James Wayland Joyce.

England's sacred synods : a constitutional history of the convocations of the clergy, from the earliest records of Christianity in Britain to the date of the promulgation of the present Book of common prayer; including a list of all councils, ecclesiastical as well as civil, held in England, in whic online

. (page 82 of 83)
Online LibraryJames Wayland JoyceEngland's sacred synods : a constitutional history of the convocations of the clergy, from the earliest records of Christianity in Britain to the date of the promulgation of the present Book of common prayer; including a list of all councils, ecclesiastical as well as civil, held in England, in whic → online text (page 82 of 83)
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Canterbury, ib.; "gravamina" and " refor-
manda," 315 ; spiritual character of the em-
ployment of convocations, 317 ; mode of deal-
ing with heretical books, 319 ; sometimes in-
flicted penalties, 320; this function better
assigned to the civil power, 321 ; reduction of
the number of members, consequent on the
dissolution of the religious houses, 449 ; first
convocation in Mary's reign, 496 ; Harps-
field's sermon, 497 ; Dr. Hugh Weston, pro-
locutor, ib. ; Mr. Pye's speech, 498 ; Wims-
ley's speech, ib. ; the prolocutor's speech, ib. ;
Bonner's speech, 499 ; haughty behaviour of
the bishops, ib. ; disputation on the doctrine
of transubstantiation, 500 ; Philpot's argu-
ments, 501 — 505; four articles deferred by
the upper house, 506 ; pi'etended synod in
1554, ib. ; convocation absolved by Cardinal
Pole, 516; proceedings of the assembly, ib.;
the lower house address the upper, 517 ; pre-
tended synod in 1555, 522 ; state secrets im-
parted to the assembly from the queen, 523 ;
the lower house petition the upper, 524;
subject of non-residence treated, ib.
" Corona prcsbyterii," 46.

Councils, English, changes efl^ected in them by
the Conquest, 211 ; synods and great councils
sometimes held concurrently, 213; and some-
times separately, 214 ; Anglo-Saxon arrange-
ments generally imitated in these points, 215;
diflSculty of defining between a "council"
and a " synod," 160.
Count, his jurisdiction in the Anglo-Saxon

times, 176, 177-
Court of Exchequer, remarkable exposition of
the English constitution, 370 ; of Queen's
Bench, startling announcements delivered
touching some points of English history, 371.
Cox, Bishop, composed the preface to the Book

of Homilies, 567.
Cranmer, Thomas, succeeds Warham in the
see of Canterbury, 348; pronounces the formal
sentence of divorce of Catharine. 349 ; in-
troduces into the convocation (1536) the sen-
tence of the divorce of Anne Boleyn, B82;
his speech in the national synod (1537), 389;
incurs the king's displeasure, 392; argues
against the six articles, 394; declines Calvin's
aid in the compilation of the first reformed
Prayer Book, 469; consults Bucer on the
revision of it, 475 ; frames a book of arti-



746



cles, 482 ; tried and condemned as a licrctic,

508.
Cromwell, Thomas, appointed vicar-general,

380; his ridiculous assumption, 'Ml; his

speech in the national synod (1537), 388 ; is

arrested, tried, convicted of high treason, and

executed, 399.
Cyprian, S., on the sufficiency of the Scriptures,

575.



D.



Day, Dr., elected prolocutor of the provincial
Synod of Canterbury (1581), 583.

Deacons, synod for the appointment of, 5 ;
those of this order in the ministry stood in
synods, 35.

Declaration of Rights declares " the Church to
be free," 1.52.

Diocesan, origin and import of the term, 30.

Diocesan synods, the first ecclesiastical councils
after the apostolic age, 30; each bisliop, with
his jn-esbyters, constituted an independent
authority "in the earliest times, 32; sugges-
tions for the greater efficiency of, 36; English
synods, ib. ; ancient form of holding them,
37 ; their disuse in later times, 38 ; list of
diocesan synods held between the Conquest
and the Reformation, ib. (note) ; not re-
strained by 25 Hen. VIII. c. 19, 40; whim-
sical interpretation of that act, ib. ; what clergy
members of diocesan synods, 44 ; superseded
by provincial synods, 48.

Dioceses, originally a union of provinces, both
civilly and ecclesiastically, 54.

Discipline and faith, not the result of private
judgment, 25.



K.



Eastkr, computation of, in the early British
Church, 113. 115.

