James Wayland Joyce.

England's sacred synods : a constitutional history of the convocations of the clergy, from the earliest records of Christianity in Britain to the date of the promulgation of the present Book of common prayer; including a list of all councils, ecclesiastical as well as civil, held in England, in whic online

. (page 81 of 83)
Online LibraryJames Wayland JoyceEngland's sacred synods : a constitutional history of the convocations of the clergy, from the earliest records of Christianity in Britain to the date of the promulgation of the present Book of common prayer; including a list of all councils, ecclesiastical as well as civil, held in England, in whic → online text (page 81 of 83)
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' art Kvfia GaXaacrtjg

Tptjxii Bot]v liti vi)a KopvaaiTac i) 6' vtto tvtQov
'iSptiy irvKtvoXo KvjSipvijTtipog oXraictt
'lf/<6voi; <pop'ua9ai taio roixoio KXtiSujvog.

Apollon. Rhod. Argonaut, ii. 70—73-



XVI.]



CONCLUSION.



!S7



endeavour to shift it elsewhere. That the clergy always have
been justly treated by the civil power is by no means here
asserted ; but that the Church in the matter of her synodical
deliberations has as yet any just grounds of present complaint
is absolutely denied.

Happily, however, the Church of England has thrown off
those lethargic slumbers which, during the last century,
oppressed her. She has awakened to a sense of her position,
her obligations and her duties ; and it is daily becoming
plainer, as her energies are aroused, that her proper corporate
action is absolutely essential for discharging those high func-
tions which properly belong to her. The eloquent Bishop
Andrews on one occasion exhorted his hearers that the
assembled convocation which he was addressing should not
prove itself the ghost of a synod, but that the members
should rise to a sense of their duties, and faithfully fulfil the
weighty obligations entailed upon them. In like manner that
each of our provincial synods should recover the stature and
form of an active responsible body seems now to be the wish
of the best instructed persons in those assemblies,

" Rursus et incipiant in corpora velle reverti**."

And that wish may fairly be taken as the exponent of the
views of those members of the national Church who are most
heartily disposed to promote her true interests, and best quali-
fied to judge of her most pressing needs.

That such a wish should be entertained can be no matter
for wonder when we consider the various necessities which
now press the Church on every side ; her wants and require-
ments, which cannot be supplied except by the intervention
of synodical powers. Not to dwell here on the imperative
call for a review of the canon law and a just and reasonable
settlement of that long-neglected and much-needed branch of
jurisdiction, no man who considers the matter can be blind to
the desirableness of a uniform hymnal, an order for the con-
secration of churches and churchyards, an office for the recon-
ciliation of penitents, a form for admitting Romanists and
other schismatics into the EngUsh Church, and another form
for the restoration of renegades. These, among many other
objects, importunately call for the interposition of the autho-



'' Virg. JEu.
vi. 751.



3B



738



CONCLUSION.



[CUAF,



ritative action of the national Church. By no other conceiv-
able means can these wants be supplied, either in a constitu-
tional way, or in such a manner as to satisfy the consciences
and command the obedience of her most zealous and most
devoted children.

But not only is the synodical action of the Church required
for the supply of these needs; it is needed also for the repair
of those decays which the havoc of time is ever working upon
the spiritual fabric. " I would only ask," wrote Lord Bacon,
" why the civil state should be purged and restored by good
and wholesome laws made every third or fourth year in parha-
raent assembled, devising remedies as fast as time breedeth
mischiefs, and contrariwise the ecclesiastical state should con-
tinue and receive no alteration now for this five and forty years
and more. If any man shall object that if the like intermis-
sion had been used in civil causes also, the error had not been
great, surely the wisdom of the kingdom hath been otherwise
in experience for three hundred years' space at the least. But if
it be said ^ to me that there is a difference between civil
causes and ecclesiastical, they may as well tell me that
churches and chapels need no reparations, though houses and
castles do, whereas commonly, to speak truth, dilapidations of
the inward and spiritual edifications of the Church of God are
in all times as great as the outward and material. Sure I am
that the very word and style of reformation used by our
Saviour, ' from the beginning it was not so,' was applied to
Church matters, and those of the highest nature concerning
the law moral."'

