James Wayland Joyce.

England's sacred synods : a constitutional history of the convocations of the clergy, from the earliest records of Christianity in Britain to the date of the promulgation of the present Book of common prayer; including a list of all councils, ecclesiastical as well as civil, held in England, in whic online

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Online LibraryJames Wayland JoyceEngland's sacred synods : a constitutional history of the convocations of the clergy, from the earliest records of Christianity in Britain to the date of the promulgation of the present Book of common prayer; including a list of all councils, ecclesiastical as well as civil, held in England, in whic → online text (page 62 of 83)
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Thirdly, Sandys ^ suggested that a scheme should be drawn
for Ohuroh. -discipline and government by a committee ap-
pointed by the queen, and that the regulations agreed to by
the persons so chosen should be confirmed in parliament.
Thus this bishop seems to have taken an odd view of eccle-
siastical jurisdiction, little creditable to him as a man of
sense, still less so as a divine ; and his enterprise came to
nothing, as it deserved.

Similar attempts to disable some of the sig-
and authorized ceremonies of the i
were also made in the lower house.
For this purpose a schedule was there introduced "^^ signed
by thirty-three members, which was happily negatived. It



A.D. 1563.
Q. Eliz.

■■ Cone.
Maof. Brit.

iv. ^n^.

Strype's
Ann. i. 297.
Coll. vi. 1
371. 1



8 Coll. vi.

371.

'Vitl. second

Reformed

Pra_ver Book

in loco.



Like attempts
in the lower mficant
house. r^^ i

(.hurcli



" Cone.
JIag. Brit.
iv. 239.
Strvpe's
Ann. i. 297.



V Coll. vi.
371. Cone.
Mag. Brit.
iv. -239.
Strvpe's
Ann. i. 297.



" Strype's
Ann. i. 298.
Coll. vi.
371-2. v:
Cone. Mag.
Brit. iv.
239.

O o 2



564



ENGLISH SYNODS.



[chap.



A. D. 1563.

Archbps.,

Matthew

Parker,

Thomas

Young.



' » Cone.
I Mag. Brit.
I'^v. 239-40.



y Strype's
Ann. i.
298-9. Cone.
Mag. Brit,
iv. 240.



contained seven articles, most of which seem to be directed
either against the proper expressions of Chri.stian devotion, or
the decent solemnities of the worship of God. The schedule
recommended —

1. That the psalms in tlic C(^mmon Prayer Book be sung
by the whole congregation or said by the minister alone, and
that all scientific skill in music and organ accompaniments
should be discharged.

2. That the laity, even in cases of necessity, should be for-
bidden to baptize, and that the sign of the cross in baptism,
as tending to superstition, should be omitted.

S. That kneeling at the communion should be left indifferent
at the discretion of the ordinary. And here the framers of
this schedule seem to have had a peculiar dread lest this
posture should lead to superstition, or lest any man should
smite his breast in token of contrition, forgetting perhaps that
our Saviour commended the conduct of the publican.

4. That copes and surplices should be laid aside, and the
same garment used by the clergy in reading prayers as in
preaching.

5. That the clergy should be discharged from the obligation
of wearing such gowns and caps as were customary among the
Roman priesthood.

6. That the passage in the thirty-third article (the thirty-
fourth of 1563 N.s.) which censures those "who offend against
the common order of the Church and hurt the authority of
the magistrate "" should be mitigated.

7. That festivals and saints'' days should be abrogated, or at
least the honour paid to them abated.

Such in brief were the contents of this schedule, which, when
laid before the house, was signed by five deans ^, one provost,
thirteen archdeacons, and fourteen proctors, in all thirty-
three, and among them occur the names of Nowell the pro-
locutor, as well as of Sampson and Daye.

However, before the matters contained in the schedule
were debated, they were reduced into six heads, and brought
into the following definite and milder form :j —

1. " That y all the Sundays rn the year and principal feasts of
Christ be kept holy days, and all other holy days to be abrogated.

2. " That in all parish churches the minister in common



XIII.]



