James Wayland Joyce.

England's sacred synods : a constitutional history of the convocations of the clergy, from the earliest records of Christianity in Britain to the date of the promulgation of the present Book of common prayer; including a list of all councils, ecclesiastical as well as civil, held in England, in whic online

. (page 53 of 83)
Online LibraryJames Wayland JoyceEngland's sacred synods : a constitutional history of the convocations of the clergy, from the earliest records of Christianity in Britain to the date of the promulgation of the present Book of common prayer; including a list of all councils, ecclesiastical as well as civil, held in England, in whic → online text (page 53 of 83)
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take the heading of our present thirty-nine articles, passed
ten years afterwards, in 1 563 n. s., which are dated " in the
yere^ of our Lorde God jidlxii, according to the computation
of the Churche of Englande," i.e. according to the old style.
„ ,,. . After the final ratification of the forty-two

Publication of • i • i t» r i

the Articles of articles bv the convocation which met March


2, 1553 N.s., and was dissolved April 1, 1553,
a very short time elapsed before they were set forth by the
king's command. Indeed, in less than two months after the
rising of the synod a royal order was dated "= from Green-
wich for their publication*^, and they appeared with this
notice prefixed to them : " Published ^ by the kinges majesties
comraaundement in the moneth of Male, anno Domini 1 553."
This royal ratification is important, as it pledges K. Edward
VI.'s veracity to the correctness of the synodical title which
they bear, — a point to which attention will hereafter^ be drawn.
Havinop traced the history of the forty-two

Corroborative *=" , •' . -^

proofs of the sy- articles of 1 552-3 according to the best light we

" The title to the Latin copy is " Articuli de quibusin SjTiodo Londinensi, anno
Dom. MDLii., ad tollendam opinionum dissensionem, et consensum verse religionis
firmandum, inter episcopos et alios eruditos viros convenerat : Regia authoritate in
lucem editi." — Cone. Mag. Brit. iv. 73. Card. Syn. i. 1.

A.D. 1553.
K. Ed. VI.

^ Card. Syn.

b Card. Svn.
i. 53.

■^ Wake's

State, p.


•1 May 20.

e Carf. Syn.

i. 18.

f Vid. inf.
p. 484.




A.D. 1.553.




Robert Hoi-


e See Hey-
lin's Exa-
men, nn.

'■ Cone.
Maj;. Brit,
iv. 73. CarJ.
Syn. 1«.

i Hist. Ref.
p. 122.

J June 1.553.

k Card. Syn.
i. 5, note.

' SeeWake's
State, p.

"• \N'aUe's

State, p.


n The 23rd.

o Wake's

State, p.


P Wake's

State, p.

nodical authority liave, and SO far as scattered information
1552-3. allows ii.s, it remains to adduce corroborative

proof, shewing that they were synodically sanctioned s. And
this is the more necessary from the fact that doubts have
been raised upon this point in sundry quarters ^ and have been
repeated by a late * editor, who has published these articles
with critical remarks attached.

Now in the first place their title at once appears to fix
their synodical origin^: ^'■Articles agreed on hy the hlslioppes
and other learned onenne in the synode at London in the yere of
our Lorde Godde mdlii." &c.

And this title is endorsed by his majesty K. Edward VI.
by whose authority they were published, so that if the title
stated an untruth, "a most pious and religious prince,"" to use
Heylin's' words, "must needs be looked on as a wicked and
most lewd impostor in putting such an horrible cheat on all
his subjects, by fathering these articles on the convocation
which begat them not, nor ever gave consent unto them.""

But not only is synodical authority stamped on their title
and endorsed by the king. When they were sent down in the^
month following their publication to be subscribed in the
univei'sity of Cambridge, it was particularly specified'' that
they had been " concluded on in the synod of London."

