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[Illustration]


TITAN:

A ROMANCE.

FROM THE GERMAN OF

_JEAN PAUL FRIEDRICH RICHTER._

TRANSLATED BY

CHARLES T. BROOKS.

IN TWO VOLUMES.

VOL. I.

[Illustration]

BOSTON:
TICKNOR AND FIELDS.
1864.


Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1862, by

TICKNOR AND FIELDS,

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of
Massachusetts.

THIRD EDITION.


_UNIVERSITY PRESS:_
WELCH, BIGELOW, AND COMPANY,
_CAMBRIDGE._




TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE.


The "Titan" is Jean Paul's longest - and the author meant it, and held
it, to be his greatest and best - romance; and his public (including Mr.
Carlyle) seems, on the whole, to have sustained his opinion. He was ten
years about it, and his other works, written in the interval, were
preparatory and tributary to this.

As to the _general_ meaning of the title there can hardly, on the whole,
be any doubt. It does _not_ refer, as the division into Jubilees and
Cycles might, to be sure, suggest to one on first approaching it, to the
titanic scale and scope of the work, but to the titanic violence against
which it is aimed.

It seems, indeed, from a letter of the author's, that he thought at
first of calling it "Anti-Titan." The only question in regard to the
_application_ of the title seems to be, whether the champion of truth
and justice against the moral Titans in this case was meant to be
understood as represented by the hero of the story, with his friends,
resisting the iniquity which moved earth and hell to ruin him, or
whether the book itself is the Anti-Titan, and an age of extravagance
the Titan.

A French critic says of the "Titan": -

"It is a poem, a romance; a psychological _résumé_, a satire, an elegy,
a drama, a fantasy; having for theme and text the enigma of civilization
in the eighteenth century.

"How is it to end, this civilization which exaggerates alike
intellectual and industrial power at the expense of the life of the
soul, - wholly factitious, theatrical, - intoxicating, consuming itself
with pleasure, seeking everywhere new enjoyments, - exploring all the
secrets of nature, without being able to penetrate the first causes, the
secrets of God, - what will be the fate of these generations
supersaturated with romances, dramas, journals, with science, ambition,
with vehement aspirations after the unknown and impossible?...

"In augmenting the sum of its desires, will it augment the sum of its
happiness? Is it not going to increase immensely its capacity of
suffering?

"Will it not be the giant that scales heaven -

"And that falls crushed to death?

"TITAN!"

In giving his romance the title of "Titan," says the same writer, "it is
not Albano de Cesara the author has in view, but his antipode, Captain
Roquairol, - that romantic being, that insatiable lover of pleasure, that
anticipated Byron, that scaler of heaven, - who, after having piled
mountain upon mountain to attain his object, ends in finding himself
buried under the ruins....

"Even while at work upon 'Hesperus,' he had formed the resolution of
placing a pure man, great and noble, by the side of a reprobate, and of
surrounding them both with a multitude of beings corresponding to them.
He wished to concentrate in a single work all the ideas of high
philosophy which he had disseminated in his other creations, and to show
them followed by their natural consequences. So strong a mind could not
stop there: he resolved to show the absurdity of exaggeration, whether
in good or in evil, in virtue or in vice.

"Hence those reproductions of the same types, those satellites
gravitating around their respective planets; in fine, those parodies of
the principal personages of the drama.

"By the side of the coldness and the vast plans of Don Gaspard de
Cesara, we have the no less dangerous intrigues, though upon a less
elevated scale, of the Minister von Froulay; by the side of the
ventriloquist Uncle, the lying Roquairol; the Princess Isabelle is
opposed to Linda de Romeiro, the aerial Liana to her physical
counterpart, the Princess Idoine; the comic vulgarity of Dr. Sphex
contrasts with the more elevated buffoonery of Schoppe; and if we have
Bouverot, we have also Dion, that Greek so elegant and so noble, happy
mixture of the antique and the modern, that artist so sensible and so
true....

"The history of Albano, opposed to Roquairol, is the history, taken from
his tenderest childhood to the epoch of his greatest development, of a
being who, as the strictest consequence of a quite special education,
goes through life, wounding himself with all its griefs, drinking at the
source of all its lawful pleasures; suffering with nobleness, tasting of
happiness, but only the purest kind; exposed every instant to see
himself drawn away by fallacious principles, and nevertheless moving on
with a steady step towards the end which his reason has marked out for
him; sacrificing to the fulfilment of his duties all the delights that a
debauched court can offer a young man entering into the world. While all
the personages who gravitate around him, and who represent each a
different aberration from the fundamental principle of the work, fall
successively at his side, victims of the natural consequences of their
passions, he, strengthening himself by every fall of which he is
witness, ends by attaining the loftiest position which the ambition of
man can desire, - a position which he could not have expected, and for
which, consequently, he had not been able to make the sacrifices that,
in the course of the work, he does not cease to achieve."