ENGLISH SYNODS.



665



prayer turn his face towards the people, and there distinctly
read the divine service appointed, when all the people assem-
bled may hear and be edified.-

8. " That in ministering the sacrament of baptism, the
ceremony of making the cross on the child's forehead may be
omitted, as tending to superstition.

4. " That forasmuch as divers communicants are not able
to kneel during the time of communion foi:_age, sickness, and
sundry other infirmities, and some also superstitiously both
kneel and knock, that order of kneeling may be left to the
discretion of the ordinary, within his jurisdiction.

5. " That it be sufficient for the minister, in time of saying
divine service and ministering of the sacraments, to use a
surplice, and that n£L minister say service or minister the
sacraments but in a comely garment or habit.

6. "That the use of organs be removed."'

After this fashion the wishes of those thirty-three gentlemen,
who appear to have been unreasonably biassed towards the plat-
form which ^ was set up by the foreign reformers, were digested
into a tangible form and prepared for a debate ^ in the synod
which took place during the morning sitting on February 13 ''.
Upon" the foregoing subjects a warm discussion ensued in the
lower house, some moving that the controversy should be
referred to the bishops, and others protesting that they would
by no means consent to any tampering with the Book of
Common Prayer. To the fourth article, concerning kneeling
at the communion, it appears that the contest was particularly
directed. However, a^crutiny ' on the whole question took
place in the ^ afternoon, when the six articles were rejected,
though the innovators on the received offices were in consider-
able numbers. Thus the decent solemnities of religion were
continued in their former condition, many of those who " sup-
l ported them having a great deference for the reformation, as
I established in K. Edward's time, and wishing to maintain in-
violate the inheritance which the learned divines of that day
I had committed to their successors. It is plain, however, from
this debate that the principles of Frankfort and Geneva

' \yarner says that of the members present forty-three voted for the articles,
and thirty-tliree against them ; but that when the proxies were counted a majority
of one appeared against them. — Ecc. Hist. ii. 430.



A.D. 1563.
Q. Eliz.



^ Strype's
Ann. i.

298-9.- \

a Feb. 13.

c Strype's
Ann. i. 209.
Coll. vi.
373.



d Feb. 13,
1563 N.s.



e Strype'i
Ann. i. i



566



ENGLISH SYNODS.



[chap.



A.D. 1563. j

Arclibps., i

Matthew I

Parker. I
Thomns
Yomu'.



fConr.
Maff. Brit,
iv. 23!!.
S Feb. 19.



Stiype'



' Strvpc's
Ann: i. 305.

J Svn. Ang.
k Feb. 22.



' Conr.

Ma-. Brit.

iv. 23,0.

™ Feb. 26.

" Syn. Ang.

213.
1 Cone.
1 IM'a$. Biit.
I iy. 240.
'P Stryjie's

Ann. i. 301.

304.



1 f'onc.
Mag. !5rit.
iv. 24-2.
"■ Strypc's (
Ann. i. 304:

« C..11. vi.
3(i8.

'Svn. All-
214.



had many advocates in this synod ; but we have much reason
to be thankful that the majority of its members had more
steadiness and resolution than to be seduced by foreign
novelties, and more learning and judgment than to invoke
Calvinistic and puritanical singularities as the models for
imitation.

Tern oral busi- Busiuess also conncctcd with temporal affairs
ncss transacted in was transacted iu this synod, with a view to

this synod. . . n «• o •

mendmg the mcomes of poor benefices . oix
articles were transmitted from the upper ^ to the lower house,
with a direction that they should be debated, and that any
conclusions arrived at respecting them should be reduced to
writing. These articles referred'^ 1. to the writ "de melius
inquirendo f 2. to the rating of benefices ; S. to dilapida-
tions; 4. to tenths and subsidies; 5. to pensions of the
religious ; 6. to vacancies in benefices ; and ' it was also
suggested that an act of parliament should be made for the
relief of poor ministers, but without effect. A subsidy J was
moreover granted '^ to the queen.