Ecclesiastical jurisdictions, generally followed
tlie territorial divisions of the civil state, 49 ;
ecclesiastical and civil laws, under the Anglo-
Sa.\ons, enacted on the same occasions, 180.

rituals, books, articles, canons,

uniformly originated, matured, and completed
in pure ecclesiastical synods before they were
accepted by tiie civil power and confirmed bv
the law of the land, 12, 13.

Edward I. oppresses the clergy of England, 241 ;
was the first who issued writs to tiie metro-
politans enjoining them to summon provincial
synods, 260; summons the clergy to parlia-
ment, 277.

Edward VI., his accession, 455 ; first reformed
Prayer Book, 467 ; reformed ordination ser-
vice, 473; "Reformatio Legum Kcclcsias-
ticarum," 474 ; second reformed Prayer Book,
475; sanctioned, 479 ; forty-two arlicles, 481 ;
catechism of 1553,485; general remarks on
the synodical proceedings of this reign, 486.

P^lection, controverted, of a proctor, 59.5.

Elizabetli, C^ueen, her accession, 535; first par-
ment, 539 ; civil sanctions restored to the acts
of the Cliurch of England, ib.; bill for the
restoration of the Praver Book, 541 ; defect
in its management, ii.; several of tlie in-
truded bishops refuse the oath of supremacy,
544 ; the lower clergy generally favourable to



the principles of the Reformation, 545; the
Church of England regains her ancient eccle-
siastical liberty, 548; the queen's just concep-
tions of the respective functions of synods and
parliaments, 584 ; her death, 614.

English constitution, introduction of the repre-
sentative principle, 232; remarkable change
which the constitution underwent in the reign
of Henry III., 233.

synods, pretended ones, a list of, 491.

Ensham, wittena-gemote iield there in 1009 an
instance of an ecclesiastical and civil council
celebrated at the same time and place, 182.

" Erudition of a Christian Man," publication of,
414, 415; had full synodical sanction, 4I6.

E.xcommunication, founded on a command of
our Lord, 15; practised in the early ages, 17 ;
schedules on the subject introduced into the
Canterbury Synod, 586.



Faith and discipline not the result of private
judgment, 25.

Familists, a pestilent sect of heretics, 584.

Field, on the constitution of ecclesiastical synods,
9, 10.

Folc-gemote, nature of this assemt)ly, 175.

Frewen, Accepted, archbishop of York, his ac-
cession to that see, 699 ; receives a licence for
revision of Prayer Book, 709; writes, in con-
junction with his suffragans, to the York
Synod and to Mr. Aisleby, the York registrar,
on the subject, 710; subscribes the Praver
Book, 721.



G.



Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, preacher at
S. Paul's Cross on the reconciliation of Eng-
land to Rome, 514.

Gorham v. Bishop of E.veter, reference to this
case, 371, nofe.

Griudal, Archbishop — as Bishop of liOndon
shews that he drew a just distinction between
spiritual and civil authority, 563; as Arch-
bishop of York subscribes a book of canons,
573; translated from York to Canterbury,
579; form of jienance proposed by him, 587;
is succeeded by .\rchbishop Whitgift, 588.



H.



Hammond, Dr., incorrectness of his opinion
against the apostolical appointment of pres-
byters, 33.

Harsnet, Samiiel, archbishop of York, 656 ;
opposed to the novelties of the Puritans, ib.

Heath, Nicholas, intruilcd into the see of York
in ])lace of Robert Molgatc, 535; refuses the
oatli of supremacy, 544.

Henry HI., remarkable change which the Eng-
lish constitution underwent in his reign, 233.

Henry Vin.,his domestic affairs, 328; English
divines generally favourable to his divorce,
329 ; origin of his notion of becoming head of
the dcrgv, 330; clergy involved in a pr.Tmu-
nirc, 33^; endeavours to extort from the
clergy the title of " supreme head," 334 ;



747



they resist, ib.\ he somewhat recedes, 335;

the title granted with a salvo, ih. ; the king

excommunicated by Paul III., 381 ; contract

of marriage with Aane of Cleves, 398 ; covets

the greater religious houses, 438 ; his death,

455.
Hilton, John, does penance for blasphemy, 589.
Holgate, Robert, archbishop of York, succeeds

Edward Lee in (1545), 4-20.
Homilies, the two books of, 411 ; publication of
. twelve, 457; ratified by convocation in 1553,

ib.\ enjoined, with twenty-one more, by the

synod of (1563), ib. ; revised, 567.
Hooker, Richard, on the expediency of renewing

the use of ancient councils, 23.
Houses, upper and lower of convocation, when

thus separated, 294 et seq.
Hundred court, the, nature of this Anglo-Saxon

assembly, 177.
Hiitton, Matthew, archbishop of York, 610 ;

his death, 640.
Hymnal, want of an uniform, 7^7.



