James Wayland Joyce.

England's sacred synods : a constitutional history of the convocations of the clergy, from the earliest records of Christianity in Britain to the date of the promulgation of the present Book of common prayer; including a list of all councils, ecclesiastical as well as civil, held in England, in whic online

. (page 28 of 83)
Online LibraryJames Wayland JoyceEngland's sacred synods : a constitutional history of the convocations of the clergy, from the earliest records of Christianity in Britain to the date of the promulgation of the present Book of common prayer; including a list of all councils, ecclesiastical as well as civil, held in England, in whic → online text (page 28 of 83)
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Provinc. Synod.


1415 N.s.


York Henry Bowet ....


Henry V


Ibid. 371 ....


Provinc. Synod.


1415


S. Paul's, London Henry Chicheley . .


Henry V


Ibid. 375


Provinc. Synod.


1415


York Henry Bowet


Henry V


Ibid. 377 ....


Provinc. Synod.


I4lf>


S.Paul's, London Henry Chicheley..


Henry V


Ibid. 377 ... .


Provinc. Synod.


1416


S.Paul's, London Henry Chicheley..


Henry V


Ibid. 377 ... .


Provinc. Synod.


1417 N.s.


York 1 Henry Bowet


Henry V


Ibid. 380


Provinc. Synod.


1417


York jHenry Bowet


Henry V


Ibid. 380


Provinc. Synod.


1417


S Paul's, London Henry Chicheley..


Henry V


Ibid. 381 ....


Provinc. Synod.


1418 N.s.


York Henry Bowet


Henry V


Ibid. 389 ... .


Provinc. Synod.


1419


S.Paul's, London Henry Chicheley. .


Henry V


Ibid. 393


Provinc. Synod.


1420 N.s.


York Henry Bowet


Henrj'V


Ibid. 3!)6 ....


Provinc. Synod.


1421


S.Paul's, London' Henry Chicheley. .


Henry V


Ibid. 399 & 406


Provinc. Synod.


1421


York jHenry Bowet


Henry V


Ibid. 403 ... .


Pro. Synod, with
continuation.


1422


S.Paul's, London Henry Chicheley. .


Henry V


Ibid. 404 ... .


Provinc. Synod.


1422


York




Henry VI. ..
Henrv VI. ..


Ibid 419


Provinc. Synod.
Provinc. Synod.


1424


S.Paul's, London


Henry Chicheley..


Ibid. 42K


1424


York




Henry VI. ..


Ibid 43-^


Pro. Synod, with
continuation.










1425


S.Paul's, London


Henry Chicheley. .


Henry VI. ..


Ibid 433....


Provinc. Synod.


1426


S.Paul's, London


Henrv Chicheley..


Henry VI. ..


Ibid. 46!)


Provinc. Synod.


1420


York


John Kemp, abp.
of York


Henry VI. ..


Ibid. 487 ... .


Pro. Synod, with
continuations.












;1428 S. Paul's



ENGLISH SYNODS.



255



sions between those meetings at wliich business was trans-
acted, and those which were held merely " pro forma," it has



A.D. 1279
—1500.





LIST OF ENGLISH SYNODS, A


.D. \279— 1500— continued.




Date.

A.D.


Place.


Archbishop or
President.


King.


Reference.


Nature of
Assembly.


1428
1428


S. Paul's
York , .


London


Henry Chicheley..

John Kemp

Henry Chicheley..
Henry Chicheley. .


Henry VL ..

Henry VL ..
Henry VI. ..
Henry VI. . .


Cont
iii.
Ibid
Ibid
Ibid
Ibid
Ibid
Ibid
Ibid
Ibid
Ibid
Ibid
Ibid
Ibid
Ibid
Ibid
Ibid
Ibid
Ibid.
Ibid.
Ibid.
Ibid.
Ibid.

Ibid.
Ibid.

Ibid
Ibid.