Schedule of dis- ^ Schedule of discipline was now agreed
cipline. upon' in the lower house, and presented'" by

the prolocutor" and ten others to the bishops. This docu-
ment" appears to have been digested into twenty-one heads,
andP referred to the following subjects — the catechism and
the articles of religion, — the offices of public and private
baptism, — matters connected with the holy comnmnion, —
superstitious images, — depravation of the Prayer Book, —
subscription to the articles of religion before institution to a
benefice or admission to a fellowship, — subscription to the
articles of religion by residents at the universities and the
officers connected with those corporations, — power of ordi-
naries to compel subscription of laity as well as ecclesiastics, —
proper occasions of such subscriptions, — the addition of orders
touching the foregoing subjects to the Prayer Book, — and
the ratification of the same by parliament. This document •>
was unanimously carried in the lower house, and received
attestation under the hands "■ of sixty-three of its members.
When this schedule was presented to the upper house,
their lordships returned* it, giving permission that some'
ivdditions, desired by the prolocutor and clergy, might be in-



^]



EXGLISH SYNODS.



567



serted. This was done"; another item on the crime of
"adultery" being also appended ; but no canons were enacted
on the subjects contained in the schedule, and^ for some
reasons, which do not appear, this matter slept.

Two bills pre- ^^^^ ^^^^® Were also prepared, chiefly by the
pared bv the synod upper liousc, in this svnod on the subject of

for paihament, ^..

but with different disciplme. These bills were to be presented
to parliament for civil ratification. The first
was intended^ to oblige persons to come to divine service
under pain of excommunication, but this miscarried. The
second was for ^ the apprehension and punishment by
the writ "de excommunicato capiendo" of persons excom-
municated. This last bill had a more successful issue, was
enacted by the legislature, and passed into the act ^ 5 Eliz.
c. 23.

Homilies re- During the sitting of this synod the second
hmise i/ them's) - book^ef homilies ' was considered by the bishops,
"'"^- and having been revised and finished, was fitted

' with a preface * composed by Bishop Cox. It may be re-
membered that the first book of homilies, containing twelve,
was authorized in K. Edward VI.''s time ^ ; and the second
lx)ok, containing twenty-one, was ready for publication at his
death. This last book was now added to the first, and the
preface was to serve for both. The work lay some time before
receiving the royal confirmation, but was published in the
course of this year, 1563. Canonical authority, however, was
accorded to it by the thirty-fifth of the articles passed in this
present synod, those now received by the English Church.

There were some other heads of business

Otber business , . , . , — r

proposed in this proposcd m tliis synod, but as they do not ap-
^^"° ■ pear to have received any final sanction, it will

be sufficient merely to glance at them. A schedule '^ was
brought in by Sandys, bishop of Worcester, intended to
restrict leases ^ granted by bishops and deans and chapters —
to provide for due ^ inquiry into the fitness of candidates pre-
viously to ordination — to ensui-e the proper performance^ of
catechetical instruction — and the due publication of banns ^
previously to marriage — to secure competent learning and
exact^ subscription to the articles in the cases of such as should
be appointed to benefices — to restrain the habit of common



A.D. 1563.
Q. Eliz.

" Syn. Ang.

215.

V Coll. vi.

388.



" Strype's
Ann. i. 316.

" Strjpe's
Ann. i. 316.



y Stat, at
Large in



^ Str^9e's
Ann! i. 307.



''See

Strype's

Ann. i. 307,

308.

•j Vid. sup.

chap. xi. p.

457.



<: Strype's
Ann.' i. 300.



d Item 1
and 2.
^ Item 3.

f Item 4.
s Item 5.



568



ENGLISH SYNODS.



[CHAJ



i\.D. 15G3.

Arclibps.,

Matthew

Parker,

Tliomas

Young.

' Strype's
Ann. i. 301.



J Art. 1.

k Art. 2.
1 Art. 3.
"•Art. 4.
" Art. 5.



° Strype's
Ann. i. 3'
Coll. vi.
386.



P Strype's
Ann. i. 311,
and Coll.
vii. 387.






