James Weldon Johnson.

The North American review (Volume 238) online

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From the collection of the


o Prelinger
v Jjibrary


San Francisco, California

1845 1847 1853






Tyriusque mibi nullo discrimine agetur



Copyright, 1934, by

All Rights Reserved







AAA Succeeds in Helping Foreign Farmers,

The, 553.
Alan (Story), 39.

Answer to the Economists' Prayer, 455.
Aperitif, i, 97, 193, 289, 385, 481.


Music, 565.

Purge, 503; The World Propaganda War,


Big Salaries and Bonuses, 227.
Biographical New Dealing, 546.
BLACK, WILLIAM P. Tariff Bargains, 1585

Uncle Sam, the Junkman, 2 1 9.

scape, 88, 184, 279, 376, 472, 568.

CARTER, HENRY. The Permanently Unem

ployed, 142.

China and World Peace, 100.
COHEN, BERNARD LANDE. Is Fascism a Capital

ist Product? 390.
Come, Jenny (Story), 253.
COOMBES, EVAN. Come, Jenny (Story), 253.
Country Press Reawakens, The, 260.
CREED, VIRGINIA. Habsburgs on the Horizon,

Darrow vs. Johnson, 524.
DEWiTT, WILLIAM A. Aperitif, i, 97, 193,
289, 385*481.

Evangelist of Music, 565.

Fascism and the New Deal, 559.


Dealing, 546} Idealism's Bank Holiday,

FREDERICK, J. GEORGE. Big Salaries and

Bonuses, 227.
FROST, FRANCES. Man Alone (Poem), 2385

This Is Peace (Poem), 466 j Year's End
(Poem), 552.

Garden of Sweden, The, 414.

GERHARD, GEORGE. The Nazis Meet Some Ob

stacles, 49 j The Nazis Turn to "rw/z,"

Government by Trial Balloon, 24.

Habsburgs on the Horizon, 331.

Has the Supreme Court Abdicated? 353.

HAYWORTH, DONALD. Horse-Car Liberal Arts

Schools, 494.
HIRSCHFELD, GERHARD. Plebiscite Puzzle in

the Saar, 172$ The AAA Succeeds in Help

ing Foreign Farmers, 553.
Hitler and the Catholic Church, 438.
Hitler or Hohenzollern? 513.
Holiday on Parnassus, 367.
Hollywood Purge, The, 503.
Horse-Car Liberal Arts Schools, 494.
How the English Handle Crime, 486.

Idealism's Bank Holiday, 177.

In Time of Drought (Poem), 471.

Is Fascism a Capitalist Product? 390.

Is the Lid Off? no.

Is There Any Solution for the Labor Problem?

Japan and World Peace, 198.

JOHNSON, BURGES. Modern Maledictions, Exe
crations and Cuss- Words, 467.

JOHNSON, G. E. W. Hitler and the Catholic
Church, 438} Hitler or Hohenzollern? 513;
Mussolini Muscles In, 118$ Poland Plays a
Dangerous Game, 268; Something New in
Peace Machinery, 3125 Soviet Russia Be
tween Two Fires, 30.

JONES, PAUL. Legitimate People (Story), 225.

KELM, KARLTON. Pink Soap (Story), 406.

Last Testament (Story), 361.
League's "Black Baby," The, 233.
LEBOURDAIS, D. M. Purifying the Human

Race, 431.

Legitimate People (Story), 225.
Let's Have a Really New Deal, 4.


LEWISOHN, LUDWIG. The New Meaning of

Revolution, 210.

LINEAWEAVER, JOHN. Alan (Story) , 39.
Literary Landscape, The, 88, 184, 279, 376,

472, 568.
LOSELY, H. P. The Silver Cart Before the

Horse, 1365 Wages and Ethics, 306.
Louisa, Lady Whitney (Story), 128.
LUBELL, SAMUEL. Russia's Rising Proletarian,

4485 Strong Arm Economics, 346.

Man Alone (Poem), 238.

Court Abdicated? 353.

MASON, LOWELL B. Darrow vs. Johnson, 524.

MATHER, WILLIAM G., JR. A Use for Human
Interest Stories, 543.

MAUROIS, ANDRE. Louisa, Lady Whitney
(Story), 128.

McKEE, OLIVER, JR. Professors Put to the
Test, 34oj The Opposition Looks for Lead
ers, 66.