Ibid.
Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid.
Ibid.
Ibid.
Ibid.
Ibid.
Ibid.
Ibid.
Ibid.
Ibid.
Ibid.
Ibid.
Ibid.
Ibid.
Ibid.


. M. B

493

514....
514....
515....

518

520

521 ....
521 ....
523 ... .
525 ... .

525

525 ... .
525 ... .

525

533 ....
533 ... .
536 ... .
536 ....
536-7 • ■
539 ....

644

549 ... .

554

556-7 . .

559

563 ... .

562 ... .

564 ... .

580 ... .

577 ... .

580 ... .
580 ... .
580 ... .
585 ... .
587 ... .

598

598 ... .

598 ... .

599 ... .
606 ... .
606 ....

606 ....

607 ... .
607 ... .


Pro. Synod, with
continuations.

Provinc. Synod.

Cant. Pro. Synod.

Provinc. Synod.

Provinc. Synod.

Provinc. Synod.

Provinc. Spiod.

Provinc. Synod.

Provinc. Synod.

Provinc. Synod.

Provinc. Synod.

Provinc. Synod.

Cant. Pro. Synod.

Provinc. Synod.

Provinc. Synod.

Provinc. Synod.

Provinc. Synod.

Cant. Pro. Synod.

Provinc. Synod.

Provinc. Synod.

Provinc. Synod.

Assembly of Pre-
lates.

Provinc. Synod.

Cant. Pro. Synod,
with continua-
tions.

York Pro. Synod.

Pro. Synod, with
continuations.

Provinc. Synod.

Diocesan S'ynod.

Prov. Synod, with

continuations.
Provinc. Synod.

Provinc. Synod.
Provinc. Synod.
Provinc. Synod.
Provinc. Synod.
Provinc. Synod.
Diocesan S>nod,
Diocesan Synod.
Diocesan Synod.
Provinc. Synod.
Provinc. Synod.
Provinc. Synod.
Provinc. Synod.
Cant. Pro. Synod.
York Pro. Synod.


1429




1430 N.s.
1430


S.Paul's
York . .


London


1432
1432


S.Paul's
York . .


London


Henry Chicheley . . ' Henry VI. . .
John Kemp 'Hprirv VT.


1433
1434
1435
1436
1436


S.Paul's
S.Paul's
S.Paul's
London
York . .


, London
, London
, London


Henry Chicheley..
Henry Chicheley..
Henry Chicheley. .
Henry Chicheley..

John Kemp

Hem-y Chicheley..
Henry Chicheley..

John Kemp

Henry Chicheley . .

John Kemp

Henry Cliicheley..


Henry VI. ..
Henry VL ..
Henry VI. . .
Henry VL ..
Henry VL ..
Henry VI. . .
Henry VL ..
Henry VL ..
Henry VI. . .
Henry VI. ..
Henry VL ..

Hor>^,r VT


1437
1438
1438




S.Paul's
York . .


London


1439
1440


S. Paul's
York . .


, London


1442




1442


York .


1444
1445


S.Paul's
York . .


London


J. Stafford, aijp. Cy. Henrv VI. .' .
John Kemp . . H^nr^ VT


1446

1446
1449

1450


Lambeth

S.Paul's
S.Paul's


London
London


John Stafford ....

John Stafford

John Stafford


Henry VI. ..

Henry VL ..
Henry VL ..

Henry VL ..
Henry VI. ..

Henry VI. ..
Henry VI. . .

Henry VL ..

Henry VI. ..

Edward IV. . .
Edward IV. . .
Edward IV. . .
Edward IV. . .
Edward IV. . .
Edward IV. . .
Edward IV. . .
Edward IV. , .
Edward IV. . .
Edward IV. . .
Edward IV. . .
Edward IV. ..
Edward IV. . .
Edward IV. . .


1452


York


Commissioners . . .

J. Kemp, abp. Cy.
Will. Boothe, abp.

of York
Will. Boothe ....