Item 1.



•> Item 2.
<• Coll. vi,
387.

<> Item 3.
<• Item 4.
f Item 5.



swearing, and to authorize the penalty of minor excommuni-
cation in the cases of such as persevered in that profane
habit.

Some articles* were also propounded for the better re-
gulation of the Church by Archbishop Parker himself.
These were directed to giving jurisdiction to bishops over the
sites of monasteries^, with a view to their being used for
parish churches — to appeals "^ — to purgation ^ — to the restraint
of inhibitions™ against ecclesiastical judges — to the correc-
tion" o£ negligence in churchwardens. But this project un-
happily came to nothing, as there was too much backwardness
at that time in restraining the loose principles of the age, and
too much fear of confiding to the Church the power which
ought justly to have been committed to her.

Some papers Souie papers must also here be mentioned,
presented. which Were prepared for presentation in this

synod. The first ° bore the name " W. Exon" written upon
it, which is an argument that it was either penned or at least
approved by the Bishop of Exeter*.

In another paper p, also, drawn by the arch-
bishop"'s secretary and corrected by Parker and
Grindal themselves, some points worthy of remark occur ".

* This paper was directed against the clashing of doctrine which appeared in the
sermons of different preachers, and against diversity in the apparel of the clergy. It
also provided * that money payments for the release of ecclesiastical censures should
be applied to pious uses ; that excommunicated persons should bo duly punished ;
that the jurisdiction of bishops should be extended over peculiars ; that simony
should be punished both in the cases of the presenter and presentee ; that capital
penalties should be applied for the restraint of witchcraft ; that preachers should
be supplied for cathedrals and their dependent churches ; that glebe lands should
not be leased on lives or terms of years ; and that those who disturbed public wor-
ship should be punished.

" It was suggested in this paper that some articles drawn out of Jewel's Apology
should be put forth a, and that opponents of the received doctrines should be
punished by their ordinaries. That as one grammar is prescribed for schools, so one
catechism ^ also should be likewisje authorized ; and here notice is taken that the
catechism <^ almost finished by Nowell must have convocational authority before it is
recommended to the kingdom. That some jioints '^ in the rubric of the Common
Prayer should be amended. That uniform clerical apparel should be prescribed s. -^
That penalties imposed ^ upon pivrishioners for neglect of common j)rayer and holy
communion should not be evaded under cover of replevins or otherwise. That
adultery K, fornication, and incest should be more sharply punished, and that the



Another paper.



• Strype's Ann. i. 310.



Xlll.]



ENGLISH SYNODS.



569



These papers both seem to have contained within them
suggestions of remedies suited to the abuses of the times :
and upon comparison it will be seen that they differ consider-
ably from the schedule of discipline which was carried i in the
lower house. But though none of these wholesome proposi-
tions appear to have been passed into synodical acts on this
occasion, in order to their being enacted as statutes by
the parliament, yet they were the groundwork ^ of many good
laws made afterwards.

The last point to be mentioned as regards

Consultation * ^ • i i i i

among the bi- tliis remarkable synod is, that the bishops held
grave ^ consultations among themselves for the
better government of their respective dioceses and churches.
Consequently some orders with respect to readers and deacons
were (as it is believed) confirmed in this synod, having been
before only enjoined in the year 1559.

1. These orders referred first to readers, who were to pro-
mise that they would only read ' that which was appointed by
public authority — that they " would read distinctly — that they
would abstain "■' from ministering sacraments, and, indeed, from
the performance of all other rites of the Church save burials
and churchings — that they would dress ^ plainly — move men ^
to concord — bring testimonials ^ of good conduct from their
last place of abode — give warning to the ordinary ^ of the
arrival of a new incumbent — abide by the decision of the
ordinary in respect * of remuneration for services, read daily
one chapter of the Old and one of the New Testament for
personal instruction, abstain from appointing substitutes, and

