James Wayland Joyce.

England's sacred synods : a constitutional history of the convocations of the clergy, from the earliest records of Christianity in Britain to the date of the promulgation of the present Book of common prayer; including a list of all councils, ecclesiastical as well as civil, held in England, in whic online

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Online LibraryJames Wayland JoyceEngland's sacred synods : a constitutional history of the convocations of the clergy, from the earliest records of Christianity in Britain to the date of the promulgation of the present Book of common prayer; including a list of all councils, ecclesiastical as well as civil, held in England, in whic → online text (page 77 of 83)
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tions of his subjects, to London ; and, arriving there on the
29th of May, he took up his abode in the royal palace of
WhitehaU.

IX. Recovery There now dawned a brighter prospect for
of the Church. ^j^e Churcli of England, which had been
trampled under foot for nearly twenty years. Nine bishops
who had survived the rebellion were restored'', viz. William
•lu.xon, formerly bishop of London, who was soon trans-



ENGLISH SYNODS.



699



lated to Canterbury, Accepted Frewen, formerly bishop
of Lichfield and Coventry, who was translated to York,
William Pierce, bishop of Bath and Wells, Robert Skinner,
bishop of Oxford, afterwards removed to Worcester, John
Warner, bishop of Rochester, William Roberts, bishop of
Bangor, Matthew Wren, bishop of Ely, Brian Duppa, bishop
of Salisbury, afterwards removed to Winchester, and Henry
King, bishop of Chichester. On the first Sunday in Advent
six more bishops were consecrated \ viz. John Cosens, bishop
of Durham, Wilham Lucy, bishop of S. David's, Benjamin
Laney, bishop of Peterborough, Hugh Lloyd, bishop of Llan-
daff, Richard Sterne, bishop of Carlisle, Brian Walton, bishop
of Chester, and John Gauden, bishop of Exeter. The other
seesJ were soon filled with persons qualified to discharge the
duties committed to them.

X Faiii of ^ somewhat exceptionable measure for deal-
tiie Savoy confer- ing witli ccclcsiastical matters was at this time
set on foot ; which, however, having produced
no good effect, need only be mentioned in passing. Li a de-
claration^ pubhshed by the king, on the 25th of October, 1660,
a promise ^ had been made that the English Common Prayer
Book, in the hope of satisfying some presbyterian scruples,
should be reviewed by " learned divines of both persuasions."
In accordance with this promise a commission ^ was issued for
that purpose on March 25, 166 J, to the Archbishop of York,
eleven " bishops, and twenty-nine divines : nine of the latter
being Churchmen, and the remaining twenty being attached to
the Nonconformist platform. It does not fall within our
present scope to pursue the proceedings of these commissioners
through the exceptions ° taken against the Prayer Book by
the one party, or the defences set up for it by the other. It
is equally beyond our purpose to engage in unravelling those
fine-drawn distinctions with which Mr. Richard Baxter
entangled the company, or to follow that gentleman through
his misapplications P of the rules of logic. Nor will our space
allow us to enter into a consideration of his " reformed i
liturgy," which, though drawn up by his single hand, no sense
of modesty prevented"^ him from offering as fit to supersede ^
the liturgy of the English Church. Suffice it to say that the
performances of this Savoy conference (so called because ' the



A.D. 1660.
K. Chas. II.



i See also
Geeve's
Hist. Ch. of
Great Bri-
tain, pp.
386 et seq.



J Vid. inf
p. 702, note.



k Coll. viii.

409.

I Coll. viii.

415.



"> Coll. viii.

417, and

Comp. Hist.

iii. 253.

Bullcy's

Variations,

pref. XX iv.

" Cone.

Mag. Brit.

iv. 570. 572.

" Coll. viii.

421. 442.

P Coll. viii.

442.

1 Coll. viii.

439.

f Comp.

Hist. iii.

253.

* W'heatly

on Com.

Prayer, tn-

troduc. p.

26.

t Coll. viii.

420, and

Comp. Hist.

iii. 253.

Cone. Mag.

Brit. iv.

572.



700



EXGLTSH SYNODS.



[chap.



A.D. 16G1.

Archbps.,

William

Juxoii,

Accepted

Frcwen.