Th. Bourchier, abp.

of Canterbury
Will. Boothe ....
Th. Bourchier ....
Will. Boothe ....

Th. Bourchier

Will. Boothe

Th. Bourchier ....
Bishop Carpenter. .
Will. Boothe ....
G.Neville, abp. Yk.
Th. Bourchier ....

Th. Bourchier

Geo. Neville

Th. Bourchier ....
Geo. NevUle


1453 N.s.
1453


S.Paul's
York . .


London


1460


York .


1460
1462 N.s.


S.Paul's
York . .


London


1462
1462


S.Paul's
York . .


London


1463
1463


S. Paul's
York . .


London


ri464*
<^ 1464

(1464
1466


Canterbury

Worcester

Doucaster

York . . -


1468
1470
1470
1472 N.s.


S.Paul's
S.Paul's
York . .


London
London


1472






[1473 N.
* For raising subsidy for the Pope, who was going on " viage against the Turks.'



256



ENGLISH SVXODS.



[chap.



A.D. 1279
—1500.

" Courayer,
on Valid, of
Eng. Ord.
pref. li.
quotes En-
cyclop. Me-
thodique.



been thought the safer plan to include all dates on which the
assemblies were summoned.

Voltaire* once said in reference to some of the English
nation, that " they are even better pleased that the bishops
draw their authority from the parliament than from the
Apostles." Were that bitter scoffer now alive, he might
find a fair object for a like sneer in those who would derive
the constitution of our sacred synods from the will of a needy
king, rather than from the authority of our national Church.
We have seen, however, in the previous chapter that the con-
stituent members of our provincial synods were then (in con-
formity wath the usages of the primitive Church, and of this
national Church) the same as they are among us to this day,
viz. archbishops, bishops, and certain presbyters. We have
seen also that the presbyters called were of the same rank,
and selected in the same way as those summoned to this day,
excepting, of course, the cases of the abbots and priors, whose



LIST OF ENGLISH SYNODS, A.D. 1279 — 1500 — Continued.




Archbishop or
President.



King.



1473 N.s



Th. Bourchier Edward IV,



Th. Bourchier
Geo. Neville .



don J



Th. Bourchier . . . .

L.Boothe.abp.lLlc.

Th. Bourchier

Laurence Boothc . .
Laurence Boothe. .
Th. Rotherham,

abp. of York
Th. Bourchier

Th. Bourchier

Th. Bourchier . . . .
Th. Bourchier . .'. .
Morton, abp. Cy.
Th. Rotherham. ..
John Morton . . . .



Th. Rotherham.
John Morton . ,
Th. Rotherham.
Th. Rotherham.
John Morton .
John Morton . ,
Th. Rotherham



Edward IV.
Edward IV.

Edward IV.

Edward IV.
Edward IV.
Kdward IV.
Kdward IV.
Edward IV.



Cone. M. B.

I iii. e07

Ibid. 007

Ibid. C08. Coll.
I iii. 410
Cone. M. B.
iii. fi08

Ibid. (>12

Ibid. fil2

Ibid. f;i2

Ibid. 612

Ibid. 614



EdwardlV. .. Ibid. G12,



Edward V.
Richard III.
Richard III.
Henry VII.
Henry VII.
Henry VII.



Henrjr VII.
. Henry VII.
.Henry VII.
.1 Henry VII.
.Henry VII.
.Henry VII.
.^HenryVII.



Ibid. 614
Ibid. 614
Ibid. 616
Ibid. 618
Ibid. C-.?l
Ibid. 625

Ibid. 630
Ibid. 634
Ibid. 635
Ibid. 644
Ibid. 644
Ibid. 645
Ibid. 646



Cant. Pro. Synod,
with continua-
tions.

Cant. Pro. SjTiod.

York Pro. Synod.

Provinc. Synod.

York Pro. Synod.
Cant. Pro. Synod.
Provinc. Synod.
Provinc. Synod.
Provinc. Synod.