The author whom we have thus copiously quoted alludes to Jean Paul's
having had the idea of "Titan" while writing "Hesperus." This reminds us
of a Philistine disparagement of the "Titan," that so many of the
characters of the other work reappear here under new names. There are
some critics who ought to object to the full moon, that she is only the
same old moon that we had, in her first quarter or half, several nights
ago. However, as we have not yet had "Hesperus" in English, nor are
likely to for some time, this kind of objection will not trouble English
readers of "Titan."

Jean Paul has been justly praised for his success in drawing and shading
female characters. Our French critic says: "Richter has the rare merit
of placing on the stage in the same work six female personages, who have
not a shadow of resemblance to each other, and who, from the moment of
their appearance on the scene to that of their quitting it, never
deviate a single minute from the character the author has given them."

The fate of his Titanide, Linda, created a loud remonstrance in Germany;
and one can hardly, indeed, help feeling as if poetic justice had been a
little caricatured, at least, in Richter's disposal of that half
strong-headed and half headstrong woman. Painful, however, as her end
is, the Translator could not listen an instant to the suggestion of
omitting a line of the scenes in which that terrible tragedy is brought
to a close.

When the "Titan" first appeared, complaint was made by some that there
was too much of drollery, by others that there was not enough; some
found too much sentimentality, others too much philosophy; the
Translator has found it full, if not of that brevity which is the soul
of _wit_ (not, however, of humor), yet of that variety which is the
spice of life.

The Translator (or Transplanter, for he aspires to the title) of this
huge production, in his solicitude to preserve the true German aroma of
its native earth, may have brought away some part of the soil, and even
stones, clinging to the roots (_stones of offence_ they may prove to
many, stones of stumbling to many more). He can only say, that if he had
made Jean Paul always talk in ordinary, conventional, straightforward,
instantly intelligible prose, the reader would not have had _Jean Paul
the Only_.

And yet it is confidently claimed that, under all the exuberance of
metaphor and simile, and learned technical illustrations and odd
digressions, and gorgeous episodes and witching interludes, that
characterizes Richter, every attentive and thoughtful reader will find a
broad and solid ground of real good sense and good feeling, and that in
this extraordinary man whom, at times, his best friends were almost
tempted to call a crazy giant, will be found one whose _heart_ (to use
the homely phrase) is ever _in the right place_.

It has seemed necessary to give a few notes, and only a few. Properly to
furnish such a work with annotations would require Jean Paul's own
voluminous un-commonplace-books of all out-of-the-way knowledge, and
that _Dictionary to Jean Paul_ which one of his countrymen began, but
unfortunately carried only through one of his works, the work on
Education, _Levana_.

The Translator desires emphatically to express his obligations to his
friend, Rev. Dr. Furness, of Philadelphia, and to _his_ friend, the
accomplished scholar, Mr. Knorr, to whose kind and patient care whatever
of accuracy or felicity there may be in his version of the first Jubilee
is largely due; also, to Rev. Dr. Hedge, and all the friends who have
helped him with suggestion and encouragement in this large and difficult
undertaking, he makes his warmest acknowledgments; - and he closes by
commending the Titan to all lovers of the humanities, confident (in the
words of Mrs. Lee, in her Life of Jean Paul) that "the more it is read,
the more it will be acknowledged a work of exalted genius, pure
morality, and perennial beauty."

C. T. B.
NEWPORT, R. I.




TO

THE FOUR LOVELY AND NOBLE SISTERS ON THE THRONE.[1]

_THE DREAM OF TRUTH._


Aphrodite, Aglaia, Euphrosyne, and Thalia once looked down into the
clear-obscure of earth, and, weary of the ever-bright but cold Olympus,
yearned to enter in beneath the clouds of our world, where the Soul
loves more because it suffers more, and where it is sadder but more
warm. They heard the holy tones ascend, with which Polyhymnia passes
invisibly up and down the low, anxious earth, to cheer and lift our
hearts; and they mourned that their throne stood so far from the sighs
of the helpless.

Then they determined to take the earthly veil, and to clothe themselves
in our mortal form. They came down from Olympus; Love and little loves
and genii flew playfully after them, and our nightingales fluttered to
meet them out of the bosom of May.

But, as they touched the first flowers of earth, and flung only rays of
light, and cast no shadows, then the earnest Queen of gods and men,
Fate, raised her eternal sceptre, and said: "The immortal becomes mortal
upon the earth, and every spirit becomes a human being!"