And still further, not only on the foregoing accounts does
it seem peculiarly necessary at this conjuncture that the
synods of the English Church should exert their proper
powers. There are other reasons of a pressing nature why
the ultimate principles of her spiritual government, and the
primary elements which constitute her very existence, should
be brought to bear on the great work which lies before her.
Every energy of which she is possessed is required at this
time to grapple with the ignorance, impiety, and infidelity
which abound among the seething masses of our population.
The mighty mystery of evil heaving inwarjily is now ready
to break over the bounds of morality, religion, and revealed



• Bacon's
Works, vol.
ii. p. 510.
Ed. Lend.
1826.



CONCLUSION.



739



truth. The Churcli's first mission is to combat the heathenism
which prevails even in our own land — to instruct the igno
rant — to warn the thoughtless — to recall the wandering — to
reclaim the abandoned, — and not only so, but to comfort
the afflicted, to bind up the broken-hearted, and to feed the
faithful with spiritual food. And how shall all this be done?
This we may assure ourselves is a more important inquiry
both for prelates and clergy than any questions of glebes and
rent-charges, of houses and gardens, of providing luxuries,
and securing the goods of this world. For unless their
proper work is done heartily, punctually, fearlessly, as by
those who look for their Master's return, it is likely enough
to be taken from their hands ere they are aware. There
are present warnings of such an event. The popular current
of legislation now drifts onward with unwonted rapidity
towards such a consummation. The undisguised desire on
the part of many to separate religious from secular education
altogether ; the more attractive but still dangerous proposal
of establishing a national system which will recognize no fixed
standard of faith, but will teach, at the public expense, doc-
trines varying according to the various forms of misbelief which
may happen to prevail in different localities ; — these are signs
of the times which it is impossible to overlook. They dis-
cover an evident tendency, not to say desire, to transfer the
education of the people from the supervision of the national
Church, and to treat her as one out of many sects enjoying
equally with herself the protection, assistance, and regard of
the civil state. How unlike are these principles to those
which have hitherto guided the councils of this nation in
past ages ! How little hope do they hold out for the future
of securing the blessings which attach to a united people !
Doubtless, if the national Church does not show herself equal
to the present emergency, strangers will supplant her in her
holy office, and it will be well if those who might have been
her obedient children shall not become her bitterest foes.

This national Church has too long depended on the zeal
and exertions of her individual members. By them, both
among clergy and laity, sacrifices incalculable have been
made to enable her to maintain her ground as the authorized
teacher of the people. But though much has been thus



740



CONCLUSION.



[chap.



J Clem.
Alex. Pro-
trept, c. X.
p. 108.



done, there has lacked the full success which attaches to
united and combined action. The great work of the Church
never can and never will be successfully or hopefully carried
out by the disjointed and disorganized exertions of individuals,
let them be as strenuous as they may. If she would succeed
in her mission she must act in her corporate capacity. She
must go forth on her heavenly errand with one mind, with one
voice ; and her individual teachers can only know that mind
and hear that voice through her synods, — institutions not
only sanctioned by the laws of our country, but by the Apos-
tolical and primitive constitution of the early Church of
Christ.

In order that the Church may fulfil the great task which
is before her, it is surely no unreasonable desire that she should
enjoy the full benefit of those substantial supports from the
civil state with which the piety and wisdom of our forefathers
have surrounded her ; and therefore her faithful sons, un-
willing that her synods — an integral part of the constitution
of England — should be discontinued, are fain to use the words
of the English barons before quoted, " ISolnmus leges Anglise
mutari." But not only are the synods of this national Church
an integral part of the British constitution ; they are, accord-
ing to divine institution, the means of determining the Chris-
tian law, and promulgating authoritatively the Christian faith.
In the foregoing pages some labour has been bestowed on an
inquiry into their history, as it represents the external con-
stitution of our Church. That, however, let us remember, is
but the outward visible manifestation of the divine powers
entrusted to her, which reside within. That is merely valuable
from being, as it were, the casket which contains the trea-
sure- — from being the visible depository of the national faith.
To such keeping that faith has been entrusted according
to the Lord's institution, and in conformity with his laws ;
and to his institution, to his laws, our hearty allegiance, our
willing obedience are surely due. " Let the Athenian *,"
says^ Clement of Alexandria, "obey the laws of Solon —