" Bulley's
Variations,
prof. XXV.



* Com]).
Hist. iii.
247.



" Coinp.
Mist. iii.
'2M. Coll.
viii. 414.



commissioners met at the Bishop of London's lodgings in the
Savoy) ended on the 24th of July, ] 661, without any accommo-
dation on " either side. It failed as conspicuously as some
other meetings convened for similar purposes by Q. Elizabeth,
K. James I., and K. William III. And here it is observable
that commissions on the subject of religion are in every age
remarkably unsuccessful.

K. Charles II.'s coronation was solemnized

XI. Somemvs- . , j i i r. /-. •> i 4 m

terious hesitation With great splendour on b. George s day ^, April

about summoning 00 1 rfjl



the provincial sy-
nods acourse wi '
the parliament.



And now, as the stream of public



nods acourse with evcnts Settled dowu to a more composed surface,



the ancient constitution of this Church and State
recovered its just equipoise amid the subsiding elements.
The parliament was summoned to meet on the 8th of May,
1661. But some mysterious hesitation seems to have arisen
about calling together concurrent convocations. Whether
it was unwisely thought at court that the Savoy conference
could properly perform the functions of the English provincial
synods, or whether the unsettled state of ecclesiastical affairs
was the cause of the contemplated innovation is not alto-
gether clear. But however this may be the learned Dr. Peter
Heylin, fearing the ill effects of such a singular mismanage-
ment, wrote a letter to a principal minister of state on the
matter.

Dr p He lin's After the introduction ^ of his subject, the
letter on this sub- cxprcssion of his fear that the synod would be
■'^'^ ■ omitted, and a reference to the rights of the

Church as established by Magna Charta, the learned doctor
declares that it will be an innovation on the constitution, if
any parliament should be called without its concurrent synod,
and this assertion ho maintains by sufficient examples. " But
if it be objected," to use Dr. Heyliirs own words, "that the
commission now on foot (i.e. the Savoy conference) for alter-
ing and explaining certain passages in the public liturgy may
either pass instead of a convocation, or else is thought to be
neither compatible nor consistent with it, I hope far better in
the one, and must profess that I can see no reason in the
other. For first, I hope that the selecting some few bishops
and other learned men of the lower clergy to debate on cer-
tain points contained in the Common Prayer Book is not



XV.]



ENGLISH SYNODS.



701



intended for a representation of the Church of England,
which is a body more diffused, and cannot legally stand bound
by their acts and counsels. And if this conference be for no
other purpose but only to prepare matters for a convocation
(as some say it is not), why may not such a conference and
convocation be held at once? For neither the selecting of
some learned men out of both orders for the composing and
reviewing of both liturgies digested in the reign of K. Edward
VI. proved any hindrance in the calling of those convocations,
which were held both in the second and third, and in the fifth
and sixth of the said king's reign ; nor was it found that the
holding of a convocation together with the first parliament
under Q. Elizabeth proved any hindrance to that conference
or disputation which was designed between the bishops and
some learned men of the opposite parties. All which consi-
dered, I do most humbly beg your lordship to put his majesty
in mind of sending out his mandates to the two archbishops
for summoning a convocation (according to the usual form) in
their several provinces, that this poor Church may be held
with some degree of veneration both at home and abroad.""
After this reasonable request Dr. Heylin craves pardon foi
his presumption, lamenting that no one of higher figure and
worth than himself had undertaken to press the subject, and
at the same time assuring his correspondent that nothing but
a zeal for God's glory and an affection to the Church could
have forced the present letter from its author.

This seasonable and well-supported applica-

XII. Provin- , , . .

ciai sjTiods of tion had the desired effect. The king issued

'^^ ' the usual royal writs ^ to the archbishops in

each province, commanding them to summon their provincial
synods, which in consequence met respectively at S. Paul's ^
and at York** on May 8, 1661, the same day as that on which
the new parliament assembled, whose second act'', by the
way, restored to the bishops *= their ancient right of sitting in
the House of Lords.

On Wednesday, May 8 '^, the day appointed
for the assembling of the southern synod ^ as



1. Canterbury
.■nod.



2 For a detailed list of all the members of this synod, with their names, see
Kennett's Register, pp. 48i) — 482, citing a document printed for Nathaniel Brook
in one large sheet, June 24, 1G61. See Kennett's Register, p. 434.



