James Wayland Joyce.

England's sacred synods : a constitutional history of the convocations of the clergy, from the earliest records of Christianity in Britain to the date of the promulgation of the present Book of common prayer; including a list of all councils, ecclesiastical as well as civil, held in England, in whic online

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Online LibraryJames Wayland JoyceEngland's sacred synods : a constitutional history of the convocations of the clergy, from the earliest records of Christianity in Britain to the date of the promulgation of the present Book of common prayer; including a list of all councils, ecclesiastical as well as civil, held in England, in whic → online text (page 22 of 83)
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Th. A'Becket .



King.



vac.



Stephen

Stephen
Stephen
Stephen



Stephen



Stephen



Stephen



Stephen ,
Henry II.
Henry II.
Henry II.
Henry II.
Henry II.
Henry II.
Henry II.
Henry II.



London . . . .
W^estminster . .
Westminster . ,
Reading . . . .
Woodstock . .
Windsor . . . .
Northampton ,
Westminster.,

Northampton
Westminster
Marlborough

Uncertain . . .
Windsor . . . .

Ensbam . . . .

Gay ton,
Northamp-
tonshire

Pipewell,
Northamp-
tonshire



Th. A'Becket .Henry II.

" " ..Henry II.

. . 'Henry II.

..Henry II.

. . I Henry II.

..Henry II.

Henry II.

Henry II.

Henry II.
Henry II.
Henry II.

See Cant. vac. Henry II.
Baldwyn, I Henry II.



Richard
Richard
Richard
Richard
Richard
Richard
Richard

Richard
Richard
Richard



elected
Baldwyn
Baldwyn



Baldwyn



Henry II.
Henry II.



Cone.

:lbid. 419
Ibid. 419
Ibid. 420



Ibid. 421



Ibid. 421



Ibid. 422



B. i. 413-4



Ibid. 424

Ibid. 426

Ibid. 4-27

Ibid. 427. See also 430

Ibid. 433

Ibid. 434

Ibid. 435

Ibid. 436

Ibid. 438



Ibid. 458 ,
Ibid. 474
Ibid. 476 ,
Ibid. 482
Ibid. 482 ,
Ibid. 483 ,
Ibid. 483
Ibid. 485 .



Ibid. 485 ,
Ibid. 486
Ibid. 488 ,

Ibid. 488
Ibid. 488

Ibid. 490
Ibid. 491



Ibid. 492



Nature of Assembly.



Legatine Synod under
Alberic, legate.

National Synod.

Great Council.

Legatine Synod under
Henry, bp. of Win-
chester.

Legatine Synod under
Henry, bp. of Win-
chester.

Legatine Synod under
Henry, bp. of Win-
chester.

Legatine Synod under
Henry, bp. of Win-
chester.

National Synod.

Great Council.

Synod.

Great Council.

Great Council.

Provincial Synod.

Great Council.

Great Council.

National Synod of
Bishops only.

Great Council.

Great Council.

Provincial Synod.

Great Council.

Synod.

Great Council.

Great Council.

Legatine Synod under
Hugo.

Great Council.

Great Council.

National Synod
Bishops only.

National Synod.

National Synod.

National Synod.
Great Council.



National Synod.
[1189 Canterbury



of



* Cone. M. B. under this date give the Council of Chimin : but there must be a mis-
apprehension. Archbishop A'Becket wrote a letter to K. Henry II., then at Chinon, in Touraine.
Hence possibly the mistake in introducing this name among English councils. — Collier, ii. 291.



202



ANGLO-NOEMAN SYNODS AND COUNCILS.



[chap.



A.D. 1070
—1279.



by historians of this time, will always be denominated " Great
Councils.'''' The " Curise Kegis," though not perhaps councils of
so august a character as the former, will be placed under the
same head. It must also be clearly understood that all the



.1ST OF ANGLO-NORMAN SYNODS AND COUNCILS, A.D. 1070 — 1279 — Continued.