MEYER, ERNEST L. Pacifists in the Next War,

Miss Letitia's Profession (Story), 61.

MISSOURI FARMER, A. They've Got to Show
Me, 323.

Modern Maledictions, Execrations and Cuss-
Words, 467.

Mussolini Muscles In, 118.

Nazis Meet Some Obstacles, The, 49.
Nazis Turn to "Ersatz," The, 461.
New Meaning of Revolution, The, 210.
NICHOLS, F. B. Answer to the Economists'

Prayer, 455.
NOLTE, J. M. Government by Trial Balloon,


Opposition Looks for Leaders, The, 66.

Pacifists in the Next War, 398.

bering (Poem) , 405.

Permanently Unemployed, The, 142.

PHAYRE, IGNATIUS. The League's "Black
Baby," 233.

Pink Soap (Story) , 406.

Playing the Numbers, 533.

Plebiscite Puzzle in the Saar, 172.

Poem, 218.

Poland Plays a Dangerous Game, 268.

Professors Put to the Test, 340.

Purifying the Human Race, 431.

Raid, The (Story), 299.

REDDING, J. SAUNDERS. Playing the Numbers,

Rehousing America, 1 64.

RIDER, FREMONT. Is There Any Solution for
the Labor Problem? 239} Let's Have a
Really New Deal, 4.

no. *"

Russia's Rising Proletarian, 448.

SAITO, HIROSI. Japan and World Peace, 198.

SHAW, ROGER. Fascism and the New Deal, 559.

Silver Cart Before the Horse, The, 136.

SIMONS, RODGER L. Submarine Marvels, 74 j
The Garden of Sweden, 414.

Social Insurance for America, 292.

Something New in Peace Machinery, 312.

Southern View of Northern Reformers, A, 149.

Soviet Russia Between Two Fires, 30.

STEINBECK, JOHN. The Raid (Story), 299.

Strange Slumbering (Poem) , 405.

Strong Arm Economics, 346.

STYRON, ARTHUR. A Southern View of North
ern Reformers, 149.

Submarine Marvels, 74.

SZE, SAO-KE ALFRED. China and World Peace,

Tariff Bargains, 158.
They've Got to Show Me, 323.
This Is Peace (Poem), 466.
TOLLES, N. A. Wanted: a Plan for Our Bank
Credit, 16.

Uncle Sam, the Junkman, 219.

Use for Human Interest Stories, A, 543.

VERNON, GRENVILLE. Last Testament (Story),

Wages and Ethics, 306.

Wanted : a Plan for Our Bank Credit, 1 6.

WARD, MAY WILLIAMS. In Time of Drought

(Poem), 47 1.

WHICKER, H. W. Holiday on Parnassus, 367.
Why Not Produce Things That Pay? 80.
WILKINSON, LUPTON A. Miss Letitia's Profes
sion (Story), 6 1.
WILLIAMS, OLIVER. Why Not Produce Things

That Pay? 80.

Press Reawakens, 260.

America, 164.
WILSON, P. W. How the English Handle

Crime, 4865 Social Insurance for America,

WINN, MARY DAY. The Woman Puzzle and

the College Professor, 55.
Woman Puzzle and the College Professor, The,

World Propaganda War, The, 421.

Year's End (Poem), 552.

p I !'

Tros Tyriusque mibi nullo discrimine agetur


XV.S4. ' &J&

^f - N**"- :; CT\ *

^American J^evtew



. . geneous population"; "knowledge of

Regimenting Leisure the existence of these facilities" ; "train-

EST year, at the instigation of the ing for the wise use of leisure" j and

NRA, Mr. Raymond B. Fosdick "effort to discover the potential inter-

and others calculated that shorter work- ests and skills of the public." In each of

ing hours would give New York's ap- these categories it made specific sugges-

proximately five million workers some tions, such as, respectively, using school

two hundred million leisure hours a gymnasiums for those above school age

week. In good modern fashion Mr. Fos- who wish to play basketball, setting up

dick's committee straightway set about central information places for those in

thinking of means to fill this appalling search of avocations, expanding public

vacuum, efficiently, decorously and with art and music schools, and continuing

an eye on human progress. Its report the so-called "frills" in our education

reached this office a few days ago and as system which tend to bring out special

an indication of the new spirit abroad in aptitudes for leisure activity among

our land is worth attention. children.