Again, in the beginning of Q. Elizabeth's reign, the London
ministers set out a declaration. The' examiner of this decla-
ration pressed upon their notice the subscriptions which many
of themselves had with their own hands made to these articles
of 1552-3; and"' in quoting one of the" articles, says of it,
these are the words which the "whole" synod were well
pleased withal, and whereunto all the clergies hands are set
to." This was not denied by the other party; on the contrary,
the fact was fully and emphatically admitted that they " had p
subscribed that article." Indeed, the synodical authority of
these articles of L552-3 was admitted on all hands in this
dispute ; which, having occurred so soon after the ratification
of the documents in question, must have found those engaged
in it possessed of all the facts necessary for coming to a true

" Priestcraft in Perfection, p. 29. Ncal and others.
' Dr. Lamb's Articles.




In addition to this we are to consider that the Church of
England, during the first five years of Q. Elizabeth's reign,
received these articles and none other as the authoritative
exponents of faith and doctrine ; which as Heylin i very truly
remarks, " certainly she had not done had they been com-
mended to her by a less authority than a convocation."

And lastly, we have the evidence of the provincial synod of
1563 N. s., which reduced these forty-two articles to the pre-
sent standard of faith — the thirty-nine articles of the Church
of England. For in the session'' of that synod held Jan.
19, 1563 N.S., these articles of 1552-3 are specially designated
as "articles published^ in the Synod of London, in the late
reign of K. Edward VI." This of itself is sufficient evidence
that they had been synodically sanctioned, otherwise the
provincial synod of 1563 n.s. would have subjected itself to
very just imputations of falsehood ; of such a misstatement,
moreover, not a few at that time would have been ready
enough to take advantage.

One point requires a word in explanation. It may occur
that the title of these articles does not mention the word 'con-
vocation,'' but speaks of them as " agreed on by the bishoppes
and other learned menne in the synode at London." But it
is beyond doubt that this expression means the convocation,
which has been commonly described in such terms. To give
two instances at this time sufficient for the purpose, the " six '
articles" are said, in the act 31 Hen. VIII. c. 14, to have been
agreed to by the " archbishops, bishops, and other learned
men of the clergy," who just before were styled a " synod " or
"convocation." And, again", in the articles of 1536 the con-
vocation is signified by the expression, "the bishops^ and
others the most discreet and learned men of the clergy."

XXVII. Cate- There was bound '"^ up with the fortv-two
chism of 1553. articles of 1 552-3 a catechism called K. Edvvard's
catechism', framed^ either by Poynet, bishop of Winchester, or
by Alexander Nowell, then Master of Westminster, afterwards
Dean of S. PauFs. But as there is no satisfactory evidence
of this work having ^ been ratified by convocation, it is need-
less to enter into its history further than to mention its exist-
ence, and this is desirable because thence may be drawn a sup-
" " Catechismus Brevis Christianse Discipliiife summam continens."

A.D. 15,53.
K. Ed. VI.

1 Hist. Ref.
p. 122.

'■ Gibson's
Aug. 201,
printed 193.
* Ibid, and
Att. Rights,
p. 408.

' Att.
Rigbts, p.


» Fuller's
Ch. Hist.
b. vii. p.

'^ Coll. V.
506, and
Att. Rights
p. 206.

y Wake's
State, p.




A.n. 1553.




Robert Hol-


^ Fuller's

CL Hist.

b. vii. p.


8 Hfivlin''s

Hist." Ref.

J). 1-21.

■> See below,

chap. xii.

p. 508.