Archbishop or
Bishop.



King.



Nature of Assembly.



1189
1190
1190



1190



1191
1191



1193
1195



1199



1200

1203

1206
120G

1207
1207
1210
1211
1213
1213

1213
1213
1213
1214

1214



1214
1216

1220

1220

1222

1222



Canterbury .
Westminster
Westminster



Gloucester

London . .
Canterbury

Canterbury
York ....



Baldwyn .... | Richard I.
Baldwyn .... jRichard I.
Wm., bp. of Richard I.
Ely



Westminster
Westminster



Westminster



Oxford .



S. Alban's
Reading , ,



London . . . ,
London . . . ,
London . . . ,
Nortliampton
S. Alban's . .
1. Paul's, Lon-
don
Westminster
Wallingford . .
Reading . . . .
Dunstable . ,

S. Paul's, Lon-
don

Reading . . . .
Bristol



Canterbury
Durham , .
Canterbury
Oxford



bp. of



Wm.,

Ely



See Cant, vac
See Cant. vac.

See Cant. vac.

Hubert Wal-
ter

Hubert Wal-
ter

Hubert Wal-
ter

Hubert Wal-

Hubert Wal
ter
See Cant. vac.
See Cant, vac



Richard I.



Richard I.
Richard I.



Richard I.
Richard 1.



John .



See Cant. vac.
See Cant, vac,
S. Langton . ,
S. Langton . .
S. Langton . .
S. Langton . .

S. Langton . .
S. Langton . .
S. Langton , .
S. Langton . .

S. Langton . .



S. Langton
S. Langton

S. Langton

Richard de

Marisco, bp.

S. Langton .

S. Langton . ,



John.

John .

John.
John.

John.
John.
John .
John.
John .
John.

John .
Jolm.
John.
John.

John.



Cone. M. B.
Ibid. 493 . . .
Ibid. 493 .. ,



Ibid. 493



Ibid. 494
Ibid. 494



Ibid. 495-6 . . ,
Ibid. 501



John

Henry III. .

Henry III. .

Henry III. .,

Henry III. . ,

Henry III. . ,



Ibid. 504

Ibid. 505 ,

Ibid. 508 ,

Ibid. 511

Ibid. 514 ,
Ibid. 515 .

Ibid. 515 .
Ibid. 515 .
Ibid. 531 .
Ibid. 531 .
Ibid. 540 .
Ibid. 540 .

Ibid. 540 .
Ibid. 541 .
Ibid. 540 .
Ibid. 544 .

Ibid. 544 .



Ibid. 546
Ibid. 546



Ibid. 572



Ibid. 584. Hody, pt.
iii. 91
Cone. M. B. i, 585 , .



Synod.

Synod.

Provinc. Synod under
Legatine authority of
William, bp. of Ely.

Synod under Legatine
authority of William,
bishop of Ely.

Synod.

Convention of Eccle-
siastics and Laity.

Synod of Bishops.

Diocesan Synod.

Provincial Synod.

Synod.

A.n Ecclesiastical
Court.
Great Council.



National Synod.
Sj'nod under Johannes

Ferentinus, legate.
Great Council.
Great Council.
Great Council.
Great Council.
Great Council.
Convention of Eccle-
siastics and Laity.
Synod.
Synod.
Synod.
Provincial Synod of

Bishops only.
Legatine Convention

under Nicholas of

Frescati.
Great Council.
Legatine Convention

under Gualo, legate.
Convention of FJccle-

siastics and Laity.
Diocesan Synod.

Provincial Synod.

Synod.

[1226 S. Paid's



VIII.]



ANGLO-NORMAN SYNODS AND COUNCILS.



203



"great councils"" and "curise" held during this period are
not included in the tabular list, but only such of them as were
specially connected with ecclesiastical affairs, and have there-
fore been deemed proper by Wilkins to be inserted in his



A. D. 1070

—1279.