Two considerations apparently were There were, of course, a great many

at the back of the committee's think- other suggestions. But it is apparent

ing: a simple desire to make everybody from these that the business of provid-

wholesomely happy, and the feeling ing leisure activities for all the people

that large numbers of people when un- will not tend to reduce tax burdens. Al-

happy, wholesomely or otherwise, make ready taxpayers have raised a hue and

trouble, if not revolutions. Young men cry over the expense of "frills" in our

take to criminal pursuits if there is no school system and demanded a return

baseball to be played, and crime waves to the three R's. But the committee

are more expensive than baseball fields, pointed out that the national effort to-

The committee felt that there were day is in the direction of distributing

four major factors involved in "effec- real income more fairly among the

tive community planning for the en- whole populace, that the likeliest

joyable use of free time": "facilities to method of accomplishing this is through

meet the varied interests of a hetero- higher income taxes on large incomes

Copyright, 1934, by North American Review Corporation. All rights reserved.


and consequently possible expansion of pensive community effort to wean the

governmental services to all, and, public from lower to higher forms of

finally, that it is much cheaper to pro- entertainment. Maybe the authorities

vide such facilities by collective than by can persuade us to forego jazz bands,

individual effort. but if they succeed in changing us to

Now, no one would object to spread- regimented Bach-lovers there will be a

ing happiness among the people, if it great deal of justifiable bitterness

does not break the nation. But it is pos- among the self-made intelligentsia, for

sible that a few malcontents will criti- these will have to learn new and even

cize the tendency to place so much of the higher tastes,
ordinary man's free time under govern
mental supervision. Throughout the

committee's report were hints of an The truth is probably that the man
ulterior purpose to educate working in the street could do with more ample
men and women in their leisure time, recreational opportunities, particularly
to force higher tastes upon them, for physical exercise, but that the man
"Early development of high standards of wealth who, the committee said,
would influence commercial entertain- can afford to buy his own entertainment
ment," said the report which might be is the one who really needs supervi-
alarming to radio, movie and magazine sion. How does he spend his free hours
executives. Elsewhere it is stated that now? Writing indignant letters to the
the ways in which most of us entertain press, making indignant speeches at
ourselves in our spare time with the banquets, journeying indignantly to
radio, movies and idle visiting are not Washington, worrying indignantly
necessarily the ways which we should over the state of his business. If he plays
choose if we could have a choice. Often golf, it is with more than the usual
we should prefer an intelligent theatre venom that the game brings forth in
performance, playing a musical instru- dubs. If he goes to the theatre, he car-
ment, boating or camping. So we say, at ries with him a host of vexations to spoil
any rate. But there is still a question his enjoyment. Nowhere does he find
whether the great majority of us really that relaxation which is necessary to
want our tastes improved, our idleness counteract the effects of modern busi-
disrupted with purposeful activity, our ness on the nerves. Plainly, with Dr.
ignorance dispelled. If we are not satis- Pitkin and others writing best-sellers on
fied with tabloid journalism there are how to relax, the need is felt,
plenty of more intelligent newspapers Perhaps it would help to write an
on the stands, at the same price. other code. Business men should be al-

Aside from the question of its prac- lowed no more than one speech a

ticability, an attempt to force-feed the month, one letter to the editor, one trip

masses with culture seems more like an to Washington, and so on. They should,

indication of the break-down of our on the other hand, be required to attend

touted individualism than anything that the evening schools where history and

has happened in the economic sphere. American principles and what the Con-

The tradition of Abe Lincoln strug- stitution was really intended to accom-

gling against terrific odds for an educa- plish are taught. None of these matters

tion is hardly compatible with an ex- is very accurately interpreted by the


average business man of wealth and a Finally, in a section devoted to

better understanding should have the "Needs Requiring Further Study" the

effect of calming him. committee said: "We need to know

Further, he should be kept from more, in addition to the little we know

spending more time on his business than already, about the intellectual capaci-

the codes allow his underlings. Pre- ties of adults and how they can be

sumably we are entering an age when measured." This should be proof to the

the philosophy of work for work's sake committee of our contention that the

is to be discarded or radically altered, authorities ought to reserve most of

It will not do to have our business lead- their supervision for the man of wealth,

ers setting a bad example of long hours Under such a dispensation they might

and overconcentration for younger men. even be able to detect the capacity of

If they found it impossible to manage an Insull for "honest errors of judg-

their affairs in the restricted time, other ment" before a very great deal of harm

men would doubtless be willing to take is done,

on the status of business leaders to help. w. A. D.