<• Caid. Syn.

plementary argument in favour of tlie synodical authority of
I the articles with which it was bound up. For subsequently, in
I Q. Mary's time, Dr. Weston, a bigoted Romanist, and prolocu-
tor in two pretended provincial synods, objected ^ that the said
i catechism " was not^ set forth by the agreement ^ of the con-
vocation^; but against the articles, though bound with it, no
such charge was made, and this exclusive condemnation of the
catechism, as not being synodically sanctioned, is so far forth
evidence *= in favour of the articles.

xxvni Ge- ^^^^ '^^^® °°^^ S^^^ through all the formu-
neral remarks on larics of faith and officcs for divine service

tlie sjTiodical pro- i i- i i • • f. t^ -n i

ceedings of this published m the reign of K. Ldward VI., docu-
'^^'^"' ments on which the reformation of the English

Church was based, footstones on which it stands to this day.
If the arguments above adduced are conclusive, it follows that
those documents were synodically sanctioned, and that the
reformation was the work of the Church herself, notwithstand-
ing the innumerable insinuations and very positive ^ declara-
tions to the contrary which have been published by Romanists,
Erastians, dissenters, and others who have treated this sub-
ject without due inquiry. Not to dwell now on the progress
towards a reformation made in the last reign '^'\ its consumma-
tion in the present one by the restoration ® of the cup to the
laity, and the discharge^ of clerical celibacy in 15-I-7, by the
first reformed Prayer Book^ of 1548-9, the new'' ordinal of
1549, the second reformed Prayer Book' of 1552, and by the''
forty-two articles of 1552-3, was effected by the voice of the
Church herself, as speaking through her synods.

And if upon these points it has seemed necessary to travel
through a list of corroborative evidence with painful exacti-
tude, and to refer to numerous dates with troublesome per-
tinacity, the reader must excuse the labour thus entailed upon
him on account of the peculiar circumstances of the present
times. For that these mattei-s should be set in a clear light
seems no more than necessary, when the following statements
have been lately made in the upper house of the imperial
legislature, and that, moreover, on the highest authority : —

" The ' convocation was a very uninfluential body for one
hundred years after the reformation." ..." It is a mistake to

» Speech in the House of Lords, July 11, 1851.

d Rev. R. I.
on Supre-
macy, p.

t^d Vid. sup.

Pj.. 4-21-


e Vid. sup.

tliis cliap.

p. 4G0.

•■ Vid. sup.

this cliap.

p. 4CI.

g Vid. sup.

pp. 4G7—


'■ Vid. sup.

I). 473.

' Vid. sup.

pp. 475—


k Vid. sup.

pp. 481—




suppose that we owe to that assembly the constitution and
fabric of our Church. Convocation had little to do with the
framing of our first services and articles.""

A person also holding a position of remarkable eminence has
on a very solemn occasion made the following assertions : —

" Many ^ suppose that no matter of importance relating to
ecclesiastical affairs ever used to be settled until it had
obtained the sanction of convocation. Nothing could be more
erroneous. As to the Prayer Book itself, its original compi-
lation and three subsequent revisions were accomplished with-
out the slightest reference to convocation.""

A writer moreover of a high character for talent has taken
leave to publish on this subject what has been too readily re-
ceived upon his credit, and too unwarily taken upon content.
" The ' assertion," he writes, "that the reformation was the
work of the English clergy is as ridiculous as it is histori-
cally untrue ;"'"' it " was carried against their will, in spite of
their opposition, and in defiance of their convictions."" But if
historical errors subject their authors to ridicule, as is here
implied, it would only argue some prudent forethought to
examine foundations more closely before dashing on at this
rate. A sally of so unguarded a character should at least
have a reserve of truth for its support. Indeed, upon just
consideration, one is led to conclude that in the foregoing
assertions too wide a range is given to the wishes and the
imagination ; it is certain that the ancient landmarks of his-
torical truth are insufficiently regarded.

The position which has above in these pages been defended,
viz., that synodical sanctions, in the great work of the reform-
ation, preceded civil sanctions, is fortified by the words of
the learned Heylin, who thus writes: "put' all which hath
been said together and the sum is this, that the proceedings
of this Church in the reformation were not merely regal (as it
is objected by some puritans), much less that they were par-
liamentarian in so great a work, as the papists falsely charge
upon us : the parliaments for the most part doing little in it,
but that they were directed in a justifiable way ; the work

2 Archbishop of York's Charge, deUvered at Sheffield, June 30, 1853.
^ Edhiburgh Review, October 1851, p. 545. The article quoted was considered
by its author truthful enough to deserve publication in a separate form.