Pro. Synod, with
continuations.

Cant. Pro. Synod.

Cant. Pro. Synod.
. . Cant. Pro. Synod.
. . [Provinc. Synod.
. .Provinc. Synod.
. .Pro. Synod, with

continuation.
. . JProvinc. Synod.
. . Cant. Pro. Synod.
. . Provinc. Synod.
. . Provinc. Synod.
. . Cant. Pro. Synod.
. . Cant. Pro. Synod.
.. York Pro. Synod.



IX.]



ENGLISH SYNODS.



257



existence ceased at the pillage and destruction of the abbeys
and monasteries.

- , Our present period begins with the accession

II. Accession ^ * '^

of Archbishop of John de Peccliani to the see of Canterbury,
to tiie see of Can- who, Very early after he was invested with that
ter iiry. dignity, called together synods of his province.

The first was a provincial synod of bishops only, convened at
Reading^, a.d. 1279; the next a provincial synod of the
same character, which met in London'', a.d. 1280 n.s., and at
which the bishops, having previously consulted with their
clergy in their respective dioceses, were to report what aids
could be raised for the needs of the sovereign. For his
majesty's Welsh expedition had rendered his wants so press-
ing, that he not only desired assistance through the means
of this assembly, but actually wrote himself to individual
bishops'', desiring that they would promote his pecuniary
interests within the limits of their respective jurisdictions.

The third synod held by Archbishop Peccham was con-
vened at Lambeth % a.d. 1280 ; and this was a full provincial
synod, composed of all members who could at that time claim
seats in such an assembly ; for not only were the bishops and
abbots called, but "the whole ^ clergy of his metropolis."
And it may be presumed that the chosen presbyters, under
the degrees of abbots, attended according to the practice esta-
blished in Archbishop Robt. Kilwarby's time, which has been
previously considered. His fourth provincial synod was held
in London'', a.d. 1280, of which but scanty accounts remain;
his fifth at Lambeth s, a.d. 1281, all other usuaP members,
except the diocesan proctors, being summoned by name, for
which omission it is difficult to assign a reason, if the records
are correct; and his sixth was a provincial synod of bishops
only, held in London^, a.d. 1282 n.s.

But to proceed to matters bearing directly
on our present inquiry. In the year 1 283
a provincial synod was summoned by Arch-
bishop Peccham to meet at the New ^ Temple, London, a

2 " Convocatis universis episcopis, abbatibus et toto clero suae metropolis." —
Cone. Mag. Brit. ii. 42, citing MS. Bodl. Digb. No. I70, f. 18, a.

^ Coepiscopos . . . abbates, priores electivos . . . decanos cathedralium et col-
legiatarum ecclesiarum, archidiaconos, et capitulorum prociu-atores." — Cone. Mag.
Brit. ii. 50.



A.D. 1279
—1500.



III. Convoca
tions pure provin-
cial synods.



b Cone.
Masr. Brit,
ii. 33.
c Cone.
Masr. Brit,
ii. 37.



J K. Edw.
I.'s Letter to
Dp. of Wor-
cester, Cone.
Mag. Brit.
ii. 40.
e Cone.
Ma- Brit.
ii. 4-2.



f Cone.
Mag. Brit.
ii. 49.
S Cone.
Mag. Brit.
ii. 49, 50.



h Cone.
Mag. Brit,
ii. fa'9.



' Cone.
Mag. Brit,
ii. 93.



258



ENGLISH SYNODS.



[chap.



A. D. 127!
—1500.

J Kennett,
Eccl. Svn.
p. 136. ■



k Kennett,
Eccl. Svn.
p. 136. ■
' Vide note.