Let's Have a Really New Deal


Who, having no confidence in present Administration methods,

though he believes in its aims, suggests some drastic


COMMENTING on what he called that result. Furthermore, they have

the "Roosevelt Experiment" come to have the uneasy feeling not

one of our keenest publicists re- only that most of its proponents have

cently wrote: "No unbiased spectator of had no previous practical experience

the adventure can withhold his admira- whatsoever with the subject matter of

tion for the courage such an effort has their experiment, but that some of them

implied. Success or failure, it bears upon at least are prophesying one result while

its face the hallmarks of great leader- working strenuously to attain quite an-

ship." With this appraisal I agree, for other.

the social desirabilities of many of the If this be true, if there is danger that
objectives of the Roosevelt programme history will record that the finest con-
seem to me unquestionable, and I ad- structive effort of modern times was
mire intensely the verve, forcefulness killed, not by its enemies but by its
and good nature with which the Presi- avowed friends, it would seem worth
dent has driven ahead to translate his while to examine with some care some
programme into actuality. of its possibly mistaken methods.

But, although the ultimate aims of
this vast new "noble experiment," if we

define those aims to be the curbing of By way of prologue to all other criti-

human waste and selfish rapacity, and cism of the New Deal it is unfortunately

the rebuilding of our present social or- necessary to point out how unwisely in-

der on surer and finer foundations al- tolerant the New Dealers have been of

though these aims meet with general this very thing, criticism, even of criti-

accord, millions of Americans of un- cism sincerely intended to be helpful,

questioned sincerity are beginning to Altogether too many of them have

doubt the wisdom of the methods which tacitly assumed that any criticism of

are being used to attain them. It is not their "experiment" was, either openly

because they do not wish to see the "ex- or hypocritically, destructive. Ascribing

periment" successful, but that they have good faith to no one but themselves,

come increasingly to fear that the meth- they deem any one who ventures to

ods in question are likely to fail to have suggest amendment not merely mis-


taken, but disingenuous. At first it was promulgated last June the country,
"unpatriotic" to venture comment of thanks to a change in national psychol-
any sort. Congress itself was for months ogy for which the energetic initiative of
little more than a legislative blank- the new Administration was mainly re-
cheque mill. And when there finally sponsible, was definitely out of the dol-
came an Administration about-face, drums of the depression and had gone
when we were told that criticism was a strong three months forward on the
"invited" veritable "field-days" of it road toward recovery. Second, that the
it was nevertheless made abundantly initiation of the NRA definitely and im-
clear that even then nothing in the na- mediately interrupted this recovery im-
ture of genuine criticism, criticism, that petus, and kept business at a standstill
is, of fundamentals, was to be permitted, for almost six months. Third, that re
but only suggestions for the amendment covery began again only when the
of minor details. The basic pillars of the strangle-hold which had been placed on
New Deal: the NRA law, the crop sur- industry by the labor clauses of the
plus destruction policy, the repudiation NRA was relaxed a trifle by the deci-
by the Government of its financial obli- sion which ended the automobile strike
gations all these things were to con- deadlock. And for "Fourth" I will go
tinue to be held sacrosanct and in- further: if tomorrow the President as
violable. he has full legal power to do, as he has

To their first assumption, that any indeed promised to do should an-

real criticism of the New Deal was un- nounce that the "emergency" for which

thinkable, its proponents conjoined an- it was promulgated is over, and should

other, a self-defensive one, that govern- drop the whole present NRA scheme

ment was wiser and more competent to into the political waste basket if tomor-

deal with all matters relating to business row he did this, I venture that, with the

and finance than were the business men terrible incubus of it removed, the na-

and financiers of the nation. By indirec- tion's business would almost overnight

tion and carefully staged publicity the spring forward into the beginning of

impression was created, or sought to be one of the greatest boom periods this

created, that most business men had country has ever known,

risen to power through legal trickery For get this clearly, very clearly and

and financial piracy. And this second as- very emphatically, in mind: the depres-