LIST OF ANGLO-NORMAN SYNODS AND COUNCILS, A.D. 1070 — 1279 Continued.



Archbishop or
Bishop.



King,



Nature of Assembly.



1226='

N.S.

1226

N.S.

1226
1227

N.S.

1229
1231
1232

N.S.

12.i5

N.S.

1237

1238

1239

1240

1240

1240

1240
1241
1244

1244
1246
1250
1252
1255

1255

1255

1256

1257



S. Paul's, Lon-
don
London ....

London ....
Westminster .

Westminster .

Oxford

S. Alban's . .

London ....

S. Paul's, Lon-
don
London ....

London ....

Worcester . . .

Reading ....

Northampton .

London .
Oxford . . .
London .



Rochester
London .
Oxford . . .
London .
Norwich .

London ,

London ,

Westminster

London . . .



S. Langton . .

S, Langton . .

S. Langton . .
S. Langton . .

Richard
Wethershed
See Cant. vac.

See Cant. vac.

Edmund ....

Edmund ....

Edmund ....

Edmund ....

Walter deCan-
tilupe, bp.
Edmund ....



Edmund . . .
Edmund . . .
Boniface . . .

Bp. uncertain
Boniface . . .
Boniface . . .
Boniface . . .
Bp. Walter de
Suthfield
Boniface . .

Boniface ,.

Boniface . .

Boniface . .



Henry III. . .

Henry III. ..

Henry III. ..
Henry III. ..

Henry III. . .

Henry in. ..

Henry III. . .

Henry III. ..

Henry III. ..

Henry III. . ,

Henry III. . .

Henry III. . .

Henry III. ..

Henry III. . .

Henry IIL ..
Henry III. ..
Henry III. . .

Henry III. . .
Henry III. ..
Henry III. . .
Henry in. ..
Henry III. . .

Henry IIL ..

Henry III. ..

Henry III. . .

Henry III. . .



Cone. M. B.
Ibid. 606-7 .



Ibid. 603. 605 ,
Ibid. 620-21 . . ,



Ibid. 622 .

Ibid. 629 .

Ibid. 629 -

Ibid. 630 ,

Ibid. 647 .

Ibid. 663 ,

Ibid. 663 ,

Ibid. 665 ,

Ibid. 678 ,

Ibid. 679 ,

Ibid. 681 ,
Ibid. 682 .
Ibid. 684 ,

Ibid. 685 ,
Ibid. 686 ,
Ibid. 697
Ibid. 702 ,
Ibid. 708 ,

Ibid. 709 ,

Ibid. 711 ,

Ibid. 713 ,

Ibid. 722



Provincial Synod.

Great Council.

Provincial Synod.
Great Council, with
concurrent Synod.
Great Council.

Provincial Convention
of Bishops and others.

Convention of Eccle-
siastics and Laity.

Great Council.

Legatine Synod under

Otho.
Legatine Synod under

Otho.
Legatine Synod under

Otho.
Diocesan Synod.

Convention of Eccle-
siastics and Laity.

Legatine Synod of
Bishops.

Legatine Synod.

National Synod.

Convention of Eccle-
siastics and Laity.

Diocesan Synod.

Synod.

Synod.

Great Council.

Diocesan Synod.

Legatine Synod under
Rustand.

Legatine Synod under
Rustand.

Convention of Eccle-
siastics and Laity.

Synod of Archdeacons.
[1257 London



• This provincial synod was summoned in accordance with the present practice, a mandate
having on this occasion been sent by the Archbishop of Canterbury to the Bishop of London to
cite suffragans, &c.



204



ANGLO-NORMAN SYNODS AND COUNCILS.



[chap.



A.D. 1070
—1279.