Ignatius, S., on the concord between the
presbytery and their bishop, 29.

Indifferent things, how they may become bind-
ing, especially in matters spiritual, 28, 29.

" Institution of a Christian Man, The," its first
publication, 390 ; its authorship, design, and
contents, 390, 391 ; had full synodical sanc-
tion, 391 ; is placed in the king's hands bv
Cromwell, 392; its title altered to "The
Necessary Doctrine and Erudition of a Chris-
tian Man," 415 ; its complete synodical
authority, 416, 417.



Jerusalem, Synod of, 6 ; English provincial
synods constituted after the example of the,
7. 14 ; none but bishops and presbyters ad-
missible to give a " votum decisivum" in
synods according to the example of the, 9.

Jewel, Bishop, the Thirty-nine Articles of reli-
gion published under his editorship, 572.

Johnson, on the right and duty of ecclesiastical
synods to decide judicially in matters of doc-
trine, 18.

Ju.von, William, appointed to the see of Can-
terbury, 698; subscribes to the Prayer Book,
718.



Laud, Archbishop William, appointment to
see of Canterbury, 659 ; his character, ib. ;
presides in Canterbury Synod, 660 ; addresses
the synod, 662 ; his palace attacked by a mob,
665 ; admonishes Bishop Goodman to sub-
scribe the canons of 1640, 672; committed to
prison and murdered, 682.

Law, unwritten, its binding nature, 22.

divine, according to immemorial usage first

treated of in pure ecclesiastical synods, and
then ratified by lay authority, 14; proofs of
this, ib.

, its incurable deficiency, 21.



Lay judges, in matters spiritual, the introduc-
tion of condemned by the judgment and
practice of primitive times, 7 — 11; but the
laity should unite in giving force to synodical
decisions, in accordance with the example of
the Synod of Jerusalem, 11.

Lee, Edward, archbishop of York, succeeds
AVolsey, 340 ; dies, and is succeeded by Ro-
bert Holgate, 420.

Legatine synods, list of such assemblies in Eng-
land, 86 ; became common after the Conquest,
205 ; one held at Winchester, 208 ; seven held
here during the reign of Henry III., 218;
resisted by English clergy, 221 ; Cardinal
Pole's legatine synod, 525.

Lessons, ordered to be read in the vulgar
tongue, 412.

Licence, royal, to enact canons, its origin, 367,
368; granted in Q. Elizabeth's time, 592.
597 ; overstrained into a licence to treat in K.
James I.'s time, 368 ; granted by K. James I.
to Canterbury and York for Canons of 1 603-4,
624 — 640 ; granted by K. Charles I. for the en-
actment of canons of 1640, 662 ; by K. Charles
II. for reviewing Book of Common Prayer,
709 ; distinction between royal writ of sum-
mons and licence for enacting canons, 374.
664, 665. 729.

Lichfield, metropolitan see, of, of short dura-
tion, 131.

Litany, in English, first authorized in the pro-
vincial Synod at Canterbury, 1544, 418.

Llandalf, diocesan Synod of (A. d. 560), 107;
another (a.d. 597), 109.

Llandewy Brevi, mixed Council of, 104.

Llantwit, mixed Council of, 108.

Lords, House of, its original place of session,
298 ; diminution in numbers consequent on
the dissolution of the abbeys and monasteries,
449. 454, 455 ; guilty of some prevarication,
493; address Q. Mary in order to secure the
pardon and absolution of Cardinal Pole, 512;
the members receive absolution on their
knees, 513; appoint a committee for religion,
685 ; thank the lower house of convocation
for its zeal in effecting the completion of the
Prayer Book, 724 ; pass the Act of Uniformity,
ih.

Luther, lays the foundation of the Reformation
in Germany, 326, 327.



Magna Charta declares "the Church to be
free," 151.