A.D. 1061.
K. Chas. II.



'' April 11.

y Couip.

Hist. iii.
251. Coll.
viii. 445.
^ Cone.
Mag. Brit,
iv. o65,
» Cone.
Mag. Brit,
iv. 567.
b 13 Chas.
II. cap. 2.
c Geeve's
Hist. Ch. of
Great Bri-
tain, p. 374.
d Syn. Ang.
ii. 57. Cone.
Mag. Brit,
iv. 665.
Kennett's
Register,
p. 434.
Comp. Hist,
iii. 251.
Coll. viii.
445.



702



ENGLISH SVXODS.



[chap.



A.D. 1661.

Archbps.,

William

Juxon,

Accepted

Frewen.

e Syn. Ang.
ii. 61.



f Kennett'!
Reo;istcr,
p. 434,
quotiii'' a
MS.



e Svn. Aug.
ii. 61.



'• Acts XV.
28.



J Kennctt's
Register,
p. 434.

I* Syn. Ang.
ii. 62.



I Syn. Ang.
ii. 63.



Archbishop Juxon was somewhat disabled by age and ill
health, Gilbert Sheldon, bishop of London, presided in his
place. The latter prelate ^, accompanied by eleven bishops '
of the southern province, the deans, archdeacons, and clergy,
together with the Dean of the Arches and the advocates and
proctors of that court, met in S. Paul's churchyard at the
house ^ of Dr. Peter Barwick, an eminent physician, and bro-
ther of Dr. IJarwick, afterwards dean of S. Paul's. Thence,
preceded by the vergers and the sacrist bearing a mace, the
procession entered the cathedral, and was there met by Dr.
Matthew Nicholas ^ the dean, and Drs. Thomas Turner, John
Hacket, and Edward Layfield, canons residentiary, together
with other canons and prebendaries of the Church. These,
vested in their surplices, conducted the president and bishops
into the choir, where the prelates took their seats in the stalls.
The hymn " Te Deum " was then sung in English, and the
second lesson and the rest of the prayers, according to the
Book of Common Prayer, having been said by the sub-dean,
the anthem " O Lord, make thy servant Charles "" was per-
formed.

Dr. Thomas ^lie preacher was Di*. Thomas Pierce, who.
Pierce preacher, having mounted the pulpit, delivered in Latin a
polished and eloquent discourse on this text ^ : " For it
seemed good to the Holy Ghost and to us to lay upon you
no greater burden than these necessary things." After the
sermon was ended another anthem was sung, commencing
with the words, " Lord, grant the king a long life."

Formal biisi- The scrvice' in the cathedral having been thus
ncss transacted. concluded, the synod adjourned to the chapter-
house, or rather to the building then used for that purpose,
the goodly old house •" having been rendered unfit for use by
the impious barbarities of Oliver Cromweirs horse guard. Here
the usual formalities were gone through. The commission '^
from the archbishop, directed to the Bishop of London and
his comprovincial bishops, together with tlie royal writ' were

3 1. Matthew Wren, Bishop of Ely; 2. William Pierce, Bath and Wells;
3. Robt. Skinner, Oxford ; 4. John Warner, Rochester ; 5. Iloiiry King, Chi-
chester ; C. George Morlcy, Worcester; 7- Ilumjjhrey Ilinchman, Salisbury;
8. Benjamin Lancy, Peterborough ; 9. Edward Reynolds, Norwich ; 10. Nicholas
Monk, Hereford; 11. William Nicholson, Gloucester.



ENGLISH SYKODS.



703



read ; the Bishop of London's certificate of his execution of
the archiepiscopal mandate for the synod was exhibited ;
the names of the suffragan bishops were called over ; and the
clergy were ordered by the president, in an excellent Latin
speech, to retire for the choice of their prolocutor.