sumption of course involved the corol- sion with which we have been strug-

lary which we heard repeated ad gling for the past four years represents,

nauseam that the New Deal was initi- not the break-down of a free-working

ated last summer to meet a grave emer- system of individual initiative, but the

gency, a crisis in which our time-worn break-down of a system of individual

system of individual initiative had so initiative in which individual initiative

completely "broken down" that all busi- had been increasingly forbidden to

ness was rapidly nearing a state of com- function. It was the break-down of

plete collapse. what had already become only a quasi-

Now the validity of every one of competitive system, of a competitive
these assumptions should be challenged, system which was being ever more and
beginning with the last. What are the more baited, badgered, hampered, crip-
facts? First, that, when the NRA was pled, cribbed, cabined and confined by


a myriad of interferences of govern- ence with economic law will not and

mental interferences in the form of can not work any sound or lasting cure

wars, licenses, income taxes, public util- for any business ill. In the newspapers

ity commissions, protective tariffs, legis- just today was a most significant an-

lative committees, workmen's compensa- nouncement: that, because the NRA

tion laws, excise taxes, doles, legislative had failed to realize the hopes of its

investigations, reparations, question- promoters, it was understood that they

naires, inspection bureaus, labor laws, were about to propose that its powers be

cartels, reports, managed currencies, sta- greatly increased and extended. This is

bilization plans, and literally endless what always happens once we start the

other attempts to "regulate" artificially, downward path.

by government mandate, the normal It will help to keep one's feet on the

free-working interrelations of business ground if this is ever held firmly in

and finance and the normal free-work- mind: that, left to itself y business can

ing interactions of supply and demand, solve any of its problems, can recuperate

Under such a pulling and hauling of itself from any depression, can adjust

conflicting interests no economic sys- itself to any foreknown situation and

tern of any sort could long survive, can do all these things with the mini-

What we term the competitive system mum of loss, delay and friction. That is,

certainly proved its amazing toughness in fact, the amazing and unique char-

and pliability when it stood this sort of acteristic of all business, its efficient and

manhandling as long as it did without prompt adaptability to meet trouble.

cracking. And it is no answer at all for But only if it is left unhampered. Once

the advocates of government "regula- let government interfere in any way

tion" to retort that many of the most except, as we always except, to see that

disastrous of the above-mentioned in- it, and its competitors, do not do things

terferences were efforts made by gov- that run counter to moral law and

ernment to help certain favored, or waste and delay accumulate,
economically necessitous, groups in
fact were often exerted at the direct

solicitation of such groups. For that is This, of course, by no means suggests
what government interference in busi- that our business system is perfect. It is
ness when it is interference based on organized and run by human beings:
economic instead of moral grounds they have their frailties and it has its
always is, a tug-of-war between various abuses. It is beyond argument that some
more or less powerful and more or less businesses have done things, and are do-
selfish political-economic interests, a tug- ing things, that transgress both crimi-
of-war growing increasingly more com- nal and moral law. And most business
plicated and more frenetic as society men would welcome, and would sup-
itself becomes more complicated and as port enthusiastically, any sincere and
the bureaucratic spirit, growing with well-intentioned effort on the part of
what it feeds on, tries frantically to bring government to eliminate from all busi-
order out of the chaos which it has itself ness such immoral practices and such
created in its efforts to please this or that criminal businesses. For, because all real
special interest or to cure this or that business abuses will be found, on anal-
business ill. For government interfer- ysis, to represent infractions of morals


if not violations of present law, it is a porations requires a high level of corn-
proper function of government, it is the mercial honesty." And he adds this
function of government, to prevent, de- suggestive Anhang: "Among many
tect and punish them. It is not for lack peoples of the earth, it is probable that
of laws that government has failed in large-scale production could not be com-
this. We have laws, a plethora of them, pletely developed because their stand-
forbidding bribery, barratry, conspiracy ards of business integrity would make it
and adulteration, not to speak of plain difficult to operate large corporations."
forgery, theft and larceny. And, if these Just as business is something quite out
and our other criminal laws were actu- of the normal province of government,
ally enforced, most of the problems so the prevention of crime is something
which hamper and hamstring legitimate quite out of the normal province of
business today would be automatically business. It is hardly too much to say
solved. that this Republic was founded upon the
The average American citizen knows principle that the primary, if not the
perfectly well that the recent hue and sole, function of government was the
cry about the dishonesty of business men protection of person and property from
is something that has been very much assault and spoliation. And, when gov-

Online LibraryJames Weldon JohnsonThe North American review (Volume 238) → online text (page 1 of 74)