James Wayland Joyce.

England's sacred synods : a constitutional history of the convocations of the clergy, from the earliest records of Christianity in Britain to the date of the promulgation of the present Book of common prayer; including a list of all councils, ecclesiastical as well as civil, held in England, in whic online

. (page 80 of 83)
Online LibraryJames Wayland JoyceEngland's sacred synods : a constitutional history of the convocations of the clergy, from the earliest records of Christianity in Britain to the date of the promulgation of the present Book of common prayer; including a list of all councils, ecclesiastical as well as civil, held in England, in whic → online text (page 80 of 83)
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Richard Sterne. .
William Sancroft



Charles II.

Charles II.
Charles II.

Charles II.

Charles II.

Charles II.

Charles II.

Charles II.
Charles II.
Charles II. ,
Charles II. ,
Charles II. ,



Reference.



Nature of
Assembly.



Syn. Ang. ii. Cant. Provincial Synod,

129. Cone! with continuation to
M.B. iv. 581 Aug. 2.

Cone. M.B.iv. York Provincial Synod,
578. 581 j with nine continuations.
Syn. Ang. ii. Cant. Provincial Synod,

130. Cone, with two continuations
M.B.iv. 581. to Sept. 19, 1666.
585 I

Cone. M. B. York Provincial Synod,
iv. 581. 585 nine continuations to
Feb. 22, 1667 N.s.

Ibid. 585. 587 York Provincial Synod,
with twelve continua-
tions to Dec. 21, 1669.

Ibid. 587 . . • • York Provincial Synod,
W'ith thi-ee continua-
tions to May 10, 1670.

Ibid. 593. 596 Provincial Synod, with
continuations to Oct.
14, 1675.
Provincial Synod.



Ibid. 599
Ibid. 599
Ibid. 699 ,
Ibid. 599
Ibid. 602



Charles II. .Ibid. 603



Charles II.
Charles II.



Ibid.
Ibid.



S. Asaph



Charles II. .Ibid. 603. 605

Charles II. .ilbid. 603.,
Charles II. .Jbid. 605 .

Charles II. . ilbid. 608.



York Provincial Synod.
York Provincial Synod.
•York Provincial Synod.

Provincial Synod, with
continuations to Aug.
15.

York Provincial Synod,
with continuations to
Aug. 25.

York Provincial Synod,
with continuations.

Cant. Provincial Synod,
with three continuations
to Jan. 31, 16H0 n.s.

Cant. Provincial Spiod,
with sixteen continua-
tions to Jan. 21, 1681

York Provincial Synod.

Cant. Provincial Synod,
with two continuations
to April 6, 1681.

Diocesan Sjniod.



I William Lloyd
I Bishop

[1685 n.s.
* As regards the continuations of this synod, mentioned in Cone. Mag. Brit. iv. 599, as
compared with the record at p. 603, there appears to be some confusion.



CONCLUSION.



727



our Church identical with those which we at this day have
inherited as a sacred heir-loom. Thus we have the satisfac-



LisT OF ENGLISH SYNODS, A.D. 1663 — 1717 — Continued.



1685 N.s.

Mar. 14
1G85, May

20
1686



16fi7,April
29



1689, Oct.
18



1689, Nov.



1690, Mar.

27
1695, May

20



S. Paul's . .



S. Paul's
Paul's



1695, Nov.
22

1698, Aug.


S. Paul's ....


24
1701 N.s.




Feb. 6

1701, Dec.
30

1702, Oct.
20

1704

1705 Oct


S. Paul's ....






25
I7O6, Dec.









Archbishop.



Sovereign.



John Dolben, James II.

Abp. of York I
William Sancroft James II.

William Sancroft James II.



William Sancroft

Thomas Lam-
plugh, Abp. of
York

William Sancroft
suspended

WilUam Sancroft

suspended
John Sharp, Abp.

of York
Thomas Tenison,

Abp. of Cant.

Th. Tenison.
Th. Tenison.

Th. Tenison

Th. Tenison.



James II..



WUhamlll.

WilUam III.
William III.
WiUiamlll.

WUliamlll.



Th. Tenison.



Th. Tenison..,



Th. Tenison..



Cone. M. B. York Provincial Synod,
iv. 612

Ibid. 612 Provincial Synod, with

eleven continuations.

Ibid. 612 .... Cant. Provincial Synod,
with two continua-
tions.