ordinaries should not be checked in their correction of such scandalous practices,
now committed with great frequency and boldness, by prohibitions from the tem-
poral courts. That simony h should be punished both in the presenter and pre-
sentee, the presenter losing his turn of nomination, and the presentee being dis-
abled from holding a benefice for seven years. That impropriators i of tithes
should be compelled to augment poor vicarages to a competent subsistence ; and
I that ordinaries, assisted by justices of the peace, should be empowered to levy a
I rate upon parishioners in great towns for supplying stipends to clergymen. That
a provision should be made for the easier recovery J of tithes. That allowances^
should be made for repairs of chancels, and tliat the materials of such as were
ruined should be applied to restore the fabrics of the churches. That regulations
should be madel for restraining dispensations for pluralities, non-residence, and
marriages without banns ; and that remedies should be provided against the gene-
ral neglect in respect of the writ " de excommunicato capiendo."



A.D. 1563.
Q. Eliz.



1 Vid. sup.
p. 566.



f Strvpe's
Ann; i. 318.



» Strypc's
Ann. i. 306.



t Item 1.
" Item 2.
V Item 3.



™ Item 4.
X Item 5.
>' Item 6.

' Item 7.



I' Item 7.



Item 8.



J Item 9.
k Item 10.



Item 11.



570



ENGLISH SYNODS.



[chap.



A.D. 1563.
Archbps.,
Matthew
Parker,

Thomas

Young.



^



b Cone.
Masr. Brit,
iv, 243.

c Conr. ^
M.ng. Brit,
iv. 243.
d 1.563 N.s.
e Vid. sup.
p. 560, and
Bennett's
Essay, p.
206.



f March 12.



e 'I'revor,
p. 96. Acta
convocatio-
nis Ebor.



A.D. 1566.



'• Cone.
Mag. Brit,
iv. 251.
'QctJ.
J Strvpc's
Ann! i. 498.



read only in parishes destitute of incumbents, except in times
of sickness or on occasions to be allowed by the ordinary.

2. These orders referred in the second place to deacons,
who were called upon to promise that they would not under-
take any handicraft occupation for gain if they were provided
with twenty nobles " or more per annum.

Such were the chief matters transacted in this renowned
provincial synod, which broke up on the 14th of April, 1563,
and to which on many accounts, but especially as being the
parent of our present articles of religion, we cannot but look
back with peculiar interest.
„ ^^ , Concurrently with the preceding Synod of Can-

V. York pro- •' ^ n J

vincial Synod of tcrbury the members of the northern couvocation''
were summoned to meet. Their assembling was,
however, deferred until the 5th "^ of February'^, on which day
matters connected with religion were debated in the synod,
and some articles*' (it is presumed the thirty-nine) were con-
sidered, and the subject referred to their metropolitan. At
this time, also, the question of the proctors' fees engaged
attention. In some instances two pence, and in other in-
stances three pence in the pound, according to the then
value of benefices in the queen's books, were ordered to be
paid. And at a subsequent session ^ it was settled that the
clergy in the dioceses of Chester and Carlisle should pay for the
proctors' wages three pence " for every pound of their bene-
fices s," viz. two pence to the proctors and one to the apparitor-
general. ^Vhether the present levy of " procurations and syno-
dals" upon benefices includes the clergy proctors' fees is left
for the consideration of those who are skilled in diocesan
finance ; most certainly, if it does, that part of the amount
never reaches in some instances its proper destination.

The dates on which the provincial synods

VI. Canterbury .

provincial Synod Were sumuioued Subsequently to this occasion
° ■ may be discovered by reference to the tabular

list at the commencement of this chapter ; it is, therefore, not
necessary to repeat them here, but only to take notice of such
synods as supply matter of interest. It does not appear,
however, that any business was transacted until the meeting
which ^ took place in 1566', and was^ continued through
i» A noble was worth si.v shillings and eight pence.



XIIT.]



ENGLISH SYNODS.



571



twelve ^ sessions, when a subsidy was granted. The instru-
ment was presented ' by the archbishop and four of his suf-
fragans to her majesty, which ™ she graciously received, and
then tendered her tiianks. If any ecclesiastical business was
entered upon during these sessions it is not left upon record.