Dr. Henry Fern Shortly afterwards™ Dr. Matthew Nicholas,
prolocutor. ^^^^^ ^f g p^^^p^^ ^^j^j^ jy^.^ Thomas Tumcr

and Richard Bailey, respectively deans of Canterbury and
Sarum, returned and signified to the bishops that the clergy
had selected Dr. Henry Fern, dean of Ely, as prolocutor, and
had moreover chosen Dr. John Pearson, archdeacon of Sur-
rey, as a fit person to present him. Finally, absentees having
been pronounced contumacious, the synod was continued to
Thursday, the 16th of May then ensuing, when the members
were ordered to meet in the collegiate church at Westminster.
Presentation of -^^ " ^^^^ sccoud scssiou, held, as above or-
the prolocutor. ^^^.^^^^ j„ K. Henry Vn.'s chapel, the West-
minster ° protest having been presented and prayers p said,
the new prolocutor, Dr. Henry Fern, was presented ; and on
this occasion 1 three speeches in elegant Latin were made,
one by the presenter, Dr. John Pearson, one by the very
reverend prolocutor himself, and one by Bishop Sheldon, in
confirming the election.



Special services



After this matter was concluded arrano^e-



ments were made in the upper house for the
preparation "^ of special prayers for the birthday of K. Charles
IL and for his restoration, to be used on the 29th of May
annually. For this purpose the Bishops of Ely, Oxford,
Peterborough, and Sarum were to be joined in committee
with eight members of the lower house. Special prayers also
were to be provided for the 30th of January, the anniversary
of the martyrdom of K. Charles L This matter was to be
placed in the hands of the Bishops of Rochester, Chichester,
Worcester, and Norwich, with eight associated members of
the lower house also, as in the former case.

In the next session ^ held on the 1 8th of May, the service
for the restoration of the king was so far completed as to be
sent down for approval to the lower house ; and the prolocutor
was further informed by the president that an intention was
entertained of drawing up a form for the baptism of adults.



A.D. 16G1.
K. Chas. II.



™ Kennett
Register,
p. 434.



n Scss. 2.

Syn. Ant?.

ii. (55.

Kennett's

Register,

p. 434.

o S)m. Ang-,

ii. 6(i.

P Syn. Ang.

ii. 65.

n Kennett's

Register,

p. 434.



Syn. Ang.
i. 67.



' Sess. 3.
Syn. Ang.
ii. 6'8.



704



ENGLISH SYNODS.



[chap.




« Scss. 7.
Syn. Ang.
ii. 70. Cone.
Ma?. Brit,
iv. 50"5.



" Rose,
Biograph.
Diet, in loc.



Syn. Ang.
ii. 71, 72.



« Latlilnir
2!i.).



"Sess. 10.
Svn. Ang.
ii.' 73, 74



ySvn. Ang.
ii. /7.



For carrying out this plan the Bishops of Sali.sbury, Peter-
borough, and S. Asaph were appointed, an order being made
that si.x members of the lower house should assist those pre-
lates in their labours.

After some sessions held, in which nothing worthy of re-
mark is left upon record, on the 31st of May* the office for
the baptism of adults was read in the upper house and there
approved of.

Mr. Ogleby'3 ^ petition was also put up and read from
petition. Qj^Q ^ij. John Ogleby, of which the purport

was to obtain patronage for a new edition of the Bible which
that literary speculator was engaged in publishing. This gen-
tleman had lately printed a most sumptuous^ edition of
Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, with a dedication to K. Charles
II. The work appears to have gained for him the royal
favour, for his petition to the upper house of convocation
respecting this Bible was accompanied by a recommendation
from his majesty. This edition of the scriptures was, with
the assistance of Dr. J. Worthington and other learned and
accompli.shed men, printed at Cambridge by Field, and adorned
with topographical and other engravings ; and it may be re-
marked that JSIr. Ogleby ""s petition in its behalf was on this
occasion commended by the bishops to the favourable con-
sideration of the lower house.

On the 7th of June ' the king's licence for

amending the canons and constitutions of the

Church was introduced.

And order was taken for the preparation of a

form of prayer to be used on the pul)lic fast day
now approaching, June 12"' having been appointed for that
purpose in London, and the 19th of that month in the country.
For the preparation of this form the Bishops of Ely, Oxford,
Sarum, and Peterbprough, with eight of the lower house,
were appointed.

