Jean Froissart.

The chronicles of Sir John Froissart condensed for young readers online

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THE CHRONICLES 01
SIR JOHN flOlSSAf^



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Cliapi4^.lV? Copyright Xo

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.



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EDITED BY

WILLIAM T. HARRIS, A.M., LL. D.

UNITED STATES COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION



DIVISION III

History




Froissart presenting a copy of his book to
King Richard II of England.



APPLE TONS' HOME READING BOOKS

THE CHRONICLES OF
SIR JOHN FROISSART

CONDENSED FOR YOUNG READERS

BY

• ADAM SINGLETON




NEW YORK

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY

1900



1683

XVSTO COPIES RECEIVED,

Library of C§fifrtt%
Offlct of the

JUN4-1900

Roffiitor of Copyrlfkf&
SECOND COPY.



6S9iO

Copyright, 1900
By D. APPLETON AND COMPANY






TO

E. C. H.



INTEODUCTIOK TO THE HOME EEADmO
BOOK SEKIES BY THE EDITOR



The new education takes two important direc-
tions — one of these is toward original observation,
requiring the pupil to test and verify what is taught
him at school by his own experiments. The infor-
mation that he learns from books or hears from his
teacher's lips must be assimilated by incorporating it
with his own experience.

The other direction pointed out by the new edu-
cation is systematic home reading. It forms a part of
school extension of all kinds. The so-called " Univer-
sity Extension " that originated at Cambridge and Ox-
ford has as its chief feature the aid of home reading by
lectures and round-table discussions, led or conducted
by experts who also lay out the course of reading.
The Chautauquan movement in this country prescribes
a series of excellent books and furnishes for a goodly
number of its readers annual courses of lectures. The
teachers' reading circles that exist in many States pre-
scribe the books to be read, and publish some analysis,
commentary, or catechism to aid the members.

Home reading, it seems, furnishes the essential
basis of this great movement to extend education

vii



viii THE C"I1R0NICLES OF FROTSSART

beyond tlie school and to make self-culture a habit
of life.

Looking more carefully at the difference lietween
the two directions of the new education we can see
what each accomplishes. There is iirst an effort to
train the original powers of the individual and make
him self-active, quick at observation, and free in his
thinking. Next, the new education endeavors, by the
readinjj- of books and the studv of the wisdom of the
race, to make the child or youth a participator in the
results of experience of all mankind.

These two movements may be made anta2:onistic
by poor teaching. The book knowledge, containing as
it does the precious lesson of human experience, may
be so taught as to brino^ with it onlv dead rules of
conduct, only dead scraps of information, and no
stimulant to original thinking. Its contents may be
memorized without being understood. On the other
hand, the self -activity of the child may be stimulated
at the expense of his social well-being — his originality
may be cultivated at the expense of his rationality.
If he is taught persistently to have his own way, to
trust only his own senses, to cling to his own opinions
heedless of the experience of his fellows, he is pre-
paring for an unsuccessful, misanthropic career, and
is likely enough to end his life in a madhouse.

It is admitted that a too exclusive study of the
knowledge found in books, the knowledge which is
aggregated from the experience and thought of other
people, may result in loading the mind of the pupil
with material which he can not use to advantasre.



EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION ix

Some minds are so full of lumlier that there is no
space left to set up a workshop. The necessity of
uniting both of these directions of intellectual activity
in the schools is therefore obvious, but we must not,
in this place, fall into the error of supposing that it is
the oral instruction in school and the personal influ-
ence of the teacher alone that excites the pupil to ac-
tivity. Book instruction is not always dry and theo-
retical. The very persons who declaim against the
book, and praise in such strong terms the seK-activity
of the pupil and original research, are mostly persons
who have received their practical impulse from read-
ing the w^ritings of educational reformers. Yery few
persons have received an impulse from personal con-
tact with inspiring teachers compared with the num-
ber that have been aroused by reading such books as
Herbert Spencer's Treatise on Education, Rousseau's
Emile, Pestalozzi's Leonard and Gertrude, Francis
W. Parker's Talks about Teaching, G. Stanley
Hall's Pedagogical Seminary. Think in this connec-
tion, too, of the impulse to observation in natural sci-
ence produced by such books as those of Hugh Miller,
Faraday, Tyndall, Huxley, Agassiz, and Darwin.