K. Ec

. VI.

1 Hist.




[chap. XI.

A.D. 1553.




Robert IIol-


m Strvpc's



n S. IMark
iv. 37.

o S. Mark
iv. 38.

P S. Mark
iv. 39.

being done synodically by the clergy only, according'fto the
usage of the primitive times, the king concurring with them,
and corroborating what they had resolved on, either by his
own act in his letters patent, proclamations and injunctions,
or by some public act of state, and by acts of parliament."

We shall now pass on to a season of terrible persecution.
K. Edward Yl. departed'" this life on the 6th of July, 1553,
a dark day for this Church and nation. A gathering storm
rose around the Church, and soon "the" waves beat into the
ship so that it was now full." The Lord once aforetime thus
tried the faith of the mariners on the sea of Galilee, who cried
out when their vessel began to sink, — " Master °, carest Thou
not that we perish." In his own good time He, whom the
winds and sea obey, said — " Peace p, be still, and the wind
ceased, and there was a great calm."

But we must trace the effects of this storm in a subsequent
chapter —

" Cras ingens iterabimus sequorl."




OF ARCHBISHOP MATTHEW PARKER, SEP. 14, A. P. 1553 DEC. 17, A.D. 1551).



, A season of persecution for the English Church. II. Accession of Q. Mary I.

III. The queen and her parliament unite in persecuting the Church of England.

IV. The clergy generally unwilling to recede from the principles of the reform-
ation, v. Deprivations of the English clergy. VI. The convocations now no
provincial synods. VII. Pretended provincial synod of 1553 — Harpsfield's
sermon — Dr. Hugh Weston prolocutor — Mr. Pye's speech — Wimsley's speech
— The prolocutor's speech — Bonner's speech— Haughty behaviour of the
bishops — Sundry heads of business proposed — Disputation on the doctrine of
transubstantiation in the lower house — Four articles defined by the upper
house. VIII. Pretended provincial synod of 1554. IX. Royal commission
for the trial of Archbishop Cranmer, Bishops Ridley and Latimer— Archbishop
Cranmer and his two suffragans condemned as heretics — The commissioners'
sentence presented to the convocation — Sundry business in the convocation —
Appointment of proxies — The aid of the universities invoked. X. The parha-
ment and convocation of Nov. 1554 meet — Cardinal Pole addresses the parha-
ment — His speech— Parliament petition for the restoration of papal authority in
England — Parliament petition the queen and her consort to intercede with the
cardinal for the reconciliation of England to Rome— Cardinal Pole accedes to
the request and absolves the parliament, the members kneehng — The form of
his absolution — Gardiner preaches on the subject at S. Paul's Cross— An em-
bassy dispatched to Rome — This parliament carefiil in securing the lay impro-
priations — The convocation absolved by the cardinal legate — Proceedings of
that assembly — The lower house address the upper — The convocation address
the queen and her consort — The address — Act of parHament for the restoration
of papal supremacy in England — Papal supremacy pubhcly acknowledged.
XI. Parliament and convocation meet in October, 1555 — Parhamentary business
— The pretended provincial synod of October, 1555— State secrets imparted to
the assembly— The lower house petition the upper — Subject of non-residence
treated. XII. Cardinal Pole's papal legatine synod — Sundry heads of business in




A.D. 1553.




Robert Hol-


* Warner,
Ecc. Hist,
ii. 347.