Mary I., her accession, 492; unites with her
parliament in persecuting the Church of Eng-
land, ib. ; sturdiness of the reformed clergy,
494; deprivations, 495 ; the queen retains tlie
title of "supreme head on earth of the Church
of England," 496 ; convocation summoned by
royal writ, 495, 496 ; royal commission for
the trial of Archbishop Cranmer and Bishops
Ridley and Latimer, 507 ; parliament peti-
tions for the restoration of papal authority,
511 ; and for the reconciliation of England to
Rome through the intercession of Cardinal
Pole, 513; an embassy dispatched to Rome
on the subject, 514; parliament secures the



748



lay impropriations, 515 ; address to the queen
and her consort, 519 ; the queen's death,
535.

Matthews, Tobias, dean of Christ Church, ap-
pointed to draw up a representation to Q.
Elizabeth, 584 ; archbishop of York, 642; his
death, 656'.

Matthias, S., synod for the election of, 5.

Mctingham, John de, employed by Edward I. in
the oppicssion of liis brethren, the clergy of
England, *J4l.

Metropolitical jurisdiction traced to theapostolic
age, 54.

Metropolitan, the, presided in the provincial
synods, but with limited power, 58; used to
summon provincial synods at his own discre-
tion, 2()(); the practice interrupted by Edward
I. ilj. ; for a time resumed, 263 ; again inter-
rupted by Edward II., 264; the clergy resist,
265; their reasons, ib.; prevail for a while,
266; milder measures pursued by the king,
267; satisfactory arrangements, 268; fresli
dilBcultics, 269 ; final arrangement of the
matter, lYi.; their rights still exercised by the
metropolitans, 271 ; resti-aint upon them com-
mencing in (1534), 272 ; the pra;munientes, or
pixemunitory clause, ih.

Mi.xed council, what, 96; earlv British one,
103; Synod of S. Alban's, 102', 103; Council
of Snowdon, 104; of Stonehenge, ih. ; council
in (516), 105; Council of LlandewyBrevi, 106;
of Victory, ib. ; of Llandaff, 107 ;"of Llantwit,
108; of Brasted, 151; began to be disused
about the time of Henry II., 154.

Monasteries, visitation of, contemplated, 380;
dissolution of, 434 ; the lesser ones fall, 436 ;
Henry VIII. covets the greater ones, 438;
they fall, 439 ; national disadvantages from the
redistribution of the vast forfeited revenues,
441 ; profane disposal of them, 443; treasures
of learning saciificed, 445 ; untenableness of
the defence of the spoliation, 446.

Montaign, archbishop of York, 656.



National synods the consequence of national
territorial divisions, 78; peculiar circuui
stances attaching in this respect to England,
81 ; national synods held in England pre-
viously to the Con(iuest, 83 ; and subse-
quently, 84 ; some of these legatine, 85 ; but
most of them held under the Archbishops of
Canterbury or their representatives, 87 ; form
of holding one, ib. ; four different courses
have been pursued in England for seciiring
the authority of a national synod, 89; the |
question of the mode hereafter to be adopted i
for the same purpose a subject for gi-ave con-
sideration, 91 ; list of British synods and
councils, 95.

Neile, Richard, archbishop of York, ])resides in
the York Svnod for the enactment of canons
of (1640), 672; his de.ath, 676.

Norman Conquest, disastrous efl'ects of upon
the Englisii Church, 155, 15{).

Nowell, l)r. Alexander, piescntation of as pro-
locutor of the lower house of Canterbury
(1563), 555; his catechism, 562.



Oath, the coronation, secures to the Church

her rights and immunities, 152.
Ordination service, reformed, 473.
Osterfield, national Synod of, 136.



Papal power, increase of in England at and
soon after the Conquest, 215 ; resistance of
the Church of England, 218; final rejection
of, 338. 355—357.

supremacy, its groundless and intolerable

pretensions, 32? ; circumstances which com-
bined to promote its rejection in England,
331. 350, 351 ; restored, 521.

Parker, Archbishop Matthew, appointed to
the see of Canterbury, 545 ; somewhat of his
character, 545, 546 ; his first provincial synod,
555; his opening speech in the Canterbury
provincial Synod of (1572), 574; his death, 579.

Paiishes, in the early establishment of the
Church, our present dioceses, 50.