♦ 'O fitv ov»> 'AQtivalog Tolc SoXwi'oc tTrtaOo) vo/xoig, Koi 6 'Apydog ro7g
^opwve(i>Q, (ffi 6 "ETrapTiaTrjc rolg AvKovpyov, il S^ aiavrbv a.raypa(j)tig tov
Qiov, Ovpavbij ^tv trot i'/ Trarplr 6 H Oibg vn^o6eTi)g. — Clem. Alex. Protrept.
c. X. 108.



XVI.]



CONCLUSION.



741



the Argive those of Phoroneus — the Spartan those of Ly-
curgus ; but if thou enrollest thyself as God's subject heaven
is thy country, and God thy lawgiver." The laws which
He lays down and commends to our obedience are pro-
mulgated by the voice of his Church here. The country
to which He calls us hereafter is typified by the visible pre-
sence of his Church on earth. We are indeed citizens of no
mean city — the heavenly Jerusalem, whose glories are now un-
revealed to mortal eye ; yet some reflections of those glories
may be here discerned, as cast on its representative below,
our earthly Zion. May the affections of her true-hearted
children be more closely attached to her by links of no earthly
mould, so that the devotion of each one of them to that spiri-
tual home — the national Church of England — in which the
providence of God has cast their lot on earth, may be truly
expressed in the Psalmist''s language^: —

SI OBLITVS FVERO TVI JERVSALEM OBLIVIONI

DETVR DEXTERA MEA : ADH^EREAT LIN-

GVA MEA FAVCIBUS MEIS SI NON

MEMINERO TVI, SI NON PROPO-

SVERO JERVSALEM IN PRIN-

CIPIO L.ETITI.E ME,E.



^ Psalm
cxxx\i. 5, 6.



liaus i3eo.



INDEX.



Abbeys and monasteries, dissolution of, 434;
tlie abbey commission, 436 ; sm-prisingly in-
creased, 439; the lesser religious houses fall,
436; Henry VIII. covets the greater ones,
438 ; they fall, 439 ; vast amount of the reve-
nues seized, 441 ; national disadvantages from
the re-distribution of the forfeited property,
ih. ; profane disposal of it, 443 ; treasures of
learning sacrificed, 44.') ; John Bale's evidence
on this point, ib. ; untenableness of the de-
fence of the spoliation, 446 ; Collier's reflec-
tions on tlie proceedings, 448.

Abbot, George, promoted to the see of Canter-
bury by Scotch influences, 646 ; his unfortu-
nate mishap in Bramshill park, ih. ; his seve-
rity, 647 ; his supension from his function,
il). ; his generosity towards K. James I., 64B ;
his deatli, 658.

Ailmer, Dr., opposes the doctrine of transub-
stantiation in the pretended provincial synod
of 1553, 500 et seq. ; chosen prolocutor by
the Canterbury provincial Synod of 1571,
57i ; successively Archdeacon of Lincoln and
Bishop of London, ib.

Alban's, S., Abbey, 103.

_ Synod of (a.d. 446), the first

British Synod of which records remain, 102 ;
opposes the Pelagian heresy, ib. ; brief ac-
count of the proceedings, 102, 103.

Andrews, Dr., his sermon before the provincial
Synod of Canterbury of 1593, 607.

Ansrlo-Norman Synods and Councils, 199 —
204.

Anglo-Saxon Church in the appointment of
fasts symbolizes with the Easterns and not
with the Romanists, 190; and did not with-
hold the Scriptures from the people, 191 ;
and explicitly denies the doctrine of tran-
suhstantiation, 191, 192; effects of the Con-
quest on it, 205 ; visible in tlie acts of the
Council at Winchester (1070), 207.

doctrine opposed to Romish doc-
trine, 190—192.

■ ecclesiastics deprived, 209.