" Foxc, Acts
and Mon.
sub aim.

the legatine synod — Cardinal Pole's twelve constitutions published in his legatine
synod — The legatine synod prorogued. XIII. Pretended provincial synod of
1558 N.s. — Sundry heads of business — Articles j)roposed in this assembly.
XIV. York pretended provincial synod. XV. Pretended provincial synod of
November, 1558. XVI. Deatli of Q. Mary I. XVII. Death of Cardinal Pole
— Somewhat of his character. XVIII. Parliament and convocation of 1559 n.s.
meet — Pretended provincial synod of 1559 n.s. — Articles sketched out by the
lower house — And presented to the House of Lords. XIX. York pretended
provincial synod. XX. First parliament of Q. Elizabeth enter upon business —
Civil sanctions restored to the acts of the Church of England — Bill for the
restoration of the Prayer Book — A defect in its management. XXI. A mor-
tality among the bishops — Others refuse the oath of supremacy — The lower
clergy generally favourable to the principles of the reformation. XXII. Acces-
sion of Matthew Parker to the see of Canterbury— Other sees filled up.

HoXtf yap, locTTTip KavTo^ tiffop^Q, ciyav
ijot] aaXivtt, K^vaKOv^irrai Kcxpa
PvOoJv it' ovx o'ia ts <poiviov adXov,

Soph. CEd. Ti/r. 22—24.

" Fit fragor : irrumpunt sonitu, qui saeva ferebant
Imperia, et strictos jussis regalibus enses.
In media jam morte senes, suffectaque leto
Lumina, et undanti revomentes veste cruorem

Val. Flag. Argonaut, Lib. i. 819—823.

- , - We pass on now to contemplate a season of

I. A season of , ^ ...

persecution for the rigorous pci'secution wliicli awaited the English
Church at the hands of the civil power. By
imperial tyranny and under state sanction her rights were
trampled down, her doctrines outraged, her liturgy abolished,
more than one half of her clergy ^ deprived, others banished, im-
prisoned, or burnt, and some of her aged prelates led to martyr-
dom. Her faithful laity, too, were subjected to the like ex-
cesses of persecution, as the pages of our martyrologists ^ too
sadly testify.

Yet it appears upon consideration no ways excusable for the
civil power to force upon subjects a state religion by means
of temporal penalties ; still less by infliction of cruelty involv-
ing torture and death. Even supposing that they who inflict
the punishments are right in their belief, and those who suffer
are wrong, yet execution ' by fire and faggot for misbelief

' Some reckon that those who suffered death in tliis reign for their belief
amounted to 277-— Coll. vi. 153. Others estimate them at 288. — Southey's Book
of the Church, vol. ii. p. 248.


seems an exercise of rigour highly excepti

onable. For it is

A.D. 1553.
Q. Mary.

not clear to demonstration that a man's convictions are

always and entirely in his own power, and thus it appears in-

defensible to punish a misdirection of them with strains of

cruelty so excessive. Men's " understandings," it is said •=,

'■ Coll. vi.

" are not all of a size." The same light does not strike in the








Nature of

1553, Oct.

S. Paul's . .


Q. Mary


Pretended Provincial


mer in prison


Synod, with continu-
ations to Dec. 13.

1533, Oct.


Archbishop Hol-

Q. Mary

Ibid. 88 ....

Pretended Provincial


gate in prison

Synod. ^ . .^

1554, April

S. Mary's,


Q. Mary

Ibid. 94

Pretended Provmcial



mer in prison


1554, AprU

S. Paul's . .


Q. Mary

Ibid. 94 ....

Pretended Provincial


mer in prison

Synod, with continu-
ations to Oct. 5.

1554, Nov.

S. Paul's . .


Q. Mary

Ibid. 94 ....

Pretended Prov. Syn.,


mer in prison

with continuations to
Jan. 26, 1555 n.s.

1555, Oct.

S. Paul's . .


Q. Mary

Ibid. 120 ... .

Pretended Provincial


mer in prison

Synod, with continu-
ations to Nov. 15.

1555, Dec.

King's Cha-


Q. Mary

Ibid, 13! ....

Papal Legatine Synod


pel, West-

mer in prison

of both Provinces,
continued in Feb. in
Lambeth Palace, and
prorogued in Lam-
beth Chapel.