Parliament, of 1545, its e.xception.able proceed-
ings, 419; petitions for the restoration of
papal authority in England, 512; act for that
restoration, 521 ; attempt at interference in
Church matters, 588. 602. 605; discounten-
anced by Queen Elizabeth, 584. 606.

Paul in. excomuuiuicates Henry VIII., 381.

Peccham, John de, accession of to the see of
Canterbury, 257.

Penance, form of, proposed by Archbishop
Grindal, 587; John Hilton's penance, ,589.

Penitents, want of an office for the reconciliation
of, 737.

Pole, Cardinal, his speech to the parliament,
511; absolves the parliament at its request,
513; his papal legatine synod, 525; heads of
business in it, 526; the cardinal's twelve con-
stitutions, 527 ; the synod prorogued, 531 ;
succeeds to the see of Canterbury, 532 ; his
death, 535 ; iiis character, 536.

Potter, Archbishop, on the distinction between
the power of the clergy and laity in matters
spiritual, 14. 19.

Prjeniunitory, or pra-munientes, clause in the
bishops' writs of summons to parliament, 272;
its origin, 277 ; calls the lower clergy to par-
liament at this day, 281 ; clergy desire that
the clause should be executed, 458, 459.

Prayer Book, synodical origin of the revision of,
13. 408; new edition of the Sanim use, 409;
the reformed litany, 418; first leformed com-
munion office, 466; first reformed Prayer
Book, 467; received full synodical sanction,
470; revision of, 476; reformed ordination
service, 473 ; second reformed Prayer Book,
475; receives sanctions ecclesiastical and civil,
479; reviewof in a conmiitteeof divines. 477;
Praver Book of 1559, 541 ; Praver Book of
1604, 629 ; final review of in 1661, 90. 714.

Presbyters, their high authority in connexion
with their bishop, 34. 46; " the Corona Pres-
byterii," ib. ; their right to attend provincial
synods established, ()2 — 69; historical evi-
dence of their admission to assist in mixed
councils, 141 — 143; and in national and nro-
vineial synods in the earlier times, 144. 183.
185; late aggicssions upon their rights and



749



duties, ih. ; constant policy of the papacy to |
depress the English presbyters, 145; inis- '
application of historical evidence, 146.

Proctors of the clergy appointed in (1277), 231,
21)2 ; take the place of the chosen presbyters
of the primitive Church, 237, 238; may ap-
point proxies, 510 and note ; but a proxy must
be a member of the synod, 654.

Prolocutor, his office, 309, 310. 315; presenta-
tion of, 312; York prolocutor, 313.

Provinces in the earliest times of the Church,
51 ; civil provinces in England, ib. ; eccle-
siastical provinces, 52; dioceses originally a
union of provinces, both civilly and ecclesias-
tically, 54.

Provincial synods supersede diocesan, 48 ; ori-
ginated in the second century, 54 ; how often
and by what authority convened, 57; presided
over by the metropolitan, 58 ; rank and func-
tions of the comprovincial bishops, 61 ; the
right of presbyters to attend recently ques-
tioned, 62; the objections answered, 62 — 68;
form of holding a provincial synod in early
times, 69; the subjects treated of in them',
71 ; means of enforcing their decrees, 73 ;
early ones the models of English convoca-
tions, 74 ; form of a provincial synod in the
eleventh century, 242; general remarks on
the constitution of, 244; commanded to be
summoned by royal writs issued to the metro-
politans, 259 ; this proceeding set on foot by
Edward I., ih. ; antecedently summoned by
the metropolitans at their own discretion and
under their own authority, 260 ; their consti-
tution in the fifteenth century, 282 ; list of
members in the Canterbury provincial Synod,
A. D. 1452, 282—290 ; form of holding provin-
cial synods in the fifteenth century, 29] ; ac-
count of the Synod ofS. Paul's, A.D. 1309, and
of that held at York in the following year, 293 ;
of the separation of provincial synods into
upper and lower houses, 294 ; arose gradually,
295 ; place of meeting originally at S. Paul's,
297; removed to Westminster, ih.\ the West-
minster protest, 298 ; York, separation into
two houses, 299 ; not always held in separate
houses in the fifteenth century, 307 ; office of
prolocutor, 309. 315; "gravamina" and " re-
formanda," 315; judgment of the two pro-
vincial synods on Henry's and Catharine's
marriage, 348; final rejection of the papal
supremacy, 350 ; list of synods from 1534 to
1553, 355 — 357 ; reduction of their members,
434; the number of members subsequent to
the dissolution of the abbeys, 450—454 ; the
two synods meet in 1547, 458 ; list of mem-
bers (A.D. 1855), 731—733.

