
nearly connected ; those laws embracing both eccle-
siastical and civil matters




696


Brasted, near


Berthwald


Withred Spelm. Cone. i. 1!I4.


Mixed Council.




Sevenoaka






Soames, 91. Hody,
31. Cone. M. B. i.
60. Coll. i. 271.
Johnson, i. 139




700


Uncertain


Berthwald


Hody, 40


Mixed CouncU.


701


Osterfield


Berthwald


Alfrid, K. of Spelm. Cone. i. 200.

Northumbrians Hody, 32. Cone.

M. B. i. 64. Coll. i.

273. Lathbury, 41


National Synod.


705


Mercia, at or


Berthwald


Withred Spelm. Cone. i. 199.

\ Cone. M. B. i. 66


Synod.




near Malmes-








bury




!




705


By the river
Nidde.inNorth-
umbria


Berthwald


Osred Spelm. Cone. i. 203.

Hody, 35 et seq.
Cone. M. B. i. 67


Mixed Council.


705 Adderbourn, by


Berthwald


Withred Cone. M. B. i. 68.


Synod.


1 river Noddr




1 Hody, 34




707


Uncertain


Berthwald


Ina, K. of West Spelm. Cone. i. 208.
Saxons j Cone. M. B. i. 70


Synod.


Unc.


Uncertain


Berthwald


Ina, K. of West Cone. M. B. i. 70 . .


Synod.








Sa.\ons








Here are omitted the Councils of Alne and London,


Hody, .37. Coll. i. 286.






for reasons which may be seen in


Lathbury, 42.




712


Uncertain ....


Berthwald ....


Ina, K. of West
Saxons


ConcM. B. i. 74 ..


Mixed Council.


738


Worcester ....


Nothelm


Ethelbert II. . .


Hody, 38. Cone.
IM. B. i. 86


Provinc. Synod.


742


* Cliff at Hoo,
near Rochester


Cuthbert


Ethclbald, K. of.Spel. Cone. i. 230
Mercians | Cone. M. B. i. I'.G


Mixed Council.










[747


Cliff at Hoo,



• Johnson thinks that Cloveshoo signifies Abingdon. Warner and Spelman consider it to
mean Cliff at Hoo. See Soames Anglo-Saxon Church, p. 113.



VI.]



ANGLO-SAXON SYNODS AND COUNCILS.



127



this period be- as Well as during the last, ecclesiastical and
"^sym)d"^ ^and civil matters were frequently treated of at the
"council. same places and upon the same occasions. Such

was the common practice during the period in which the assem-
blies here recounted were held. Not indeed that the laity gave
conclusive voices in the definition of doctrine or the decision



A.D. 601-
803-4.



LIST OF ANGLO-SAXON SYNODS AND COUNCILS, A.D. 601 — 803-4 (continued).



747

756
785
785

788

788

793

793
794

794
796

798-9
798

798



Cliff at Hoo, near
Rochester



Uncertain . . . ,
Northumbria .



Challock,nr.Cha-
ring ; or Chalk
near Gravesend



Finkeley, in Dur-
ham Diocese

Acle, in Durham
Diocese

S. Alban's . .



Cuthbert



Archbishop or
Bishop.



Cuthbert

Eanbald of York
Lambert



King.



Ethelbald, K. of
Mercians



Ethelbert II.
Alfwold ....
Offa



S. Alban's

Challock.nr.Cha
ring ; or Chalk,
near Gravesend

S. Alban's

Bapchild, near
Sittingbourne

Finkele)', in Dur-
ham Diocese

Cliff at Hoo, near
Rochester

Bapchild, near
Sittingbourne

Cliff at Hoo, near
Rochester

Cliff at Hoo, near
Rochester



Eanbald of York



Eanbald of York



Humbert of Lich
field

Humbert of Lich-
field
Fifteen Bishops



Elfuvaldus, who
died soon after



Offa
Offa



Offa and his son
and seven Kings



Athelard . . .