•>' Cone.
Mag. Brit,
ii. 91.



place of privilege J and exemption, and called together by pure
ecclesiastical authority. To this synod were summoned all
such persons as we have seen in the last chapter were the
proper constituent members of the provincial synods of this
country at that time. The persons here convened were all
specifically named in the mandate sent by Archbishop
Peccham to the Bishop* of London, desiring him to call
together the assembly, viz. "bishops of the province, abbots,
priors, deans of cathedrals and collegiate churches, arch-
deacons . . . two proctors for each diocese, and one for each
chapter." They were called not by any secular authority,
but by the archbishop's mandate — they were called not to a
place under royal jurisdiction, but to one exempt'' by eccle-
siastical privileges — and they were called to "treat' and agree
upon such things as the whole clergi/ should deem profitable
for the honour of the Church, the satisfaction of the king, and
the peace of the kingdom." This was a tme provincial
synod. It had not a single element about it which could lead
to a reasonable surmise that it partook in any way of the charac-
ter of a secular assembly. Indeed it may be remarked that
the clergy assembled on this occasion had refused to attend
tlie parliament •", summoned to meet at Northampton in
January of this year whither the king had endeavoured to
bring them by a royal writ, because they thought he was ex-
ercising an unwonted stretch of power. But to this ecclesias-
tical assembly, summoned by proper metropolitical authority,
and in the due canonical way, they came ; and that it was a
pure provincial synod, and composed of the same persons as
those who in the last chapter were shewn to be proper con-
stituent members of such assemblies, its \\'hole history testifies.

* " Quocirca fraternitati vestrae tenori prffisentium praenipiendo mandamus,
quatenus confratres nostros Episcopos Cant. Ecclesise, suftraganeos omnes et sin-
gulos, necnon abbatcs, priores ac alios quoscumque domibus religiosis prsefectos
exemptos et non exemptos, decanos ecclesiarum cathedralium et coUegiatarum, ac
archidiaconos universos per Cant, provinciara constitutos, citetis vel citari faciatis
peremptorie . . . ita quod ad dictos diem et locum London de qualibet diocesi duo
procuratores in nomine cleri, et de singulis capitulis ecclesiarum cathedralium et
coUegiatarum singuli procuratores sufficicnter instructi miltantur, qui plenam et
expressam potestatem habeant una nobiscum et confratribus super prsemissis trac-
tandi et consentiendi liis, quae ibidem ad honorem Ecclesia;, consolationem domini
regis, et pacem regni, cleri communitas providebit." — Cone. Mag. Brit. ii. 93,
citing Reg. Peckam, fol. 83, b.



IX.]



KNGLISH SYNODS.



259



This provincial synod, as well as that next following, held
again at the New Temple " shortly after Michaelmas in the
same year, 1283, and composed of the same members, was
called, according to the records which abide, not only (as has
been sometimes represented) for the matter of subsidies, but
to consult for the " honour ° of the Church,"" and to treat of
those things " which ° respect the honour of God and the
salvation of souls." It is indeed evident, that while the
clergy taxed themselves, a practice which existed until the
reign of K. Charles II., subsidies, as well as doctrinal matters,
were of necessity often treated of in pure synods. But it is a
great violence to history to endeavour to fix a secular charac-
ter upon our ecclesiastical assembhes, because it is found
that financial matters became among others the subjects of
their deliberations and decisions. This was an accident
attaching to them from the very necessity of the constitution
of our Church and nation as at that time established ; and it
is as false in reasoning to assign a secular character to our
provincial synods or convocations of that age, because they
sometimes entertained questions of financial supply, as it
would be to attribute a synodical character to the English
House of Commons of this age, because it unfortunately
becomes ever and anon the arena of theological dispute.

We have at this time, then, the clear records of mandates
by which pure provincial synods or convocations were sum-
moned, those mandates containing all the constituent mem-
bers, mentioned specifically and by name, in respect of whom
it was necessary to prove by a more laborious process in the
last chapter that they enjoyed seats in those assemblies. No
doubt, therefore, remains as to the persons of whom the
convocations were composed at this period. A detailed list,
however, will be hereafter given p of them.