1556 N.S.,


Nicholas Heath


Ibid. 120 ... .

Pretended Provincial

March 4



1556, Oct.

Cardinal Regi-

Q. Mary

Ibid. 142 ... .

Pretended Canterbury


nald Pole

Provincial Synod.

1557, May

Cardinal Regi-
nald Pole

Q. Mary

Ibid. 141-2 ..

Pretended Canterbury
Provincial Synod.

1558 N.s.

S. Paul's . .

Cardinal Regi-

Q. Mary

Ibid. 155 ....

Pretended Provincial

Jan. 21 1

nald Pole

Synod, continued to
March 8, 1558 n.s.

1558 N.s.

Nicholas Heath !Q. aiary

Ibid. ] 70 . . . .

Pretended York Pro-


vincial Synod.

1558, Nov.

Cardinal Regi-
nald Pole

Q. Mary

Ibid. 178

Pretended Canterbury

! 11

Provincial Synod,

continued to Nov. 17.

1559 N.S., S.Paul's ..

See vacant

Q. Elizabeth . . .

Ibid. 179, 182

Pretended Provincial

Jan. 24

Svnod, continued to
May 9, 1559

1559 N.S., York

Nicholas Heath

Q. EUzabeth . . .

Ibid. 181-2 . .

Pretended Provincial

Feb. 10



Synod, continued to
April 15, 1559.

* It seems highly probable that these were only the coi

itinuations of Cardinal Pole's legatine

synod, where nothing was done, although these assemblies

are designated as Canterbury Con-

vacations. Vid. inf. in loc.

t There is an evident misprint in Cone. M. B. here.

Jan. 1 being put for Jan. 21. — See

Wake's State, 499. Coll. vi. 173.




A.D. 1553.

Robert Hol-

d Sept. 14,

dd Warner,
Ecc. Hist,
ii. 319.
e Hume,
c. xxxvi.
p. 374.
f Warner,
ii. 320-3.

K Warner,
Ecc. Hist,
ii. 347, and
see Coll. vi.
63, 64.
'• G coves'
Hist, of the
Ch. of Great
p. 185.

' Foxe's

Acts and

Mon. ii.


J By 1 Mar.

sess. 2, c. 2.

same direction, and with the same force upon every body.
Besides, we are to consider that sucli managements allow
hypocrites to pass with an easier motion than honest men, an
event not desirable cither in the directions of Church or

II. Accession ^"^ present period commences with the im-
of Q. Marj' I. prisonmcnt ^ of Archbishop Cranmer ; but it is
necessary just to glance at some circumstances which pre-
ceded that event.

On the 8rd day^^ of August, 1553, Q. Mary I., surrounded
by much solemn pomp and hailed by popular acclamations %
made her entry into London as queen of England. And
though her words ^ at first were smoother than oil, yet her acts
soon shewed themselves to be very swords. A Romanist by
conviction from her infancy, she began at once by every means
within her power to unsettle the foundations of the reformation,
to re-establish the papal authority in England, and to bring
back again those corruptions in religion from which this
Church had disengaged herself by her own inherent authority,
and in the due exercise of her proper synodical powers.

In Q. Mary I, the court of Rome found an
a.ssistant no less willing than her predecessors,
K. AVilliam I. and K. John and K, Henry III.,
to aid in reducing the Church of this land under
the papal yoke. Nor was the queen alone en-
gaged in this work. The parliament united with her in un-
holy alliance.

The part which Q, Mary took in the enterprise was to im-
prison the archbishops of both provinces, to deprive or force
to resignation eleven bishops, and, according ^ to Warner, in
all about .9000 clergy ^ " In a word," to use the phrase'' of

Online LibraryJames Wayland JoyceEngland's sacred synods : a constitutional history of the convocations of the clergy, from the earliest records of Christianity in Britain to the date of the promulgation of the present Book of common prayer; including a list of all councils, ecclesiastical as well as civil, held in England, in whic → online text (page 53 of 83)