Proxies may be appointed by capitular and
clergy proctors, 510 and note ; but a proxy
must be a member of the synod, 654.

Puckering, Serjeant, his remarkable essay in
divinity, 600.

Pym, Mr., vouches the Lambeth Articles for
the doctrine of the Church of England, 658.



Questions of doubt in matters spiritual, neces-
sity of some authority for solving them, 21 ;
that authority resides in Church synods, 23.



R.



Redmayne, Dr. John, his opinion respecting
the celibacy of the clergy, 462.

"Reformatio Legum," account of, 375; second
endeavour, 474.

Reformation, in England, prelates who were
most active in promoting it, 388.

Religious houses, the lesser ones fall, 436;
Henry VJII. covets the gieater ones, 438;
they fall, 439 ; vast amount of the forfeited
revenues, 441 ; national disadvantages from
the re-distribution of the property, ih.\ profane
disposal of it, 443 ; treasures of learning sacri-
ficed, 445 ; untenableness of the defence of
the spoliation, 446 ; Collier's reflections, 448.

Renegades, want of a form for the restoration of,
737.

Representative principle introduced into Eng-
land, 232.

Ritual, diocesan authority in matters of, 32.

Roman aggression on our national Church by
Augustine, 133; the endeavour followed up
at the national Synod of Whitby, 134 ; I
further advances under the archiepiscopate of I
Theodore, 135; subsequent aggressions, 136;
struggles of the national Church for her in- (
dependence, ib. ; policy of the papacy to de- I
press the authority of English presbyters, I
145; aggressions in the time of William I., |
205—210; in the time of John, 215—218; !
and of Henry III., 218—223 ; denial of the
cup to the laity a modern invention, 465.

Roman doctrine disallowed by Anglo-Saxon
Church, 190; jurisdiction disallowed by
Anglo-Saxon Church, 186.

Romanists, want of a form for the admitting of
into the English Church, 737.

Rome, embassy dispatched to Rome to tender
the obedience of England to Julius III., 514.



Sandys, bishop of Worcester, his odd com-
pound of spiritual and civil authority, 563;
archbishop of York, 591.

Sarum use, new edition of the, 409,

Savoy confeience, failure of, 699.

Scorey, Bishop, translated to the see of Here-
ford, 546.

Scriptures, their sufficiency as a rule of faith
and practice, 575.

, translations of, review of all from

Wicklitfe's downwards, 404, 405 ; progress of
the new translation impeded by the inter-
ference of Henry VIII., 409.

Second order of the ministry, constant policy of
the papacy to depress them, 145 — 148; in the
Anglo-Saxon times were constituent members
of national and provincial synods, 149.

Service books, revision of, 408. 412.

" Sion's Plea," inflammatory character of the
publication, 657.

" Six Articles, Act of the," design and character
of, 393; passed, 396; its cruel provisions, ib.

Snowdon, mixed Council of, 104.

Somerset, Duke of, appointed protector to his
young nephew, Edward VI., 455; his prac-
tices in religious matters, 456.



750



Stigand, archbishop of Canterbury, deposed,
154. 15()— 160.

Stonehengc, mixed Council of, 104.

Styll, Mr., chosen prolocutor of tlie Canterbury
Synod of (1589), COO; observation on dissent,
ih.

Submission Act, singular misapprehension re-
specting some of its provisions, 40 — 43. — See
Clergy Submission Act.

Submission of the clergy, 343.

Summons of the clergy to attend parliament, 274.

Synod for tlio election of S. Matthias, 5 ; for
"the appointment of deacons, il).; Synod of
Jerusalem, 6; English provincial synods con-
stituted after its e.xample, 7 ; none but bishops
and presbyters admissible to give a " votum
decisivum" therein, 9; the laity should unite
in giving force to the decisions, 11 ; synods
ecclesiastical exercised judicial as well as
legislative functions, 15 ; the two main duties



Online LibraryJames Wayland JoyceEngland's sacred synods : a constitutional history of the convocations of the clergy, from the earliest records of Christianity in Britain to the date of the promulgation of the present Book of common prayer; including a list of all councils, ecclesiastical as well as civil, held in England, in whic → online text (page 82 of 83)