Athelard . . .
Eanbald of York

Athelard . , .

Athelard . . .

Athelard . . .

Athelard . . .



Offa



Cuthred,

Saxons



i. 242.

Cone,
Coll. i,



Spelm. Cone,

Hody, 38.

M. B. i. 94.

303. 307
Spelm. Cone. i. 289

Hody, 40.

M. B. i. 144
Spelm. Cone.

Cone. M. B.

and note
Spelm. Cone.

Hody, 41-2.

M. B. i. 145, note

Soames, 11 7. Coll

i. 321



Cone



291

145;



i. 291
Cone



Spelm. Cone. i.

Hody, 43.

M. B. i. 153
Spelm. Cone.

Hody, 43.

M. B. i. 153
Spelm. Cone.

Hody, 43.

M. B. i. 154
Cone. M. B. i.

Spelm. Cone.
Cone. M. B. i



304-5.
Cone



Cone.



i. 309

Cone.



Cuthred,
Saxons



Kenulf . . .
Kenulf . . .
Egbert II.



Spelm. Cone.

Cone. M. B.
of Cone. M. B.

and note
Spelm. Cone.

Cone. M. B.
of Spelm. Cone.

Hody, 45.

M. B. i. 161,
Spelm. Cone.

Hody, 44.

M. B. i. 162
Spelm. Cone.

Hody, 45.

M. B. i. 162
Spelm. Cone.

Hody, 51-2.

M. B. i. 166



155,

i. 313.
. 157

i. 314
i. 157
i. 158

i. 316
i. 161
i. 316

Cone
& note
i. 317

Cone

i. 318

Cone

i. 324

Cone,



Nature of
Assembly.



Mixed Council.



National Synod.



Two Provincial
Mixed Coun-
cils. Gregory
of Ostia and
Theophylact
appeared as
legates from
Pope Adrian : a
bad precedent.

Provinc. Synod.



Synod.
Provinc. Synod,



Provincial Mix-
ed Council.
Mixed Council.



Mixed Council.

Provinc. Synod.

Provincial Mix-
ed Council.
Uncertain.



Provincial Mix-
ed Council.

Provincial Mix-
ed Council.

Provinc. Synod.



128



ANGLO-SAXON SYNODS AXD COUNCILS.



[chap.



A.D. 601 —
803-4.

» Kennctt's
Eccl. Syn.
p. 21.5.

•• Kennett's
Eccl. Syn.
}). 249.
Wake's
Ami), of
Christian
Princes, pp.
158 et seq.



f Spelm.
Cone. vol.
p. 529.



<! Ibid.



of matters purely spiritual ; but they were in the habit * of
adding legal force to such conclusions as were arrived at by
the clergy on those subjects, when the civil authority deemed
them desirable to be enforced by public sanctions. But
though the laity did not join in the definition^ of doctrinal
matters, yet the clergy were always called in to treat of civil
matters, and to add the weight of their authority in the
enactment of secular laws. For these reasons it is not
always easy during this period to discover at first sight
a marked and specific difference between the ecclesiastical
and civil assemblies, nor to determine at once whether to
any given assembly the term "synod" or "counciP"' should
be applied. The negligence of writers in not marking
this diflFerence with sufficient distinctness has given rise to
much misapprehension. "Mixed councils" have been repre-
sented as " synods ;" and thus superficial readers have been
led to infer and argue that laymen in the earlier ages of
our history were constituent members of our ecclesiastical
assemblies, than which nothing can be more untrue or more
subversive of the principles of the Christian Church. Though
accurate writers and common custom '=, both among the
ancients as well as in more modern times, apply the word
" synod " specifically to an ecclesiastical assembly, yet it is
very certain that through carelessness this word has some-
times been applied to a civil council, in which, besides eccle-
siastics, the whole body of lay nobles were constituent members.
For instance ^, K. Eadmund convoked vvhat has been described
as a " large synod " in London, composed both of ecclesiastics
and laymen, and which should therefore undoubtedly in
strictness have been denominated a mixed council. And on
the other hand we find instances in which those ecclesiastical
assemblies have been called "councils," which nevertheless were
really " synods." It is, however, evidently necessary to keep
the distinction between the words "synod" and "council"
constantly and cleai'ly in view, if we would arrive at true con-
clusions respecting the constituent members of those assemblies
respectively.