Ibid. 612 Cant. Provincial Synod,

with three continuations
to Nov. 23.

Ibid. 621 York Provincial Synod,

with continuations to
Feb. 8, 1690 n.s.

Ibid. 619 ... . Provincial Synod, with
fom-teen continuations
to Feb. 13, 1690 n.s.

Ibid. 621 ... . Provincial Synod.

Ibid. 625 ... . York Provincial Synod.

Ibid. 625 .... Provincial Synod, with
continuations to July
12, 1698.

Ibid. 630 Cant. Provincial Synod.



Q. Anne



WilUam III. Ibid. 630.

I Comp. Hist.

ui. 850
WnUamlll.^Conc. M. B.iv.

031. Comp.

Hist. iii. 850
Cone. M. B.iv.

631. Tind.

Cont. i. 375.

Card. Syn. u.

709
Card. Syn. u.

718. Bur-
net's O. T.

ii. 227
Tind. Cont. iii.

463. Cone.

M. B. iv. 632

-634. Card.

Syn. ii. 720.

Burnet's O.

T. u. 247
Cone. M. B.iv.

634. Tind.

Cont. iii. 500.

Burnet's O.

T. ii. 281.

Hume, p. 957



Q. Anne



Q. Anne



Q. Anne



Nature of
Assembly.



Cant. Provincial Synod,

with continuations to

Sept. 18, 1701.
Provincial Synod, with

continuations to Feb.

19, 1702 N.s.
Cant. Provincial Synod,

with continuations to

Feb. 1703 N.s.



Cant. Provincial Synod,
with continuations to
Mar. 15, 1705 n.s.

Cant. Provincial Synod,
with continuations in
Feb. I7O6 n.s.



Cant. Provincial Synod.



[I707 N.s.



728



CONCLUSION.



[t



tion of knowing that our divine offices have received the
full sanction of the provincial synods of England ; and that in
this respect our national Church has closely followed the
example of the Apostolical and primitive ages of Chris-
tianity.

Readers desirous of investigating the subsequent history of
our convocations will find tliemselves amply repaid by perusing
the learned and curious researches of the Rev. Thomas Lath-
bury, who has bestowed much pains in tracing their synodical
acts down to the year 1717, at which time party considerations
induced some of the political chiefs of the day to check the
expression of the Church's voice in her authorized assem-
blies.

It must suffice here to give a brief account of the constitu-
tional powers which are now invoked for summoning our pro-





LIST OF


ENGLISH SYNODS, A.D. 1663— IT IT— couHnued.


Date.

A.D.


Place.


Archbisliop.


Sovereign.


Reference.


Nature of
Assembly.


1707 N.S.




Th. Tenison


Q.Anne .,


Conc.M.B.iv.|Cant. Provincial Synod,


Mar. 5








634. Card, with continuations in










Doc. Ann. ii.


April, 1707.










359;andSyn.












ii. 724. Bur-












net's O. T.












ii. 281-2.












Tind. Cont.












iii. 500




1710, Nov.




Th. Tenison


Q. Anne . .


Cone. M.B.iv. Cant. Provincial Synod,
036. Tind. with continuations to


25
















Cont. iii. 623. June 12, I7II.










Burnet's O.










T. ii. 341.










Card. Syn. ii.










724. 769


1711, Dec.




Th. Tenison. . . .


Q. Anne , .


Burnet's 0. T. Cant. Provincial Synod,
ii.3()l. Cone, with continuations to


















M.B.iv. 653. July 8, 1712.










Card. Syn. ii.










771










1714 N.S.




Th. Tenison


Q. Anne . .


Conc.M. B.iv. Cant. Provincial Synod,


Feb. 1«








654. 666. 1 with continuations to
Card. Syn. ii. July 9, 1714.
775-815


1715 N.S.




Th. Tenison


George I...


Cone. M. B.iv. Cant. Provincial Synod,


Mar. 21






666,667.670. with continnatious to










Card. Syn. ii. Sept. 21, 1715.










816. 827


I7IG N.S.




Th. Tenison. . . .


George I.. .


Card. Syn. ii. Cant. Provincial SjTiod,
816 ! with continuations.


Jan. 9






1717




WiU.Wake.Abp.
of Cant.


George I. . .


Cone. M.B.iv. Cant. Provincial Synod,
672. Card, with continuations.