" Concilia Magnse BritannisG." Even the great Council of
Runnymede, where the charter of Enghsh Hberty was ratified,
is not here mentioned. Very numerous instances of "great
councils" and " curiae" held during this period, and not here
inserted, may be found, by those who are curious in such in-
quiries, in Hody's "History of English Councils," and also in a
modern book of laborious research entitled "Parliaments' and
Councils of England." The term " Convention " is used on a



LIST OF ANGLO-NORMAN SYNODS AND COUNCILS, A.D. 1070 1219 — COnlinued.



Archbishop or
Bishop.



King.



Nature of Assembly.



1257*

1258*

1258

1261

12«1

126:i

1265



1268

1269

126!)
1271
1272

1272

1272



London . .



Merton ....
Oxford ....
Lambeth . .



Boniface . . . .Henry III.

Henry ITL
Henry IIL
Henry III.



Boniface . .
Boniface . ,
Boniface . .



Beverley . . . ,

Westminster

Northampton



S. Paul's, Lon-
don

New Temple,
London

Uncertain . . .



Boniface . . . .

Boniface . . . .

Boniface . . . .

Boniface . . . .

Boniface . . . .



. . See vacant



Reading
London .... Robert
warby
Eye, in Suffolk



London



12731 New Temple.

London
1277t London ....

1278 Windsor . . . .



Henry III.
Henry III.
Henry III.

Henry III.

Henry III.

Henry III.

Henrv III.

Kil-.Henr> III.



Roger, bp. of Henry III.

Norwich I
Robert Kil-! Henry III.

warby j

Robert KU-iEdward I.

warby [

Robert Kil- Edward I.

warby
See vacant . . Edward I.



Cone. M. B. i. 723 ,



Ibid. 786
Ibid. 740 ,



Ibid. 746. 755, and

note
Ibid. 755



Provincial Synod of

Canterbury.
National Synod.
Synod.
Provincial Synod of

Canterbury.
Provincial Synod of

York.
Legatine SjTiod under

Leonard and Berard.
Great Council, with

concurrent Legatine

Synod under Otho-

bon.
Legatine Synod under

Othobon.
Provincial Synod.

Ibid. 21 j Synod of Bishops only.

Ibid. 24 Synod of Bishops only.

Ibid. 24 Synod of Bishops only.



Ibid. 759
Ibid. 7C2



Cone. M. B. ii. 1 . .
Ibid. 19



Ibid. 25
Ibid. 25
Ibid. 26
Ibid 30
Ibid. 32



Diocesan Synod.
Provincial Synod.
Provincial Synod.
Provincial Synod.
Great Council.



* These two synods were held under mandates which set forth the constituent members at
length : viz. archbishops, bishops, deans, abbots, priors, and archdeacons with letters of proxy.
To prove that the Synod of Merton was national, see Cone. M. B. i. 736 ad im. and 740, note.

t The mandate to this provincial synod enforced the primitive practice of bishops bringing
chosen presbyters to synods.— Ex Reg. Giflfard Wigorn. fol. 41.

X The mandate (ex Reg. Gitlard Wigorn. fol. 71) to this synod shews tliat clergy jiroctors
were to attend in addition to the other members. Thus was the representative system introduced,
though no cliauge was made in the constituent members of our provincial synods.

2 By Charles Henry Parry. Published by J. IMurrav, 18.i9.



VIII.]



AXGLO-NORMAN SYNODS AND COUNCILS.



205



few occasions to represent a mixed meeting of clergy and
laity held for extraordinary purposes.

There must also now be frequently and unhappily intro-
duced a term which after the Norman Conquest became too
common, viz. " Legat'me Synod^'' and of which very early ex-
amples will be found on reference to the tabular list.

In the designation of proper English synods no alteration
will be made. The distinctions laid down in Chapter V. on
this head will be carried throughout *.