The new scientific book is different from the old.
The old style book of science gave dead results where
the new one gives not only the results, but a minute
account of the method employed in reaching those re-
sults. An insight into the method employed in dis-
covery trains the reader into a naturalist, an historian,
a sociologist. The books of the writers above named
have done more to stimulate original research on the



X THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART

part of their readers than all other influences com-
bined.

It is therefore much more a matter of importance
to get the right kind of book than to get a living
teacher. The book which teaches results, and at the
same time gives in an intelligible manner the steps of
discovery and the methods employed, is a book
which will stinmlate the student to repeat the ex-
periments described and get beyond them into fields
of original research himself. Every one remem-
bers the published lectures of Faraday on chemistry,
which exercised a wide influence in changing the
style of books on natural science, causing them to
deal with method more than results, and thus train
the reader's power of conducting original research.
Robinson Crusoe for nearly two hundred years has
aroused the spirit of adventure and prompted young
men to resort to the border lands of civilization. A
library of home reading should contain books that in-
cite to self- activity and arouse the spirit of inquiry.
The books should treat of methods of discovery and
evolution. All nature is unified by the discovery of
the law of evolution. Each and every being in the
world is now explained by the process of development
to which it belongs. Every fact now throws light on
all the others by illustrating the process of growth in
which each has its end and aim.

The Home Heading Books are to be classed as
follows :

First Dimsion. IS^atui-al history, including popular
scientific treatises on plants and animals, and also de-



EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION xi

scriptions of geographical localities. The In-anch of
study in the district school course which corresponds
to this is geography. Travels and sojourns in distant
lands ; special writings which treat of this or that
animal or plant, or family of animals or plants ; any-
thing that relates to organic nature or to meteorol-
ogy, or descriptive astronomy may be placed in this
class.

Second Division. Whatever relates to physics or
natural philosophy, to the statics or dynamics of air or
water or light or electricity, or to the properties of
matter ; whatever relates to chemistry, either organic
or inorganic — books on these subjects belong to the
class that relates to what is inorganic. Ev^en the so-
called organic chemistry relates to the analysis of
organic bodies into their inorganic compounds.

Third Division. History, biography, and ethnol-
ogy. Books relating to the lives of individuals ; to
the social life of the nation ; to the collisions of na-
tions in war, as well as to the aid that one nation
gives to another through commerce in times of peace;
books on ethnology relating to the modes of life of
savage or civilized peoples ; on primitive manners
and customs — books on these subjects belong to the
third class, relating particularly to the human will,
not merely the individual will but the social will,
the will of the tribe or nation ; and to this third
class belong also books on ethics and morals, and
on forms of government and laws, and what is in-
cluded under the term civics, or the duties of citi-
zenship.



xii THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART

Fourth Dimsion. The fourth class of books îd-
chides more especially literature and works that make
known the beautiful in such departments as sculpture,
painting, architecture and music. Literature and art
show human nature in tlie form of feelings, emotions,
and aspirations, and they show how these feelings
lead over to deeds and to clear thoughts. This de-
partment of books is perhaps more important than
any other in our home reading, inasmuch as it teaches
a knowledge of human nature and enables us to un-
derstand the motives that lead our fellow-men to
action.

Plan for Use as Supplementakt Reading.

The first work of the child in the school is to
learn to recognize in a printed form the words that
are familiar to him by ear. These words constitute
what is called the colloquial vocabulary. They are
words that he has come to know from having heard
them used by the members of his family and by his
playmates. He uses these words himself with con-
siderable skill, but what he knows by ear he does not
yet know by sight. It will require many weeks,
many months even, of constant effort at reading the
printed page to bring him to the point where the
sight of the written word brings up as much to his
mind as the sound of the spoken word. But patience
and practice will by and by make the printed word
far more suggestive than the spoken word, as every
scholar may testify.

In order to bring about this familiarity with the



EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION xiii

printed word it lias been found necessary to re-en-
force the reading in the school by supplementary
reading at home. Books of the same grade of diffi-
culty with the reader used in school are to be pro-
vided for the pupil. They must be so interesting
to him that he will read them at home, using his time
before and after school, and even his holidays, for
this purpose.