— • Svnods and Councils, a list of,

125—127 ; national Synod of Osterfield, 136 ;
mixed Council of Cliff at Hoo, 137 ", become
more defined, 155 ; view of Anglo-Saxon
Councils from 804 to 1070, when Stigand,



the last Anglo-Saxon archbishop, was de-
posed, 156 — 160; principal assemblies, 161;
the Circ-gemote, its nature, 162 ; national,
provincial, and diocesan, 164; form of, 165;
Romish jurisdiction disallowed, 186; the
last Anglo-Saxon Council, 194.

Anglo-Saxon constitution the germ of the Eng-
lish, 180 ; ecclesiastical and civil laws enacted
on the same occasions, ib.

Aristotle on the inability of human legislation
to provide beforehand for all emergent cases,
21.

Arrest, convocalional privilege of freedom from,
granted, 576 ; instances of this privilege, 577,
578 ; origin of it. ib.

Articles of i:)36, 383; six articles, statute of, 392.

of religion, the forty-two, 481 ; publica-
tion of, 483 ; synodical authority of, 484.

the Thirty-nine, establishment of, 558 ;

remarks on their synodical authority, 559 ;
how far they differ from the forty-two, 561 ;
controversy on the 20th article, 561.

fifteen, on ecclesiastical reforms, 580 ;

observations on, 582.

of 1576, 580.

of the clergy exhibited against the com-
mon law judges by Archbishop Bancroft,
633; Sir E. Coke unreasonably magnifies the
judges' re))lies, 634.

Asaph, S., diocesan synod (1561), 554.

Augustine, his earnest endeavours to bring our
native Church under the jurisdiction of the
see of Rome, 123.

Augustine's Oak, provincial Synod of, 110; ill-
success of Augustine with the British bishops
there, 118 ; his splenetic threat, 119.



Bacon, Lord, on the power of the Church to
decide in matters of doubtful obligation, 25 ;
on the necessity of the synodical action of the
Church, 738.

Bale, John, his evidence respecting the trea-
sures of learning sacrificed in the pillage of
the religious houses, 445.

Bancroft, Richard, promoted to the see of Canter-
bury, 632; exhibits "articles of the clergy"



74-4



against the judges of the common law courts,
633; brings K. James I.'s answer down to the
Canterbury Synod, 642; liis death, 645.

Bapchild, Synod of, attended by presbyters,
149.

Barlow translated to the see of Chifhester, 546.

Barons of E.xchequer, their remarkable inter-
pretation of the Constitutions of Clarendon,
370.

Barrow, Isajic, on the constitution of synods in
tlie primitive times, 10.

Basil, S., on the rule of faith and discipline, 575.

Basilius, the emneror, distinguishes between
the ecclesiastical and civil power, 10, 11.

Bishop, each, with his presbyters, constituted
an independent authority in the primitive
Church, 32; early subordination of bishops,
33; rights of precedence of bisliops at provin-
cial synods. ;ind their oblig.ition to attend, 61.

Boleyn, Queen Anne, divorced, 382.

Bra^a. Synod of, decisions of, for ensuring uni-
formity of worship, 72, 73.

Brasted, mixed Council of, declares " the
Church's judgments to be free," 151.

British Church, the, of Eastern origin, 97 ;
proof of this, 113; Roman aggression on,
133; withstood, 134 — 138; zealous and suc-
cessf'.il labours for the diffusion of the Gos-
pel, 138; Aidan, Finan, Colman, Diuma,
Chad, and Fursey, 139, 140.

British Councils, scanty account of the early
ones, 99; manner of holding them, 100;
synod ofS.Alban's, 102; of Snowdon, 104; of
Stonehenge, ib.; council in (516), 105; mixed
Council of Llandewy Brevi, 106; provincial
Synod of Victoria, or Victory, ih.; diocesan
Synod of Llandaff (5ii0), 107; mi.xcd Coun-
cil of lilantwit, 1(18 ; diocesan Synod " ad
Podum Carbani Vallis," ili. ; of Llandaff
(597). 109; provincial Synod of Augustine's
Oak, 110.

Bullinger's decades, synod ical order that they
shall be studied by unlicensed preachers, 593.

Burg-gemote, nature of ihis Anglo-Saxon court,
179.



C.^NON law, how far obligatory in England at
this time, 366. 619. 628, 6-'9.