II. Effects of K. William I. had no sooner conquered our
!ie Ang?o-Saxon "^^i^e troops and reduced the country under
Church. military subjection, than he set himself to eject

the Anglo-Saxons from offices both of Church and State,
introducing Normans into their places, and thus strengthening
the foundations of his government by such means as usurpers
in every age know too well how to practice —

" . . . . ille »^ novos ritus nova sacra per urbe3
Instituit, priscasque audet rescindere leges."

The alliance which had been entered into between the Pope
and the Conqueror previously to the sailing of the Norman
expedition for these shores, the desire of both to subjugate
the Anglo-Saxons respectively to their spiritual and temporal
sway, the dislike which the former bore to Archbishop Stigand
on account of his resistance to papal jurisdiction, the suspi-
cion with which the latter regarded him on account of the
stand made at Swanscombe and the refusal to place the
crown on the usurper's brow, — all these circumstances com-
bined to produce effects which soon began to be felt severely,
and to exercise terrible influences over the condition of our
Church.

The incomes of the bishoprics'" and abbeys were em-
ployed in rewarding adventurers who had assisted in the
conquest. The see of Lincoln was conferred on Remi'',
" formerly a monk at Fecamp," who had supplied a vessel
equipped with twenty armed men in 1066. This person and the
other new Norman prelates ejected the Anglo-Saxon monks
every where from their abodes " on the domains ^ of the
episcopal Churches," much to the gratification of William
the Conqueror, who held " that monks ^ of English race could
only bear him ill will." The bishoprics, archdeaconries, and



A.D. 1070
—1279.



» Chap. V.
sec. 1.



aa Vidae
Christ, lib.
210-11.



•> Thierry's
Norm. Con.
vol. i. p.
25(».
<^ Ibid,
quoting
Will.

Malmes. dc
Gest. Pont,
iii. 290.
d Thierry's
Norm. Con.
vol. i. p.
250.
« Ibid,
quoting
Ingulf, p.86.



206



ANGLO-NORMAN SYNODS AND COUNCILS.



[chap.



A.D. 1070
—1279.

f Thierry,
vol.i. ]). '2o(\,
quotes AVill.
Malmesb.
de Gest.
Pont. p. 377.
e Thierry
quotes Lan-
franri Op.
p. 315.



>• Thierry
quotes An-
glia Sacra,
i. 445.



1 Thierry's
Norm. Con.
vol. i. p.
251.
3 Ibid.



k Thierry
quotes Will.
Mulmes. v.
37-2.



1 Thierry
quotes An-
glia Sacra,
ii. 142.



deaneries of England became the prey of men who were priests
only in name, and who in place of teaching the holy doctrines
of Christianity became notorious, many of them for extrava-
gance and pride, some of them for their infamy ^

The monastery s of Coventry afforded an example of the out-
rageous treatment which the Anglo-Saxon ecclesiastical insti-
tutions received at the hands of those foreigners who obtained
here positions of authority. The monks who inhabited it were
pillaged in the most scandalous manner by Robert de Limoges.
Having been appointed Bishop of Lichfield, he made use
of his power in " forcing ** open their caskets and coffers, and
ultimately pulled down their houses to build with the mate-
rials an episcopal palace, the cost of furnishing which was
defrayed by melting down the gold and silver ornaments that
decorated the Church." So great was the tyranny of the
Norman prelates and abbots, that they were not content to
wield merely spiritual weapons, forged on the papal anvil, and
directed to pierce the vitals of the national Church in lier
spiritual constitution, but they carried on the war against
Anglo-Saxon churchmen with veritable swords of iron.
" More * than one English convent was the scene of military
executions." One TorauldJ, who had been invested with the
government of one of our monasteries, was accustomed to call
out his guard whenever the monks resisted any of his inno-
vations upon their ecclesiastical discipline ; and after those
subjected to this tyranny had been delivered from his iron
sway by his removal to Peterborough, which from its neigh-
bourhood to the Saxon camp of refuge was said by K. ^^"iIliam
" to be very fit for one who was rather a soldier than an
abbot \" they fell into yet worse hands. For Gueriu de Lire,
who succeeded this martial ecclesiastic, emptied what re-
mained in the purses of those committed to his care, that he
might " brag ^ of his present wealth before his old acquaint-
ance who had known him in poverty." And as if this whole-
sale robbery was not sufficient to satisfy the ill will of this
Norman intruder, he dug up ^ the remains of his predecessors,
abbots of Anglo-Saxon race, and scattered their ashes to the
winds.