But this matter of familiarizing the child with the
printed word is only one half of the object aimed at
by the supplementary home reading. He should
read that which interests him. He should read that
which will increase his power in making deeper
studies, and what he reads should tend to correct his
habits of observation. Step by step he should be
initiated into the scientific method. Too many ele-
mentary books fail to teach the scientific method be-
cause they point out in an unsystematic way only
those features of the object which the untutored
senses of the pupil would discover at first glance. It
is not useful to tell the child to observe a piece of
chalk and see that it is white, more or less friable,
and that it makes a mark on a fence or a wall. Sci-
entific observation goes immediately behind the facts
which lie obvious to a superficial investigation.
Above all, it directs attention to such features of the
object as relate it to its environment. It directs at-
tention to the features that have a causal infiuence in
making the object what it is and in extending its
effects to other objects. Science discovers the recip-
rocal action of objects one upon another.



xiv THE CHRONICLES OF FROTSSART

After the child has learned how to observe what
is essentia] in one class of objects he is in a measure
fitted to observe for himself all objects that resemble
this class. After he has learned how to observe the
seeds of the milkweed, he is partially prepared to
observe the seeds of the dandelion, the burdock, and
the thistle, xlfter he has learned how to study the
history of his native country, he has acquired some
al)ility to study the history of England and Scotland
or France or Germany. In the same way the daily
preparation of his reading lesson at school aids him
to read a storv of Dickens or Walter Scott.

The teacher of a school will know how to obtain
a small sum to invest in supplementary reading. In
a graded school of four hundred pupils ten books of
each number are sufficient, one set of ten books to be
loaned the first week to the best pupils in one of the
rooms, the next week to the ten pupils next in ability.
On Monday afternoon a discussion should be held
over the topics of interest to the pupils who have
read the book. The pupils who have not yet read
the book will become interested, and await anxiously
their turn for the loan of the desired volume. Another
set of ten books of a higher grade may be used in the
same way in a room containing more advanced pupils.
The older pupils who have left school, and also the
parents, should avail themselves of the opportunity to
read the books brought home from school. Thus is
begun that continuous education by means of the pub-
lic library which is not limited to the school period,
but lasts through life. W. T. Harkis.

Washington, D. C, Xov. 16, 1896,



AUTHOK'S PREFACE



The design of this book is set forth in the note
to its young readers, as well as the manner in which
it has been condensed from Lord Berners' English
translation of Froissart as edited by Mr. Macaulay.
Reference is therefore made to this note.

Whenever a word in Lord Berners' translation is
unusual or strange, and is yet such a word as the
young reader ought to acquire and thereafter possess
as a part of his vocabulary, it has been printed in this
book unchanged, with its modern equivalent immedi-
ately following in parentheses, thus : " and the king
was mounted on a little palfrey {riding horse).'''' If
the book is read aloud all such parentheses must be
omitted.

If, on the other hand, the unusual word is really
obsolete, it has been replaced by its modern equiva-
lent, thus : " Then it was ordered that all men should
move into the field," where the word move replaces
the word "draw" in the original. Additions have
been made by the present editor for the purpose of
rendering the meaning perfectly clear to the young
reader. For instance, where Froissart speaks of " the



XV



xvi THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART

prince," this book often says " the Prince of Wales " ;
where he speaks of " the king," tliis book says " the
French King." In many cases Lord Berners has mis-
translated tlie words of Froissart, and the mistrans-
lations are corrected here.

The main object of the present volume is to open
the fourteenth century to the young reader of the
nineteenth. To do this satisfactorily, we must ad-
here to the original text, or to early translations of
it, as closely as practicable consistent with that per-
fect clearness of language which is essential in books
to be used by young people. The chapters in this
book correspond to the chapters in Lord Berners'
translation, though, of course, they are numbered dif-
ferently, since only fifty-four out of his seven hun-
dred chapters are printed here.

When no material change is made in the sense by
leaving out phrases and clauses of Lord Berners'
translation they have been omitted to shorten his por-
tentously long sentences. There is no mark in this
book to show where such alterations have been made.
It does not seem important that there should be.

Whenever it has seemed useful, explanatory notes
have been given. By far the greater number of
them are very brief explanations in parentheses in the
text itself, as, " put off his harness (armor),-^ and the
like. The pronunciation of foreign words is given
in the footnotes. A few longer notes are given, to
direct the thought of the reader, or to enable hira to
place himself quickly in the situation of a reader of
three centuries ago. The whole purpose of the près-



AUTHORS PREFACE xvii

ent volume is to put an American child in possession
of a history which is his birthright. He should feel
that these warriors are his ancestors. They are not
Greeks, but Englishmen.