Syn. ii. 828.





XVI,]



CONCLUSION.



729



vincial synods, together with the forms used, and a summary of
the constituent members. First, the royal writs ^ for assembHng
the convocations are issued by the crown concurrently with the
writs for assembling the Parliament. Those instruments direct
each of the archbishops to call together the synod of his pro-
vince. For an account of their origin the reader is referred to a
former part ^ of this work. It is only necessary here to say that
they issue as a matter of course, and that the unbroken usage
in this respect now partakes of the obligation of common law.
As connected with this subject a most extraordinary error
prevails among many persons, extending, as it seems, even to
some members of our provincial synods, who appear to sup-
pose that the convocations require a royal licence in order to
empower those bodies to deliberate on matters affecting the
Church. This, however, is altogether a misapprehension.
The royal writs above mentioned, which are always directed
as a matter of course to each metropolitan, and which remain
in force until the convocations are either prorogued or dis-
solved by instruments issuing from the same quarter, are the
licences for deliberation, or rather they contain the royal
commands to meet for deliberation. The misapprehension
above referred to has arisen from a strange confusion between
documents altogether different, and from supposing that a
royal licence over and above the writ of summons is needed
before entering upon debates or the discussion of synodical
business. Now a royal licence is required only for " enacting,
promulging, and executing" canons, a contingency of very
rare occurrence. Even were the government of the Church
in this land at this time carried on upon true constitutional
principles, a royal licence is an instrument which would be
very rarely needed ; perhaps if such a document issued once
in each sovereign's reign, it would be quite sufficient for all
necessary purposes, and for a wholesome management of eccle-
siastical affairs.

Upon the receipt of the royal writ for the cahing together
his provincial synod each archbishop issues his mandate. The
Archbishop of Canterbury directs his ^ to the Bishop of Lon-

2 For a copy of a royal writ see Pearce, Law of Convocation, p. 55.
' For a copy of the Archbishop of Canterbury's mandate see Pearce, Law
of Convocation, pp. 59 — 62.



> Supra, p.
259 ct seq.



730



CONCLUSION.



[chap.



•■SeePearcc
Law of
Convoca-
tion, pp.
84, 85.



don, as dean of the southern province, requiring the latter
prelate to summon the bishops, deans, and archdeacons in per-
son, the chapters by one, and clergy of each diocese by two
proctors, to the Canterbury provincial Synod.

Upon the receipt of the archiepiscopal mandate by the
Bishop of London, he in turn sends to all his comprovincial
bishops instruments* directing each of them to appear on
the day and at the place appointed by the archbishop
and to cite the deans and chapters of their cathedrals,
their archdeacons and clergy, admonishing them to be present
also.

Each bishop on the receipt of one of the foregoing documents
directs a mandate ' to the dean and chapter of his cathedral,
requiring the dean to present himself in person and the chap-
ter to appear by a proctor in the ensuing provincial synod.
And at the same time he also directs to each of his archdea-
cons a mandate ^ directing him to attend the approaching
synod in person, and to summon the parochial clergy for the
election of their proctors.

The archdeacons in turn cite the clergy of their respec-
tive archdeaconries to meet for the purpose above specified.
This is done by directing instruments '' to their apparitors ;
on the receipt of these, the apparitors send a summons'
to each clergyman in the respective archdeaconries, spe-
cifying the day on which the election of the proctors
will take place, and also the day on which the latter
are to appear on the part of the clergy in the provincial
synod.

It may here be added that the foregoing is the usual arrange-
ment in the province of Canterbury, though unimportant
variations occur in the mode of procedure in some cases,
as for instance in the diocese of Oxford ^ ; and it should be
observed that in the southern province there are two proctors
for each diocese, and one proctor for each chapter, with, how-
ever, two exceptions. They are these: — Kochester chapter
sends two proctors, and Windsor none. A list is given in the

* For a copy of these mandates see Pearce, Law of Convocation, pj>. 6"2,



* Ibid. p. 71.
' Ibid. p. 79.



« Ibid. p. 7*''-
« Ibid. p. 10.



XV[.]



CONCLUSION.