3 " Ut apud eos, qui olim eum pauperem vidissent, coinpararet jactantiara." —
Thierry quotes Will. Malmesb. v. 372.



ANGLO-NORMAN SYNODS AND COUNCILS.



207



III. These ef- To sucli extremities were the Anglo-Saxon
the'actsTf the first ©cclesiastics recluced by the Norman adven-
great council held, turers. As might be supposed, the effects of this
great change which had passed upon our country was imme-
diately felt in the constitution of her synods and councils, and
is at once observable in the circumstances connected with
them. The first public assembly held after the Conquest, at
least so far as records remain, was the great council, with a
concurrent legatine synod, convened at Winchester, a.d.
1070; and on this very first occasion when the Anglo-
Saxon ecclesiastics were summoned to meet, papal influences
were brought to bear upon them. During the previous periods
of our history we have usually seen synods summoned and pre-
sided over by native archbishops and bishops, and mixed
councils called together by the civil power. A change in this
respect now becomes manifest ; and Roman authority sets its
mark directly and unmistakably upon the documents con-
nected with the public assemblies of the country. In accord-
ance with K. William's application to his friend Pope Alex-
ander II. three legates of the papal see arrived here in the
year 1069, Hermanfred, bishop of Sion, and the presbyter
cardinals Peter and John. From the presence of these repre-
sentatives of his old ally, who had encouraged the descent
upon England by consecrated presents, and from the influence
which the Pope could naturally exercise over those foreign
ecclesiastics here advanced to places of high honour, K. Wil-
liam promised himself much assistance in the management
of his usurped dominion. And so unwilling was he to part
with them, that " he kept "" them with him a whole year,
honouring them," says an old historian, "as though they
were angels of God." Certainly he had good reason to
prize their aid ; for they put that crown upon his head
which Stigand, the Anglo-Saxon archbishop, had refused to
place there, and thus, in the minds of those who gave entire
allegiance to Rome, they dispelled the effects of that maledic-
tion" with which Eldred, archbishop of York, had accompanied
the former coronation, in which he had taken an unworthy
part.

^ ., K. William determined to hold a council

Great Council

of Winchester on the octavB of Eastcr, 1070, assisted by his



A.D. 1070
—1279.



™ Thierry,
vol. ii. p.
244.



" Thierry,
vol. i. p.
244.



208



ANGLO-NORMAN SYNODS AND COUNCILS.



[chap



A.D. 107

-1279



o Cone.
Mag. Brit,
vol. i. p.
323.



iield concurrently Jegatine alHes ; and on this occasion a mandate

with a legatine ^

s.vnod. of a new and strange character was issued to

call the ecclesiastical members to the assembly. They were
not summoned by any native ecclesiastical superior, not by
the king, not by any authority which had been usually exerted
in our country, but this very first and earliest opportunity was
taken of introducing that manifest token of papal interference
— a legatine sunnnons. A nd as the Conqueror and the Pope''s
representative succeeded in enforcing obedience to it upon
this memorable occasion, so this exercise of foreign authority
was subsequently too often repeated, of which we shall have
to witness sundry galling instances during the two next
periods of this inquiry.