Reform of cc- On the 19th of June'' the review of the
vSousW pio-' " Canons and Constitutions " of the Church was
motcd. again brought upon the board. The royal

licence, having been amended, was produced afresh, and it was
arranged that a committee of twelve bishoi)S and twenty-four ^
members of the lower house should be appointed to carry on



Royal licence
for the enactment
of canons intro-
duced.



Prayer for a fast
day prepared.



XV.]



ENGLISH SYNODS.



705



the work, who were to meet in the great hall at the Savoy, on
the ensuing Saturday, and thenceforward on the Tuesdays
and Thursdays in every week until their labours should be
completed.

Somewhat ^ connected with this scheme for reforming the
canons and constitutions was a plan for framing a book of
articles to serve ^ as a guide for episcopal visitations, and the
internal regulation of the several dioceses. For this purpose
six bishops were appointed on June 21, who were also to meet
at the Savoy on the following Saturday, and thenceforward on
the Mondays and Saturdays in each week, until their work
should be finished. And it is to be remarked that on this
occasion the Archbishop of York, with his suffragans of
Durham, Carlisle, and Chester, were present in the Canter-
bury Synod, and were requested by Bishop Sheldon, the pre-
sident, with consent of the southern bishops, to lend assist-
ance for the work in hand, which they consented to do. Two
of the northern prelates were also present in the fourteenth
session ^, held on the Srd of July following, when the ques-
tion of the liberty of the press was discussed, and a committee
of eight bishops '^ was appointed for the consideration of that
important matter.

Some ^ of the canons ^ before referred to had been prepared
by the 17th of July, and having received emendations in
the upper house, were recommitted to the Bishop of Salisbury
for further consideration ; and two ^ days after, some more of
those documents being produced by the Bishop of Gloucester,
were likewise amended and returned to that prelate for
revision.

The ^ same course was again taken on tlie 22nd of July,
when the Bishops of Bath and Wells and of Rochester
brought in canons which they also received back again for
further consideration.

But this work Thus WO SCO how actively this work of revis-
t'<r'''no'tinnK*^^for ^^g ^^^ cauou law was Carried on by this synod;
some dark reasons. ^ most nocessary work not only then but now.
And though the scheme ^ was afterwards prosecuted, yet for
some reasons somewhat mysterious it came to no good end.
It seems that some persons who ought to have been most
forward in so good a work were not hearty enough in it'.



A.D. 1661.
K. Chas. ir.



Sess. 11.



Syn. Arg.
i. 75, 76.



b Svn. An?,
ii. 78.



■Svn. Ang.
i. 79.



d Sess. 18.
Syn. Ang.
ii. 80.
f Sess. 18.

fScss. 19.
Syn. Aug.
ii". 81.



g Sess. 20.
Svn. Ang.
ii'. 81.



• -Ang.



ii Syn.
ii. 97,
102. 112.
' Kennett'i
Rcaister,
p. (>29.



706



ENGLISH SYNODS.



[^



A.D. IGGl.

Arclibps.,

William

Juxon,

Accepted

Frewen.

J Syn. Ang.

ii. 71. 73.

ii Kennett's

Register,

p. 630.

1 Kennett's

Register,

p. 630.

™ SjTi. Ang.

ii. 101.

n Kennett's

Register,

p. 630.

o Kennett's

Register,

p. 630.



P Se-ss. 23.
Syn. Ang.
ii. 82.



n Syn. Ang.
ii. (53.



f Cone.
Mag. Brit,
iv. 567.



' Sess. 1.



' Cone.
Mag. Brit,
iv. 567.



After the king's J licence had been granted, and committees
of the synod had been so busily engaged in the matter ^, their
peculiar shares being assigned to each, it is just matter for
regret that the plan was not finally carried out. We have
good reason in this age to lament that failure ', which we are
told proved at the time a heavy grief to many good men, and
specially to Dr. Barwick, who was elected prolocutor of this
convocation after Dr. Fern''s promotion to "" the see of Ches-
ter. For the former gentleman was heard to say, "that"
neither the desperate disease he formerly laboured under, nor
the severity of his confinement, nor the torture he was often
threatened with, was ever so grievous to him." The " active
endeavours of many in this matter were in fact wholly frus-
trated by one or two persons on whom the matter chiefly
depended ; and so those who should have been most forward
in the defence of religion were the greatest impediments in
the way of its protection and advancement.
^, , On P the 27th of July the benevolence granted

The bencvo- , , •' ^ "

lencc granted and to the king was signed by the bishops, and on
the last day of that month the Canterbury
Synod"! was continued to tlie 21 st of November, 1661.