731



note ® of the present members of the synod of the southern
province, and from a perusal it will appear that the assembly
is thus constituted at this day : —

Archbishop of Canterbury .... 1

Bishops 20

Deans ........ 24*

Archdeacons . . . . . . .57

Proctors of the Chapters . . . .24

Proctors of the Clergy . . . . .42

Total Provincial Synod of Canterbury ] 68



9 PRELATES AND CLERGY OF THE PROVINCE OF CANTERBURY WHO OUGHT
TO APPEAR IN THE SOUTHERN ENGLISH SYNOD, A.D. 1855.



UPPER HOUSE.

The Archbishop of Canterbury.



London.

Winchester.

Bangor.

Bath and Wells.

Chichester.

Ely.

Exeter.

Gloucester and

Bristol.
Hereford.
Lichfield.



Lincoln.

LlandafF.

Norwich.

Oxford.

Peterborough.

Rochester.

Salisbury.

S. Asaph.

S. David's.

Worcester.



LOWER HOUSE.



Deans.



Bangor.

Bristol.

Canterbury.

Chichester.

Ely.

Exeter.

Gloucester.

Hereford.

Lichfield.

Lincoln.

Llandaif.

Norwich.



Oxford.

London, S. Paul's.

Peterborough.

Rochester.

S. Asaph.

S. David's.

Salisbury.

Wells.

Westminster.

Winchester.

Windsor.

Worcester.



Archdeacons.



S. Asaph,
Montgomery.



\ S. Asaph.



Bangor,

Merioneth.

Wells,

Bath,

Taunton.

Canterbury,

Maidstone.

Chichester,

Lewes.

S. David's,

Brecon,

Caermarthen,

Cardigan.

Ely,

Bedford,

Huntingdon,

Sudbury.

Exeter,

Barnstaple,

Totnes,

Cornwall.

Bristol,

Gloucester.

Hereford,

Salop.

Derby,

Salop,

Stafford.

Lincoln,

Stow,

Nottingham.

LlandafF,

Monmouth.



Bath and Wells.



> Bango

}

I Canterbury.

> Chichester.

[ S. David's.
! Ely.



}



and



Gloucester
Bristol.

'• Hereford.
Lichfield.

[- Lincoln.

^ LlandafF.

[London

i



7S2



CONCLUSION.



[chap.



<^ Vid. sup.
],. 2!i7.
ii Vid. sup.
p. 431.



It will be remembered that previously to the dissolution of
the abbeys the Canterbury •= Synod consisted of 440 members.
Subsequently to that spoliation we found ^ it reduced to 1 68.
The number at the present day is exactly the same as that
last mentioned, for though the synod has lost since that time
five members, by the annihilation of the bishopric of Bristol,
the deanery of Wolverhampton, the separate archdeaconry of
Anglesey, the capitular proctorship of Wolverhampton, and two
clergy proctorships under the Gloucester and Bristol arrange-
ments, still that diminution has been made up by the addi-
tion of four archdeaconries, viz. Maidstone, Montgomery,
Monmouth, Nottingham, and one extra capitular proctorship
somewhat unaccountably attached to Rochester.

Upon the receipt of the royal writ by the Archbishop of York,
the proceedings in the northern province, though very similar,
are not identical with those in Canterbury ; the archbishop
sending directly to each of the northern bishops a mandate *
summoning the provincial synod. And it should be observed



LOWER HOUSE OF CANTERBURY, A. D. 1855 — COtltmued.



London,

Middlesex,

Westminster.

Norwich,

Norfolk,

Suffolk.

Oxford,

Berks,

Buckingham.

Northampton,

Leicester.

Rochester,

Colcliester,

Essex,

S. Albans.

.SaUsbury,

Wilts,

Dorset.

Winchester,

Surrey.

Worcester,

Coventry.



London.



Norwich.



Oxford.



\P,



Peterborough



Rochester.



Salisbury.



Winchester.



Worcester.



Bangor.



Cajntular Proctors.
Bristol.



Canterbury.

Chichester.

Ely.

Exeter.

Gloucester.

Hereford.

Lichfield.

Lincoln.

Llandaff.

, rS. Paul's,
Lond.

LAVestr.



Norwich.

Oxford.

Peterborough.

Rochester (2).

S. Asaph.

S. David's.

Salisbury.

Wells.

Winchester.

Worcester.



Clergy Proctors.



Bangor (2).
Bath & Wells (2).
Canterbury (2).
Chichester (2).
Ely (2).
Exeter (2).
Gloucester and

Bristol (2).
Hereford (2).
Lichfield (2).
Lincoln (2).