Nor can any doubt reasonably exist as to the purposes for
which such assemblies were convened, viz. to promote the
honour 'i of God, the good of the Church, and the salvation of
souls.

IV. Of tiie roy- It is perfectly evident that in all ages and in

alwritscommand- ^ ^ °

ing the metropoii- evcry branch 01 the Church, where no external

* " Quae honorem Dei et animarum salutem respiciunt, tractaturi." — Cone.
Mag. Brit. ii. 95, quotes Reg. Peck. fol. 84 seq.



A. D. 1279
—1500.

" Cone.
Mag. Brit,
ii. 95.



o Cone.
Mag. Brit.
ii. 93.



P See see. 6
infra.



1 Cone.
Mag. Brit,
ii. 93.



S2



260



A. D. 1-279
—1500.



r 19 Hen.
VITI. c. 2^



ENGLISH SYNODS.



[chap.



» Vid. infra,
chap. xi.



I.egi
299.



um Ecc.



' Cone.
Map. Brit,
ii. 91.
^ Cone.
M.ajr. Brit,
ii. 02.



Set on foot by
K. Edward I.



tans to summon influence has prevailed, metropolitans have

provincial synods. , • • i i . .i • t

summoned provmcial synods at then* own dis-
cretion and under their own authority. Such was the
practice in our own country down to the year 1534, in
which the Clergy Submission Act "^ was passed ; and though
this is denied in the preamble of that act, and it is asserted
to be " according to the truth that the convocations ....
always hath been .... assembled only by the king's writ," yet
it is, I hope, pardonable to say that a more transparent and
notorious falsehood does not stand upon the records of any
country. But ^ of this in its proper place.

Our inquiry here is to discover by what

means it arose that our sovereigns did issue
their writs from time to time for the summoning of provincial
synods or convocations, even during those periods of our history
in which our metropolitans also, as often as they pleased,
called together those assemblies under their own authority,
in accordance with the immemorial usages of the Church,
and with the ancient customs and common law of this land.
Now this practice for the king to issue his writs directing the
archbishops to summon tlieir respective provincial synods
was set on foot in K. Edward I.'s time ; and though at its
commencement it met with very ill success, yet afterwards, in
the reign of K. Edward III., it became a common usage.
The old-established principle acted upon in this country was
" quod ' omnes tangit debet ab omnibus approbari ;" and
in accordance with it pecuniary aids were always voted
by the clergy in their proper synods. It therefore became
desirable for expensive monarchs that those synods should
be held frequently ; for even when no spiritual affairs needed
attention, yet fiscal wants might press. Now to supply
these K. Edward I. endeavoured at one time to raise the
needful subsidies by calling the clergy to parliament irrespec-
tively of a synod, and so to impose financial burdens upon
them in the lay assemblies of the realm. Ilis first endeavour
to do this in the parliaynents at Northampton " and York ',
A.D. 1283 N.S., was a signal failure — "they absented," though
on that occasion his language had been that of command ".

" " Yobis mandamus rogantes quatenus . . .venire faciatis coram nobis ajiud
Nortiiamp. in octab. S. Hilarii," &c. — Cone. Mag. Brit. ii. 91.



ENGLISH SYNODS.