The vital matter, always kept in view, is to pre-
sent the idea in Froissart's mind with perfect clear-
ness to the American child who reads this book.
Whenever this can be done without changing Lord
Berners' text it is left unaltered. The form of Lord
Berners' prose tells us something that is worth know-
ing about his mind. We see what things were im-
portant to him ; and it is interesting to observe that
he sometimes lays stress on matters that seem quite
unimportant to us. The unchanged sentences give
us the very words of an English gentleman of the
sixteenth century. This is the daily conversation of
a nobleman who lived in Shakespeare's day ; just as
Froissart's Chronicles are the writings of a French
gentleman contemporary with Chaucer.

The illustrations have been copied from old manu-
scripts, old prints, and standard works on the life and
times of Edward III. They will be found to be a
valuable addition to the text, and they give a pictorial
history of the manners of the time. The young reader
should be encouraged to examine them minutely.

A. S.
New York, December, 189S.



A TABLE OF SOME HISTOEICAL EVENTS

(1312-1400)



IN ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND.



A. D,

Edward III born at Wind-
sor Castle, 1312

King Edward II impris-
oned by Sir Roger Mor-
timer, and killed, 1327

Edward III crowned King
of England, 1327

The Earl Mortimer is Re-
gent of England, and
he and Queen Isabel
(daughter of King Philip
IV of France) hold all
the power, 1327-'30



King Robert Bruce of Scot-
land dies, 1329

King David II of Scotland
succeeds to the throne, 1329

Mortimer imprisoned and
executed, 1330

Queen Isabel imprisoned, 1330
(She died 1357)



ABROAD.



A. D.

Pope Xicholas V, 1328

Philip VI of Valois,* King

of France. 1328

War of France with Flan-
ders, 1828



* Pronounced val-wa'.



xviu



SOME HISTORICAL EVENTS (1312-1400) xix



IN ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND.


ABROAD.




The art of weaving wool-


A. D,






en cloth introduced into








England from Flanders,


1331






Edward III invades Scot-








land,


1332






Edward III supports Ed-








ward Baliol as King of








Scotland,


1332






Defeat of the Scots at Hal-






A. D.


lidon Hill by Edward III


1333


Pope Benedict XII,


1334


Edward III invades Scot-








land, 1335-'36






The Hundred Years' War








between England and








France (1336 to 1431)








begins ; England allied








with Flanders, etc.,


1336


Sir John Froissart born.


1337


Edward III invades France


1339


The English besiege Cam-








brai,


1339


Geoffrey Chaucer, the great




Sea fight at Sluys; the




English poet, born.


1340


English win,


1340


Edinburgh Castle taken by




The poet Petrarch crowned




the English,


1341


at Rome (as poet-laureate)


1341


The Houses of Lords and




Civil war in Brittany,


1341


Commons founded,


1341


War of the English and
French in Brittany and








in Guienne, 1341-42






Pope Clement VI,


1342






Boccaccio crowned (as poet-








laureate) in Rome,


1342






The Turks settle in Europe


1343


First gold coins in England


1344


Jacob van Arteveldt of




Battle of Durham (the




Flanders killed,


1345


English victorious over




War between France and




the Scots),


1346


England in Brittany,


1346



XX



THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART



IN ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND.


ABROAD.


King David II taken pris-


A. u.




oner.


1346




King Edward III invades






France at Calais; and




A. D.


Edward the Black Prince




Battle of Cressy (English


in Gascony,




defeat the French), 1346


War with Scotland,






First great pestilence in




Siege of Calais (taken by


England, IM


7-'49


the English), 1347
Charles IV, crowned Em-
peror of Germany, 1347


The order of the Garter




Theplagueragesin Italy 1348- 49


instituted,


1349


The Black Death in Eu-
rope, 1349
King Philip of France dies 1350
John II. King of France, 1350
Pope Innocent VI, 1352


French war renewed.


1355


Battle of Poitiers (the Eng-
lish victorious over the
French ; King John


John Wyclif's writings.


1356


taken prisoner). 1356
The Peasants' Rebellion
{La Jacquerie *) in
France, 1358


Edward III desolates the






north of France.