An iniportant synod however of the southern
bmy provincial province was Convened on the ^rjd " of ^pril,
'^"° 1571. On that day the assembly met at S.

Paul's; but the archbishop, being now unable to walk on
foot, did not land from his barge at Paul's wharf as in 1563
N.S., but at Blackfriars, and, mounting on horseback, thence
rode" to the cathedral, attended by the doctors, advocates,
and the rest of the civilians of Doctors' Commons. On the
way he was joined by Edwyn, bishop of London, and at the
south door of the cathedral the dean and prebendaries in their
surplices awaited the arrival of the procession. After the litany
and the hymn " Veni Creator " had p been sung. Dr. Whitgift
preached the Latin sermon on this text, " The i apostles and
elders came together for to consider of this matter.'"' From
these words this learned divine took occasion to discourse on
the authority and institution of synods, and on the enmity
then shewn to the Church by puritans on the one hand and
Romanists on the other. He spoke also on the subject of eccle-
siastical vestments, and of the ornaments used in the services
of the Church. And, finally, he suggested several matters
which required reform, and for which the power of the present
synod, as he said, ought to be interposed.

Dr. Aiimer After the sermon, which by the way from the



topics introduced would suit these days as well



chosen prolocutor.

as those, and after the dispatch of the usual formal business
in the chapter-house, the archbishop desired the clergy to
choose their prolocutor. Their choice fell on Dr. Aiimer,
archdeacon of Lincoln, afterwards Bishop of London.

At the next "^ session the archbishop ^ appeared in person \
and himself said the prayers according to the practice
observed in the synod of 1563 n.s. The prolocutor was
presented by Goodwin, dean of Canterbury, and Goodman,
dean of Westminster ; and after he was accepted and con-
firmed, the archbishop directed that all members of the lower
house who had not already done so should now subscribe



A. D. 1566.
Q. Eliz.

k To Dec. 6.
' Dec. 7.^
" Strvpe's
Ann.'i. 498.



A.D. 1571.
" Cone.
Masr Brit,
iv. 2(;].
Coll. vi.
498.
Strype's
Ann. ii. 73.



" Strype's
Parker, 318.



P Strvpe's
Parker, 318.
1 Acts XV. 6.



April 7.
* Strv])e's
Parker, 318.
' Cone.
Mag. Brit.
iv. '261.
Card. S3n.
528.



572



ENGLISH SYNODS.



[chap.



A.D. 1571.

Archbps.,

Matthew

Parker,

Edmund

Grindal.

" Sess.^

April 23.

Strvpe's

Parker, 318.

Cone. Mag.

Brit. iv.26l.

Card. Syn.

528.

V Coll. vi.

500.

»■ C\iU. yi.

408.



" Scss. 4,
April 27.



y Strype'i

Parker,

318.



•^ Sess. 5,
May 4.
Cone. Mag.
Brit. iv. 262.
Card. Syn.
531.

a Cone.
Mag. Brit,
iv. 262.



•" BiWio-
tliec. Seript.
Ki'c. Ang.
p. 357.



the thirty-nine articles of 1563 n.s. Those who refused
to do so were to be exckided from the house.
Cheyney, bishop In the " third session, held at K. Henry YIL's
commuSt^'edfor chapcl, Westminster, after the usual protes-
non-attendanee. tatiou respecting the privileges of the church of
Westminster, the archbishop himself again offered the prayers,
and then applying to business, produced a schedule of a subsidy,
— six shillings in the pound, — which was forthwith passed in
both houses ^. In this session ^ Cheyney, bishop of Gloucester,
was excommunicated by the archbishop for not appearing in
the synod, either in his own person or by proxy. This



Online LibraryJames Wayland JoyceEngland's sacred synods : a constitutional history of the convocations of the clergy, from the earliest records of Christianity in Britain to the date of the promulgation of the present Book of common prayer; including a list of all councils, ecclesiastical as well as civil, held in England, in whic → online text (page 62 of 83)