Llandaff (2).
London (2).
Mnnohost a r {2) ,
Norwich (2).
Oxford (2).
Peterborough (2).
Rochester (2).
SaUsbury (2).
S. Asaph (2).
S. David's (2).
Worcester (2).



For a copy of this mandate see Pearce, Law of Convocation, p. C3.



C0XCI.US10N.



738



that in all cases throughout both provinces, where a mandate is
received, a return ^ setting forth the manner in which that man-
date has been complied with is subsequently made. Each
archdeacon and each chapter make a return to their diocesan,
and the bishops severally make their returns to the archbishops.
The prelates and clergy of the northern province, who
ought to appear at this time in the York Synod, are given in
a note ^ and upon perusal it will appear that, irrespectively of
the new archdeaconry of Lancaster, the assembly consists of
the following members, viz. : —

Archbishop of York ..... 1

Bishops



Deans

Archdeacons .
Capitular Proctors
Clergy Proctors



13

7
28



Total Provincial Synod of York 61

Previously to the dissolution of the religious houses, the
northern synod, as we have seen above ^, consisted of



PRELATES AND CLERGY OF THE PROVINCE OF YORK WHO OUGHT TO
APPEAR IN THE NORTHERN ENGLISH SYNOD, A. D. 1855.



UPPER HOUSE.


Craven.


The Ai-chbishop of York.


Durham.


Bishops.


East Riding.


Carlisle.


Landisfarne.


Chester.


Liverpool.


Durham.


Manchester.


IManchester.


Northumberland .


Ripon.


Richmond.


Sodor and Man.


Sodor and Man.




York.


LOWER HOUSE.




Deans.


Capitular Proctors.


Carlisle.


Carlisle.


Chester.


Chester.


Durham.


Durham.


Manchester.


Manchester.


Ripon.


Ripon.


York.


York (2).


Archdeacons.


Clergy Proctors of the


Carlisle.


following Archdea-


Chester.


conries.


Cleveland.


Carlisle (2).



Chester (I).
Cleveland (2).
Craven (2).
Durham (2).
East Riding (2).
Lindisfarne (2).
Liverpool (1).
Manchester (2).
Northumberland (2).
Part of Richmond in

Chester (1).
Richmond (2).
Sodor and Man (1).
York (2).
Proctors for clergy of

jurisdiction of dean and

chapter of York (2).
Keeper of the jurisdiction

of Howden (1).
Keeper of the jurisdiction

of AUerton (1).



«■ Pearce,
Law of Con ■
vocation, p.
65.



fVid. sup.
p. 290.



734



CONCLUSION.



[C



e Vid.
p. 454.



96 members, subsequently to that sacrilegious spoliation e, of
55 members ; but at this day, by sundry re-arrangements
of ecclesiastical jurisdictions, the number has been again raised
to 61.

Such is the present constitution of the provincial synods of
England, institutions which derive their spiritual origin from
the primitive ages of the Church, and are built on foundations
in the civil state which may bo traced among the remotest
archives of our national history. And if, instead of ever
hurrying forward with this restless over-eager age, any one
would pause awhile amid the busy turmoil, and contemplate
among other monuments of antiquity the earlier synods of
our country, he might thence catch the grateful sounds of the
pure doctrines of the gospel, and distinguish, even in the dis-
tance of the past, the spiritual fabric of the Church of Christ ex-
isting here in pristine integrity. Such a review would perchance
engender feelings somewhat akin to those which arise when
through the long aisle of some venerable church the echoes of
time-honoured chant or ancient service fall upon the ear, or
when, in looking over the plains of our native land, the rising
towers of some distant cathedral strike upon the eye, and
proclaiming the piety of generations now no more, add a holy
solemnity to the interest of the scene.

Although it does not come within the present purpose to
trace the latest records of our synodical history, it should not
be forgotten that subsequently to the date at which we
have here arrived the lower house of the Canterbury Con-
vocation did some good service by saving our Prayer Book
from mutilation, and by remonstrating against the pub-
lication of heretical and pernicious doctrines. Upon the
change of the English dynasty in 1688, an ill-starred freight
of Dutch predilections, more especially as regarded ecclesias-
tical matters, were imported hither in the vessel which bore
^Villiam of Orange to these shores. One of the passengers on
that occasion was the son of a Scotch lawyer, Gilbert Burnet,
a man whose private interests did not subsequently suffer
in his own keeping. He was afterwards raised to the see of
Salisbury, and is known to posterity not only as the author of
voluminous works, but as having derived some singular and
remarkable satisfaction from insulting the lower orders of the



^]



CONCLUSION.