It has been remarked that the same time and

Church and • i p i

State now closely place was frequently appomted for the consi-
i" * ■ deration of ecclesiastical and civil matters, the



VI.]



ANGLO-SAXON SYNODS AND COUNCILS.



129



clergy going apart^ when the law divine came into question ^^
And by this arrangement two advantages were secured. The
clergy being called together as members of the " mixed coun-
cil ''"' took advantage of the occasion for settling by themselves
apart questions connected with the law divine; and, on the other
hand, the laity being gathered together for deliberation were
ready on the spot to give secular sanction to canonical defini-
tions, and so to invest them with the authority of temporal
law. Such union of the ecclesiastical and civil power is the
surest foundation of national virtue and national happiness,

" Quam g pia Relligio, et junctis Concordia dextris,
Et Probitas et Amor recti, comitentur euntem."

Desirableness ^^ wliatcvcr degree distrust or jealousy arises
of such union at between those whose holy office it is to direct

all times. i » i i t /•

the morals of the people and enforce the sanc-
tions of virtue, and those whose duty it is to repress acts of
disobedience and to punish crime, it is very certain that
national virtue will decline, and national disobedience to legiti-
mate authority will increase in like proportion. Sir H. Spelman
suggests that in early times the same assembly was called a
" royaP council," in reference to the secular matters there
considered, but a " synodal * council " so far as ecclesiastical
affairs became the subject of debate. It is much to be la-
mented that such united action in matters ecclesiastical and
civil as this view suggests has not been uninterruptedly
maintained through every succeeding period of our history.
That united action and harmonious consent arose from the
fact that all there assembled, whether clergy or laity, were
members of the same Church. The same individuals made up
one spiritual, as well as one civil commonwealth. Far happier
for England if it were so now ; if now we were of one heart
and of one mind. In how wholesome a strain do the words
of K. Edgar, addressed to Archbishop Bunstan and his
suffragans, encourage this union of the civil and ecclesiastical
power for the punishment of offenders and the promotion of

2 " Cum igitur ex diversis Britanniae provinciis, sacri ordinis prsefati prsesules,
cum plurimis sacerdotibus Domini et minoribus quoque ecclesiastici gradus digni-
tatibus, ad locum synodalem cum prsedicto Yenerab. Archiep. Cuthberto convene-
runt," &c.— Cone. Mag. Brit. i. 94.

' Concilium regium. * Concilium synodale.



A.D. 601—
803-4.

" Kcnnett's
Eccl. Syn.
pp. '



214.249.



Wake's
Auth.
Christian
Princes, pp.
158 et seq.
fVid. Mixed
Council
Cliff at Hoc,
A. D. 747.
Cone. Mag.
Brit. i. 94.

S Fracastor,
Poem.
Poem.
Select. Ita-
loiuin, p.
1-J9.



130



ANGLO-SAXON SYNODS AND COUNCILS.



[chap.



601-
3-4.



h Spelm.
Cone. i. 477.



f Spelm.
Cone. pref.
pag. ult.



" Ibid.



J Virg. JEn.
vi. 833-4.



k Collier,
144.