Canons, book of (1571), agreed to. 573; canons
of 1597, 612; canons of 1603-4, 624; sanc-
tioned at York, 64(1; their spiritual obliga-
tion, 625; their civil obligation, 626; judi-
cial opinions upon them, 627 ; canons of 1640,
671 ; received at York, 673; their obligation,
681, 682.

Canterbury and York, jurisdiction of the re-
spective meiropulitan sees in the earliest
times, 130.

provincial Svnod, list of members

in (1452), 28-— 290; constitution of the
upper and lower houses, 3(11, 302 ; Collier's
statement, 3(ll ; meeting of Canterbury Synod
at S. Paul's in 1530, 331; clergy involved
in a praemunire, 332; meeting in 1531, 339;
complaint of king and commons against the
clergy, H>. ; clergy's first reply, 340 ; second
reply, 341 ; articles of submission transmitted
to the synod, 343; proceedings of the synod
thereon, Ht. ; form of stibmission, 34(i, note 2;



judgment of the Synod on Henry and Ca-
tharine's marriage, 348 ; final rejection of
the papal power, 350 ; formal decision, 35] ;
subsequent proceedings, 378; title of legate
struck off from the metropolitan, 379; ad-
dress for the sup])ression of heretical books,
and for a translation of the Scriptures, {/>. ;
meeting in 1536, 381 ; sentence of divorce
of Anne Boleyn agreed to, 382. 386 ; a list
of erroneous opinions submitted to the arch-
bishop, ih. ; complaint against lieretiral books,
383; articles of 1536 confirmed, holy days
defined, 385 ; decision respecting the papal
summons to Mantua, ib. ; meeting in 1539,
395 ; question submitted to the convocation
by parliament, ib. ; answers, ib. ; later assem-
bly in the same year, 397; synod in 1540
converted into a national synod, 398; pro-
ceedings in reference to the contract between
Henry VIII. and Anne of Cleves, 401 ; con-
vocations in 1542, 403; Cranmer's speech,
404 ; debate on the translations of the Scrip-
tures, 406 ; upper and lower houses consult
on this matter, 407 ; proceedings with a view
to reformation of religion, 408; synodical
origin of the revision of the English service
books, ib. ; synod in 1543, 411 ; and in 1544,
417; authorizes the Litany in English, 418;
list of members subsequent to the dissolution
of the religious houses, 451 ; meet in 1547,
458 ; four petitions put up, ib. ; restoration
of communion in both kinds, 460 ; compul-
sory celibacy of the clergy discharged, 461;
the decisions p.ass into acts of parliament,
462 : sanctions given to first reformed Pr.iyer
Book, 470; revision of the first reformed
Prayer Book, 476; sanctions given to the
second reformed Prayer Book, 479 ; to the
forty-two articles of l■^52-3, 481 ; Canterbury
provincial Synod (1563), 555; forms ob-
served on assembling it, ib. ; their superiority
to those of the present day, 558; presentation
of the prolocutor, Dr. Nowell, 555; estab-
lishment of the Thirty-nine Articles of Reli-
gion, 558; Canterbury Synod sanctions canons
of 1571, 573; canons of 1597, 612; canons of
1603-4, 625; the Pr.iyer B..ok of the same
year, 629 ; the canons of 1640, 671 ; our pre-
sent Praver Book, 718; list of members in
(1855), 731,732.

Catechism of 1553, King Edward's, 485.

Nowell's (1563), 562; synodical

order for teaching, ,593, 594.

Censures, ecclesiastical, in the primitive Church
not enforced by temporal punishments, 18.

Chalk, or Chall6ck, Synod of, 186.

Chailcs, K., the Martvr, declares the judgment
of the Church to be free, 1.52.

Ciieyney, Richard, holds the see of Bristol in
c<'mmcndam with tliat of (iloucester, 546;
excommunicated for non-attendance at the
provincial Synod of Canterbury, 1571, 57"2.

Chrysostom, S., on the distinction between the
clergy and laity in matters s|iirituai, 19.

Church, a change passed )ipon it at the ascen-
sion of our Lord, 1 ; nature of that change, 2.

" Church, tell it to the," explained, 15, 16.

, import of the term, 31.