The haughty and insulting character of this summons
directed to the Anglo-Saxon prelates might well have alarmed
tiiem for the event of the great council which they were bidden
to attend. " Though" the Church of Rome,'''' is the language
used, "ought to watch for the correction of all Christians,
more specially is she bound to inquire into your life and
conversation, and also by means of careful visitation to repair
the decline of the Christian religion among you, in which she
originally gave you instruction. In the due discharge of this
care we, the unworthy servants of the blessed Apostle Peter,
supported by the authority of our lord. Pope Alexander, have
directed our steps to your country, that we may celebrate
here a council with you, and so proceed to uproot tho.se tares
which spring up in the vineyard of the Lord of Sabaoth, and
to sow such seed as shall turn to the profit of your souls and
bodies. In furtherance of this our anxious care we enjoin
you, brother, by apostolical authority to present yourself
without fail on the third day after next Easter at Winchester,
and to admonish by these presents all the abbots of your
diocese to accompany you."

Such was the summons to AV'inchester directed to Wul-
stan, bishop of Worcester; and it must be presumed that
those directed to the other bishops were the same, or, at any
rate, of like character. Now as K. ^^ illiam and his ally, the
Pope, had determined to get rid of bishops, abbots, and all
ecclesiastics of the Anglo-Saxon race, the real intent of these
words was to gloss over political infamy with a surface of



^]



ANGLO-NORMAN SYNODS AND COUNCILS.



209



Anglo-Saxon
ecclesiastics de
prived.



religion. The care expressed for the life and conversation of
the English churchmen was soon exercised in an appropria-
tion of their worldly goods. The visitation promised to repair
the decline of the Christian religion was commuted into an
inspection, which might discover the comparative wealth of
their coffers. The uprooting of the tares in the vineyard and
the planting of good seed in their place had certainly, in a
contradictory sense, a metaphorical fulfilment in the ejection
of rightful owners from their property, and the substitution of
aliens in their room.

This great council was held on the octave of
Easter, and at the very commencement of the re-
cord of it we find a new expression in the annals
of our national assemblies. It is said to have been held " with*
the consent of our lord, Alexander the Pope." Now this is an
unusual phrase before this time — one of ill omen, and unpleasant
to English ears ; but one which in spirit, if not in actual
words, was in subsequent times often repeated. Those who
took the chief places in the assembly were William the Con-
queror, Hermanfred, bishop of Sion, as Pope's legate, and
Peter and John, presbyter cardinals, also in the same cha-
racter. The two latter, in giving their countenance and
support to the cruel measures here enacted, were certainly
engaged in less pious work than their namesakes of old, who
exercised their gifts of healing at the Beautiful gate of the
temple, and instead of appropriating the silver and gold p of
other men, gave of such as they had themselves to the afflicted.
In this Council of Winchester many charges were preferred
against the Anglo-Saxon ecclesiastics, who were not allowed
fair opportunities of rebutting them,

" Ille g silentum
Conciliumque vocat, vitascjue et crimina discit."

Stigand"" was deprived of his archbishopric of Canterbury.
His brother Agelmar, bishop of Helmham% i.e. of the East
Angles, was degraded, and both bishops and abbots were
ejected from their posts.

As is usually the case when injustice is committed and
reasons are vouchsafed, the reasons given were by no means

* " Domino Alexandre Papa consentiente." — Cone. Mag. Brit. vol. i. p. 322,
quotes Hoveden, Annal.



A. D. 1070

—1279.



1 Virg. JEn.
vi. 431-2.



■■ Cone.
Mag. Brit.
i. 3-22.
* Kennett's
Eccl. Syn.
251.



210



ANGLO-NORMAN SYNODS AND COUNCILS.



[chap.



A.D. 1070
—1279.



t^oll.Eccl.
Hist. i. .5,54.



Mag. 1
i. 322.



" Thierry,
vol. i. p.
246.



w Cone.



Online LibraryJames Wayland JoyceEngland's sacred synods : a constitutional history of the convocations of the clergy, from the earliest records of Christianity in Britain to the date of the promulgation of the present Book of common prayer; including a list of all councils, ecclesiastical as well as civil, held in England, in whic → online text (page 22 of 83)