^ Concurrently with the last assembly, on the

8tli of INIay, 1661, the members of the York
Synod met at the cathedral ^ of that province.

The opening The scrvico cousistcd of morning prayer, with
*'"'''"'^' the litany, the 17th chapter of Deuteronomy,

and the 15th chapter of the Acts being substituted, as suit-
able to the occasion for the first and second lessons respec-
tively. The hymn " Veni Creator " having been sung, the
sermon followed.

Formalities oi)- After the scmion the assembly^ met in the
commencement of chaptcr-house, where the royal writ and the
the synod. archicpiscopal mandates were read. As soon as

the clergy had been called over, the president spoke as
follows: — "Doth it please you' that this sacred synod or
convocation do now begin to the glory of God, and the peace
and pubhc good of the Church and kingdom of England f
Upon which the members answered, "It please th us." Again
the president asked, " Doth it please you to begin this solemn
and sacred action with prayer, for the assistance of God's



:v.J



ENGLISH SYNODS.



707



Holy Spirit V To which those present again rephed, " It
pleaseth us."" The president having then said : " Let us pray
kneehng upon our knees," the Lord's prayer was offered up,
together with the following supplication in Latin, in order to
implore a blessing upon the synod : —

The prayer of- "^ ^^od the Holy Gliost ", we here present
fered up. ourselvos, impeded indeed by sinful vanities,

yet specially gathered together in the name of Christ. Come
unto us and abide with us. Deign to pour Thyself into our
hearts. Teach us what to do and how to speak. Direct our
acts, so that under thy guidance we may be enabled to please
Thee in all things. Extend thy salvation to us and to all
who hope in Thee. Guide and confirm our judgments, and
those of all thy servants who bear thy divine commission in
every place, but more especially here in our synod at York *.
Of thy special goodness remember our sovereign K. Charles
IL, with those who guide his counsels, whether ecclesiastical
or civil, whether public or private. Thou who lovest equity,
suffer us not to pervert justice. Let not ignorance mislead
us from the right way. Let not favour affect us. Neither
permit bribery nor flattery to corrupt us. But unite us so
closely to Thee by the gift of thy grace alone, that we may be
as one, and never stray from truth. Thus gathered together
in thy name, may we in all things adhere with pious temper
so constantly to justice, that herein our wills may perfectly
agree with thine, and that we may hereafter behold Thee face
to face in bliss for ever, and always reign with Thee, through
Jesus Christ, our Lord and Saviour, to whom with the Father,
ever blessed in the unity of the Holy Spirit, be all honour,
dominion, and thanksgiving for ever. — Amen."

The synod pre- The syuod " having been thus opened ^ under
sided over by ^|-jg presidency of Dr. Richard Marsh, dean of

commissioners of * •' '

the archbishop. York, Archdeacou John Neil, and Dr. Anthony
Elcocke, the sub-dean, as commissioners for Archbishop
Frewen, v^^as continued to the afternoon without entering on
further business.

When ^ the members again assembled, and Latin prayers



* The word " York " was afterwards altered to " now in London," when
proxies were sent thither in the autumn, as we shall presently see.— Trevor,
P



104, note.



A.D. 1661.
K. Chas. II.



» Cone.
Macr. Brit.
iv. 567.



p. 105.
Cone. Mng.
Brit. iv. 507,
w May «,
1661.



70S



ENGLISH SYNODS.



[chap.



A.D ]6G1.

Arrlibps.,

AVilliiim

Juxoii,

Accepted

Frcwcn.



ySvn. Ar\".
ii. 71-74,
and vid.sup.
pp. 704-5.
^ Cone.
Ma^. Brit,
iv. 5C7.



=» Rnllev



Online LibraryJames Wayland JoyceEngland's sacred synods : a constitutional history of the convocations of the clergy, from the earliest records of Christianity in Britain to the date of the promulgation of the present Book of common prayer; including a list of all councils, ecclesiastical as well as civil, held in England, in whic → online text (page 77 of 83)