261



So at the subsequent provincial synod before mentioned"', held
in the due canonical way at the New "^"^ Temple, London, three
weeks after Easter, a.d. 1283, his commissioners appeared with
a request couched in more mild language, affectionately ^ re- j
questing attention to his wants, which, being thus notified
in the usual way, were in the usual way supplied. And thus
matters proceeded upon the ancient footing, until the clergy of
the northern province, about three years afterwards, being some-
what backward in their supplies, the king sent a request * to
the Archbishop of York (a.d. 1286) that he would summon
his provincial synod to vote an aid, which his majesty asserted
had been promised ; and which to the amount of a thirtieth "^
part of their goods was then accorded. This request, how-
ever, did not amount to a command. The clergy of Canter-
bury in the meanwhile held their synods under the authority
and at the command of their metropolitan, as usual. But the
backwardness of the northern clergy to supply the exchequer
seems again, in the course of four years afterwards, to have
instigated the king to interpose some strain of authority.
The clergy of Canterbury in their provincial Synod ^ of Ely
(a.d. 1290) had granted a fifteenth, and the king thought
that their brethren of the north ought not to be less ready
with their assistance. He therefore directed a writ to John
Komani, archbishop of York, desiring him to summon his
provincial synod, and to induce the members to imitate the
liberal example set in the sister province. This document
amounted to somewhat more than such a request as was com-
municated in the former instance, and it ended in words of
unmistakable command '. And this is perhaps the first of those
documents connected with the period before us, bidding a metro-
politan to hold his provincial synod, and couched in words of
absolute command. Such communications afterwards became
more common, and the present royal writs for the summoning
of the convocations are their natural offspring.

The success of this enterprise, as regarded the northern

7 " Vos afFectuose rogantes quatenus ... in his, quae vobis circa prasmissa ex
parte nostra referent viva voce, adhibeatis firmam fidem." — Cone. Mag. Brit. ii. 94.

^ " Quocirca vos rogamus quatenus habito coUoquio cum clero vestro eundem
(sic) ad solvendum nobis, quod gratis promisit."— Cone. Mag. Brit. ii. 126.

8 " Et hoc, sicut de vobis confidimus, nullatenus omittatis." — Cone. Mag. Brit,
ii. 174.



A.D. 1279
—1500.

"-Sup. p.
■2ot.

«w Cone.
Mag. Brit,
ii. 93.



X Cone.
Mag. Brit,
ii. 127.



y Couc.
Mag. Brit,
ii. tTd.



262



ENGLISH SYNODS.



[chap. I



A. D. 1279
—1500.



« Cone.
Mag. Brit,
ii. 201.



2 Wake's
Slate, p.
464.



province, was satisfactory. The clergy met, and, having been
called in the due canonical way by their metropolitan, though
at the instigation of the king, cheerfully ' voted their subsidy.
This successful issue appearing in favourable contrast to the
failures which attended K. Edward's previous endeavours to
bring the clergy to his parliaments at Northampton and York
for the purposes of taxation, induced him to pursue in the
year 1 294 a course somewhat similar, though of more extensive
operation. In that year the French monarch having pos-
sessed == himself of our Gascon provinces, K. Edward I. de-
sired to recover them, and for that purpose required aids to
meet his expenses. With this view he determined that a
national synod should be called by ecclesiastical authority,
having found by previous experience that such a course was
more likely to furnish the exchequer than any attempt to
force the clergy into parliainent for taxation. He therefore
directed writs, dated the 19th of August, 1294, to each bishop,
commanding them respectively to present themselves on the
following festival of S. Matthew at Westminster, in order
" to treat with himself, the prelates, and clergy of the
kingdom on the state of Gascony." The bishops were not
only ordered themselves to attend, but they were bid to
" call ' their archdeacons and the whole clergy of their
diocese " to attend with them. Thus was a national synod
summoned not provincially by the metx'opolitans, but by ac-
cumulated diocesan authority. And this was, I think, the
second instance at this period of a synod being summoned by
ecclesiastical authority at the previous command of the
monarch. From the word " vocantes " which occurs in the
king's writ on this occasion, Dr. Atterbury has looked upon
this as the forerunner of the " prsemunientes '' clause, which
was first inserted in the bishops' writ to parliament issued in



Online LibraryJames Wayland JoyceEngland's sacred synods : a constitutional history of the convocations of the clergy, from the earliest records of Christianity in Britain to the date of the promulgation of the present Book of common prayer; including a list of all councils, ecclesiastical as well as civil, held in England, in whic → online text (page 28 of 83)