1 Collier,
200.



the glory of God. " I bear," said he, " the sword of Constan-
tine, you the sword of Peter; let us then join our right
hands— ally sword to sword, that the lepers may be cast out
of the camp, the sanctuary of the Lord cleansed, and that the
sons of Levi may minister in the temple^."' But in later
times of our history principles far different from these have
prevailed. This complaint was very justly addressed to an
English monarch: "There" lack not such as wish that the
cross, the symbol of the Church, should be displaced from the
royal diadem, and that the lily, the emblem of the world,
should alone shine there."" How speedily followed, after these
words were penned, that time, disastrous in the annals of our
country, when "those two sister" columns (the ecclesiastical
and civil power) which had long sustained the citadel and
crown of this kingdom were dishonoured and violated/"" May
an all-protecting Providence defend this country against the
repetition of such events !

" . . , . neJ tanta animis adsuescite bella,

Neu patriae validas in viscera vertite vires."

During the period of our national history
nowbeforeus many changes occurred in the limits
of the jurisdiction of the Saxon kings. But not-
withstanding these convulsions there may be ob-
served generally, at least so far as ecclesiastical
matters are concerned, a due proportion of metropolitical
power conceded to the respective sees of Canterbury and
York. It has been observed that previously to the arrival of
Augustine, Theonas, metropolitan of London, and Thadiocus,
metropolitan of York, had fled, about the year 586 or 587 ^,
from the cruelties of Saxon persecution, and had retired to
Wales, seeking there a refuge among the Christians of the
province of Caerleon-upon-Usk. In fourteen or fifteen years
aftervi'ards Augustine was established as archbishop of Canter-
bury, and assumed much of the metropolitical power which
formerly belonged to the see of London. But a longer time
elapsed before the metropolitical power of the see of York
was revived. This took place nearly thirty years afterwards,
in the person of Paulinus', about a.d. G3(), A check was,
however, again ])laced uj)on the power of that see by the
death of Edwin, king of Northumbria, at the battle of Heth-



III. Jurisdic-
tion of the respec-
tive metropolitan
sees of Canter-
bury and York
during this pe-
riod.



VI.]



AKGLO-SAXON SYNODS AND COUNCILS.



131



felf" (Hatfield" Chase, near Doncaster), and by the ra-
vages of the united armies of Caedwalla and Penda, kings
respectively of the Britons and Mercians. In consequence of
these events Paulinus retired to Rochester, and the see of
York" was removed to Holy Island for a season. But the
jurisdiction was again brought back, and the metropolitical
power revived at York, about one hundred years afterwards,
when Egbert, one of the royal family of the Northumbrians,
and brother P to K. Eadbert, regained the ancient privileges
of that see in the year 736, and asserted his authority over
the bishops north of the Humber as his suffragans. To such
a course he seems to have been urged by the advice of the
Venerable Bede, who wrote a letter full of "pious zeal and
integrity" from the seclusion of his monastery of " Jarrow,
not far from '^ the mouth of the Tyne, within the bishopric of
Durham." In this letter, addressed to Egbert by its vene-
rable author' during his last illness, these notable words
occur: " It is your province ^ to take care that the devil does
not get the ascendant in places dedicated to God Almighty ;
that we may not have discord instead of quietness, and liber-
tinism instead of sobriety." Between the retirement of
Paulinus and the revival of the metropolitical power at York
by Archbishop Egbert, it is probable that the prelates of the
northern province were contented with their diocesan autho-
rity ; and this probability is increased by the historical fact
that some of the northern synods and mixed councils held
during that period, such as Osterfield, 701, and Nidde, 705,
were presided over or attended by Berthwald, archbishop of
Canterbury.

Durins; the period now under view it is also

Metropolitan o i t »

see of Lichfield nccdful to remark that a metropolitan* see
was established at Lichfield, chiefly " by the in-
fluence of Offa, the powerful king of Mercia. By his manage-
ment the Bishops of Hereford, Worcester, Leicester, and
Sydnacester, in Mercia, and the Bishops of Helmansted and
Dunmoc, among the East Angles, became suffragans to the
new metropolitan of Lichfield. This project was set "on
foot^ in the year of our Lord 765 ;" and Lambert, then arch-
bishop of Canterbury, was shortly afterwards deprived of a
large portion of his province, retaining only within his juris-



A D. 601—
803-4.