, tlie British, of Kastern origin, 97;

early persecutions of, 98 ; resistance to papjil
encroachment, 218.



Church and State united from the earliest
times, 128; desirableness of such union at
all times, l'2i) ; " the Church's judgments
free," 15U; historical evidence of this, 151 —
153.

Circ-gemote (haly-geniote, or synoth), its na-
ture, IGl — 165: form of holding it, 165 —
172.

Clergy, English, proofs that they were originally
members of all English councils, wliether
civil or ecclesiastical, 120 ; their counsel now
slenderly regarded, 122 ; oppressed by Ed-
ward I., 241.

, compulsory celibacy of, discharged,

461.

, summons to attend in parliament, 274 ;

at Nortiiampton and York, 275 ; they de-
cline to appear, 276 ; coercive measures of
Edward I., 277; due execution of the writ
calling them to parliament neglected in the
present day, 281 ; involved in a praemunire,
332 ; Henry VTII. endeavours to extort from
them the title of " supreme head," 334; they
resist, ib. ; the king somewhat recedes, 335 ;
the title granted with a salvo, ib. ; proceed-
ings of the York Synod in this business, 336;
clergy's submission, 343.

" Clergy Submission Act," 358 ; extracts from,
359, note; its enactments, 360, 361. 369;
false allegations in its preamble, 361 ; over-
strained by judges in James I.'s time, 368 ;
extraordinary decision in the Court of Ex-
chequer, 1850, in reference to this statute,
370 ; and in the Court of Queen's Bench in
the same year, 371.

Cliff at Hoo, svnod of, attended bv presbvters,
149.

Coke, Lord, an error of, respecting the agent
employed by Edward I. in oppressing the
clergy of England, 241 ; his opinion on the
subject of parliamentary proctors, 280 ; un-
reasonablv magnifies replies of the judges,
634.

Collier's reflections on the spoliation of the re-
j ligious houses, 448.

Commons, House of, its origin, 233, 234; its
original place of session, 298 ; clergy sum-
moned to attend there by praemunientes clause,
272 — 281 ; still so summoned at this day,
281 ; desire expressed by clergy that the
clause should be executed, 458, 459 ; mem-
bers of the house receive on their knees ab-
solution from Cardinal Pole, 513; a party in
the house endeavour to undermine the
Church, 602 ; that party urged on by the
Dissenters, 605 ; but checked by Queen
Elizabeth, 606; the house affects synodical [
fimctions, 637 ; " Sion's Plea," dedicated to '
it, ib. ; some members unguarded in their j
language, 678 ; attack the canons of 1 640, 679 ; j
resolutions on tlie subject, 680 ; the house
appoints the Westminster Assembly, 687 ;
but ke])t all power in its own hands, 690 ;
the members swear to the solemn league and
covenant, 693 ; members turned out of the
house by Oliver Cromwell, 687 ; Long Par-
liainent ends, 696 ; commons addressed by
Charles IT. on the subject of the Prayer Book,
723; conference on that business with the
House of Lords. 724: assent to the Praver
Book, ib.



74-!



Communion in both kinds, restoration of, by

synodical sanction, 460; denial of the cup to

the laity a modern invention of Rome, 465.

Congregation and Church, relationship of the

terms, 31.
Consecration of churches and churchyards, want

of an order for tlie, 737.
Constantine, the Emperor, clearly distinguished

the spiritual from the civil power, 10.
Constitutions of Clarendon, remarkable inter-
pretation of in Court of Exchequer, 370.
Convocations, English, early provincial synods
the models of, 74 ; their disuse the cause of
lamentable effects, 76 ; false statements re-
specting the constitution of them, 239; pure
pi-ovincial synods, 257 ; meeting of convoca-
tion originally at S. Paul's, 297 ; removed to
Westminster, ib. ; meeting at York in 1426,
299 ; separation into two houses, ib. ; consti-
tution of the upper and lower houses, 301 ;



Online LibraryJames Wayland JoyceEngland's sacred synods : a constitutional history of the convocations of the clergy, from the earliest records of Christianity in Britain to the date of the promulgation of the present Book of common prayer; including a list of all councils, ecclesiastical as well as civil, held in England, in whic → online text (page 81 of 83)