735



clergy, and as having, moreover, laboured with excessive
zeal to secure for himself the sunny smiles of court favour.
When writing of the voyage of William of Orange between
the Hague and England, Burnet on more than one occasion
takes opportunity to speak of the winds which prevailed dur-
ing the passage ; and he would fain thence suggest some
ominous interference on the part of heaven to forward the
enterprise in which he was one of the parties engaged. How-
ever this may be, the " strong east wind " of which this
author speaks, and which at last veering to the south " carried
us into Torbay,"" certainly wafted hither some principles which
ill-accorded with those of the national Church.

Subsequently, upon the removal of Archbishop Sancroft and
seven of his suffragans, who refused the oath of allegiance to
the newly-arrived sovereign, William of Orange, was enabled
to pack the bench of bishops with occupants inclining, unless
history is exceedingly unjust to their memories, far too much to
the characters of court divines ; and thus no little danger
threatened the faith and doctrine of the English Church from
such promotions. One of the first points of attack was the
English Prayer Book. His newly-arrived majesty conceived a
plan for a comprehensive liturgy, and a commission was issued
for the promotion of the enterprise. The proposals of the com-
missioners were probably transcripts of the royal wishes. Among
other innovations chanting was to be discontinued — the sign of
the cross in baptism was on some occasions to be omitted —
the sacramental elements were to be administered in pews to
those who might object to kneeling — the absolution was to be
read by deacons — the word " priest " replaced by " minister " —
the words " remission of sins" were to be erased as " not very
intelligible " — the prayer " God whose nature and property,
fcc." was to be left out, as " full of strange and impertinent
expressions," — and the primitive institution of sponsors in
baptism was to be annihilated. These are samples of some of
the alterations to which our liturgy was to be subjected.
And however favourable to the voyage of the Dutch craft the
" strong east wind " may have proved in its literal sense, yet
in a metaphorical one this blast from the dull cold flats of
Holland nearly wrecked the ship of the English Church. The
waves now beat about her, she was very hardly saved by the



736



CONCLUSION.



[chap.



prudence, constancy, and courage of the lower house of the
Canterbury convocation.

" As ' when the wild sea-wave

Crests o'er the gallant bark — she scarce evades,

Under the skilful pilot's guiding hand,

The surge now heaving up to sweep her deck."

Nor have we only to be thankful to the southern provincial
Synod for the preservation of the integrity of our divine offices
on this occasion : the testimony which that assembly after-
wards bore to the pure doctrines of the Christian religion by
resisting the impieties, heresies, and errors of such writers as
Toland, Clarke, Whiston, and Hoadley, entails upon us a debt
of deep gratitude.

It was on account of a very just opposition raised by mem-
bers of the Canterbury Synod against the person last named
that a political party, at that time in the ascendant, silenced the
voice of the Church in 1717. For the moment the powers of
the Crown were invoked for that unworthy purpose ; but as
soon as the excitement which disturbed the temper of the then
Whig government had passed away, there were no farther
impediments, at least so far as appears, in subsequent years
placed by the secular power in the way of synodical action on
the part of the Church. It is not fair to blame the civil
power for the Church's silence and for the inactivity of her
synods during the last century; she must take that blame
chiefly on her own shoulders. The civil state has performed
its part punctually, unintermittingly. Whenever parliament
has been summoned by the Crown concurrent synods in both
provinces of England have been also summoned at the same
time. If the metropolitans, if the bishops, if the lower clergy
have failed to do their duty when summoned ; if they have neg-
lected to meet, or if, meeting only in form, they have neglected
to bring forward such evils in the religious state of the country
as required reformation ; if thus they have failed to consult to-
gether for the removal of scandals, surely they should themselves
be willing to bear the blame of their own negligence, and not



Online LibraryJames Wayland JoyceEngland's sacred synods : a constitutional history of the convocations of the clergy, from the earliest records of Christianity in Britain to the date of the promulgation of the present Book of common prayer; including a list of all councils, ecclesiastical as well as civil, held in England, in whic → online text (page 80 of 83)