■n Colli^i.

■JOl.

" Churton's

Early Eng.

CI., p. 64.

o Coll. i.

•233. 237.



PColl. i.
2.96.



1 Coll. i.
294.



r Ibid,
quoting
Bede ad Eg-
bert, p. 261.
s Coll. i.
2.94.



' See Innett,
Orig. Ang.
p. 200.
" Innett,
Orig. Ang.
pp. 200,201.



V Matt.
Westmin-
ster, Flor.
Hist. An.
Grat. 765,
quoted by
Coll. i. .319.
K2



132



ANGLO-SAXON SYNODS ANT) COUNCILS



[chap.



A.D. GOl-
803-4.



" Coll. ).
320.



X Coll. i.
338.

y Coll. i.
339, 340.



^ Vid. John-
son's Eng.
Canons, vol.
i. p. 293.
Edit.
Oxford,
1851.



diction the four sees of London^, Winchester, Eochester,
and Selsea. This unjust spoHation, however, of ancient rights
did not long prevail. At the most the metropolitical power
of Lichfield was not maintained longer than about thirty
years ; for in 798, at the instance of Kenulf, king of the Mer
cians, "a brave victorious general and a devout Christian, no
less humble and condescensive in his temper than great in
his dignity and success ^,"' the archbishopric of Lichfield was
extinguished, and the bishop of that see was made a suffragan y,
as formerly, of Canterbury. During the existence of the
metropolitan power at Lichfield, Humbert held that see ; but
it does not appear that more than two assemblies were either
presided over or attended by him within that province, viz. a
provincial synod at S. Alban's, in 793, and a provincial mixed
council at the same place in the same year. The short dura-
tion of this archbishopric, and the small share which the
metropolitical power there established seems to have had in
the assembling of councils — the subject now specially before
us — renders it unnecessary to dwell longer upon the matter.
Having thus adverted to it, it may be said as regards the
period of the heptarchy, that though the several kingdoms
were for the most part independent in civil afiFairs, yet that
there was a more intimate union in spiritual matters; and
that the metropolitan power of the sees of Canterbury and
York was generally acknowledged, subject only to such inter-
ruptions as have been before mentioned.

And this view may tend to smooth in some measure that
difficulty which has been started, as regards the presence of
the kings of Mercia at several of the Kentish councils. This
difficulty has induced some writers to suppose that Cloveshoo,
where several public assemblies were held, must signify some
place within the kingdom ^ of Mercia, and that place has been
supposed by them to be Abingdon, in ]ierkshire. But if it is
borne in mind that considerable union in spiritual affiiirs was
secured among the several kingdoms of the heptarchy, arising
from the general acknowledgment of the metropolitical powers
of Canterbury and York, then the presence of Saxon sove-
reigns at councils on ecclesiastical matters, held in places
without their civil jurisdiction, need be no cause for surprise,
and we may be content to assign to Cloveshoo the locality



ANGLO-SAXON SYNODS AND COUNCILS.



133



generally admitted, viz. Cliff at Hoo, near Rochester ; and to
Chealcuith, that of "Challock" or "Chalk," in Kent.

A general acknowledgment^ therefore during this period,
allowance being made for the exceptions above mentioned, of
the metropolitical power of the sees of Canterbury and York
may be traced, notwithstanding the divisions and changes
which prevailed in civil jurisdiction. A very clear instance is
found in the case of the canons passed in the year 785.
Those canons were decreed in a Northumbrian "provincial*
mixed council," in the presence of Alfvvold, the king, his lords,
and Eanbald, the archbishop of York, with his suffragans.
And the same canons were simultaneously passed in the
Kentish "provincial^ mixed councir"' of Challock or Chalk,
in the presence of Offa, his lords, Lambert, archbishop of
Canterbury, and his suffragans. From this date therefore
(785) we may trace afresh a clear and separate jurisdiction of
the Canterbury and York Synods. The sanction of the two
provinces was here sought and obtained to the same code ; a
conjoined sanction which must still be sought and obtained
from the Convocations of Canterbury and York before any
ecclesiastical constitution can become binding " in foro con-
scientise " upon all members of the Church in England.