1359


Peace declared between


Edward III gives up the




France and England, 1360


title of King of France,




Peace endured, 1360-'69


and obtains large pos-






sessions in northeast and






southwest France,


1360




The second great pesti-






lence,


1361





* Pronounced zhiik-rë'.



SOME HISTORK^AL EVENTS (1312-1400) xxi



IN ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND.


ABROAD.




English language used in


A. D.






courts of law, " because








the French tongue is






A. D.


much unknown,"


1362


Pope Urban V,


1362






Charles V, King of France,


1364


The third great pestilence,


1369


War between France and








England,


1370






Pope Gregory XI,


1370






Wars in which France con-








quers all the English pos-








sessionsexceptBordeaux,








Bayonne, and Calais, 1370-'77


Robert II (Stuart), King of








Scotland,


1371






Edward the Black Prince








dies,


1376






Edward III dies, aged six-




The Pope returns from




ty-five.


1377


Avignon * to Rome,


1377


Richard II, King of Eng-








land,


1377






The Bible translated into




Pope Clement VII,


1378


English by Wyclif about


1380


Charles VI, King of France


1380


Battle of Otterburn (Chevy








Chase), the Scots victors








over the English.


1388


Truce with France,


1389


Robert III, King of Scot-




Pope Boniface IX,


1389


land,


1390






Henry IV, King of Eng-




Pope Benedict XIII,


1394


land,


1399






Chaucer dies,


1400







* Pronounced â-vën-yôiV. The Pope of Rome lived in this city
from 1309 till 1377.



xxii THE CHRONICLES OF FROISSART

ENGLAND— THE HOUSE OF PLANTAGENET

Edward 1, 1272-1807 ;

Edward II, 1307-'27; married Isabel, daughter of Philip IV
of France ;

Edward III. 1327-77; married Pliilippa. daughter of Wil-
liam, Count of Hainault ; *

Edward the Black Prince ; married Joan of Kent ;

Richard 11, lo77-'99; married Anne, daughter of Emperor
Charles lY.

FRANCE— THE HOUSE OF VALOIS t
Philip III, 1270-85 ;



Philip IV, 1285-1314 ; Charles, Count of Valois ;

1
Philip VI, 1328-'50:



Isabel ; married Philip V, Charles IV,

Edward II of England ; 13l6-'22 : 1322-'28 ;

Edward III of England.



* Pronounced hâ-nô'. f Pronounced vâl-wâ'.



KEY TO PilOKUKClATIOK*



a as in fat, man, pang,
fi as in fate, mane, dale,
a as in far, father, guard,
a as in fall, talk, naught,
a as in ask, fast, ant.
â as in fair, hair, bear,
e as in met, pen, bless,
ë as in mete, meet, meat,
ê as in her, fern, heard,
i as in pin, it, biscuit.
Ï as in pine, fight, file,
o as in not, on, frog.
Ô as in note, poke, floor,
o as in move, spoon, room.
o as in nor, song, off.
u as in tub, son, blood.
Û as in mute, acute, few.
Ù as in pull, book, could.
Û German u, French u.
oi as in oil, joint, boy.
ou as in pound, proud, now.

A single dot under a vowel in
an unaccented syllable indicates
its abbreviation and lightening,
without absolute loss of its dis-
tinctive quality. Thus :

â as in prelate, courage.

Ç as in ablegate, episcopal.

9 as in abrogate, eulogy, demO'

crat.
û as in singular, education.



A double dot under a vowel in
an unaccented syllable indicates
that, even in the mouths of the
best speakers, its sound is vari-
able to, and in ordinary utterance
actually becomes, the short u-
sound (of but, pun, etc.). Thus :
a as in errant, republican,
e as in prudent, difference,
i as in charity, density,
o as in valor, actor, idiot,
a as in Persia, peninsula,
ê as in the book,
û as in nature, feature.

A mark {-) under the conso-
nants t, d, s, z indicates that they
in like manner are variable to
ch,J, sh, zh. Thus:
t as in nature, adventure,
d as in arduous, education.
s as in leisure,
z as in seizure.

n French nasalizing n, as in
ton. en.

' denotes a primary, " a sec-
ondary accent. (A secondary
accent is not marked if at its
regular interval of two syllables
from the primary, or from an-


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Online LibraryJean FroissartThe chronicles of Sir John Froissart condensed for young readers → online text (page 1 of 16)