Augustine and his missionaries had no sooner
gained a footing in this country than theirearnest
endeavours were directed to bring our native
Church under the jurisdiction of the see of Rome. Their
labours in preaching the Gospel to the pagan Saxons are
worthy of all praise and gratitude. Their endeavours to
establish foreign jurisdiction are of something more than a
questionable character. Our British forefathers might fairly
have replied to such endeavours, in the words of the heathen
poet :

" latereao sacra hsec, quando hue venistis amici
Annua, quae differre nefas, celebrate faventes
Nobiscum, et jam nunc sociorum dsuescite mensis."

In the prosecution of our subject, and confining our atten-
tion chiefly to the matter of synods and councils, it is interesting
to trace the recurring aggressions of Roman authority during
the period now under review ; and to observe the growing influ-
* As regards the metropolitical power cf the see of S. David's, see Collier, vol. i.
pp. 473, 474 ; and chap. iii. sec. 2, sup.



A.D. 601-
803-4.



a Spelm.
Cone. i. 291.



b Cone.
Mag. Brit.
i. 145, note.



IV. Roman ag-
gression on our
national Church.



'• Virg. JEn.
viii. 172-4.



134



ANGLO-SAXON SYNODS AND COUNCILS.



[chap.



A.D. 601-
803-4.



^ Innett,
Oiig. Ang.
pp. 61,62.



e Wake's

Aiitliority

Christian

Princes, p.

167.

' Soames,

Anglo-

S;ixou Cli.

].. 7-2.

e Ibid.



ence obtained by the Popes on the one hand, and, on the other,
the continual resistance of the EngHsh Church against pre-
tensions which she was most loath to admit. It was always
felt by the Roman party that differences in rites and customs
were an unanswerable argument against their pretension to
universal sovereignty, for such a distinction afforded plain evi-
dence that the Britons had not originally received the Chris-
tian faith from Rome. Against such rites, and ceremonies,
and customs, as distinguished the British from the Roman
Church, endeavours were therefore continually and untiringly
directed. Thus, as we have seen in the previous chapter, at
the "provincial Synod" of Augustine^s Oak, the pertinacious
determination of Augustine to force the Roman calculation of
Easter, and the Roman mode of baptism, upon the British
bishops and clergy, prevented Christian union from being then
established.

National Synod The Same endeavours to subjugate *! the
of Whitby. English Church to Roman authority were made,

and unhappily with better success, at the national Synod of
Whitby, A.D. 66i. The contention there was renewed re-
specting the mode of calculating Easter, and another matter
respecting the ecclesiastical tonsure was also introduced.
Unhappily a victory was there obtained over our national
Church, resulting in some measure, it is said, from an expres-
sion^ of K. Oswy, partaking rather of unseemly merriment
than of deliberative solemnity. The nationaF divines insisted
upon their traditions, as received from S. John, the beloved
disciple. The champions of the foreign party rested their
cause upon the Roman traditions attributed to S. Peter, who,
as they said, was intrusted by Christ with the keys of the
kingdom of heaven. " Were^ they really intrusted to him?"
is the question which Oswy is represented as having asked.



Online LibraryJames Wayland JoyceEngland's sacred synods : a constitutional history of the convocations of the clergy, from the earliest records of Christianity in Britain to the date of the promulgation of the present Book of common prayer; including a list of all councils, ecclesiastical as well as civil, held in England, in whic → online text (page 14 of 83)