So they became human beings and sisters, and were called _Louisa_,
_Charlotte_, _Theresa_, _Frederica_; the little loves and genii
transformed themselves into their children, and flew into their maternal
arms, and the motherly and sisterly hearts throbbed full of new love in
a great embrace. And when the white banner of the blooming spring
fluttered abroad, and more human thrones stood before them, - and when,
blissfully softened by love, the harmonica of life, they looked upon
each other and their happy children, and were speechless for love and
bliss, - then did Polyhymnia, invisible, float by over them, and
recognize them, and gave them the tones wherewith the heart expresses
and awakens love and joy.

And the dream was ended and fulfilled; it had, as is always the case,
shaped itself after waking reality. Therefore, be it consecrated to the
four fair and noble sisters, and let all which is like it in _Titan_ be
so consecrated too!

JEAN PAUL FR. RICHTER.

FOOTNOTES:

[1] The Titan was published during the years 1800-1803. The four
sisters were the four daughters of the Duke of Mecklenburg, viz.
the Duchess of Hildburghausen, the Princess von Solms, the
Princess of Thun and Taxis, and the Louisa who afterward became
Queen of Prussia, and was so in the Liberation War. - TR.




CONTENTS OF VOL. I.


FIRST JUBILEE.
PAGE

PASSAGE TO ISOLA BELLA. - FIRST DAY OF JOY IN THE TITAN. - THE
PASQUIN-IDOLATER. - INTEGRITY OF THE EMPIRE
EULOGIZED. - EFFERVESCENCE OF YOUTH. - LUXURY OF
BLEEDING. - RECOGNITION OF A FATHER. - GROTESQUE
TESTAMENT. - GERMAN PREDILECTION FOR POEMS AND THE ARTS. - THE
FATHER OF DEATH. - GHOST-SCENE. - THE BLOODY DREAM. - THE SWING
OF FANCY 1


SECOND JUBILEE.

THE TWO BIOGRAPHICAL COURTS. - THE HERDSMAN'S HUT. - THE
FLYING. - THE SALE OF HAIR. - THE DANGEROUS BIRD-POLE. - A
STORM LOCKED UP IN A COACH. - LOW MOUNTAIN-MUSIC. - THE LOVING
CHILD. - MR. VON FALTERLE FROM VIENNA. - THE TORTURE
SOUPÉ. - THE SHATTERED HEART. - WERTHER WITHOUT BEARD, BUT
WITH A SHOT. - THE RECONCILIATION 70


THIRD JUBILEE.

METHODS OF THE TWO PROFESSIONAL GARDENERS IN THEIR
PEDAGOGICAL GRAFTING-SCHOOL. - VINDICATION OF VANITY. - DAWN
OF FRIENDSHIP. - MORNING STAR OF LOVE. 110


FOURTH JUBILEE.

HIGH STYLE OF LOVE. - THE GOTHA POCKET-ALMANAC. - DREAMS ON
THE TOWER. - THE SACRAMENT AND THE THUNDER-STORM. - THE
NIGHT-JOURNEY INTO ELYSIUM. - NEW ACTORS AND STAGES, AND THE
ULTIMATUM OF THE SCHOOL-YEARS 128


FIFTH JUBILEE.

GRAND-ENTRY. - DR. SPHEX. - THE DRUMMING CORPSE. - THE LETTER
OF THE KNIGHT. - RETROGRADATION OF THE
DYING-DAY. - JULIENNE. - THE STILL GOOD-FRIDAY OF OLD
AGE. - THE HEALTHY AND BASHFUL HEREDITARY
PRINCE. - ROQUAIROL. - THE BLINDNESS. - SPHEX'S PREDILECTION
FOR TEARS. - THE FATAL BANQUET. - THE DOLOROSO OF LOVE 161


SIXTH JUBILEE.

THE TEN PERSECUTIONS OF THE READER. - LIANA'S EASTERN
ROOM. - DISPUTATION UPON PATIENCE. - THE PICTURESQUE CURE 197


SEVENTH JUBILEE.

ALBANO'S PECULIARITY. - THE INTRICATE INTERLACINGS OF
POLITICS. - THE HEROSTRATUS OF GAMING-TABLES. - PATERNAL
"MANDATUM SINE CLAUSULA." - GOOD SOCIETY. - MR. VON
BOUVEROT. - LIANA'S SPIRITUAL AND BODILY PRESENCE 215


EIGHTH JUBILEE.

LE PETIT LEVER OF DR. SPHEX. - PATH TO
LILAR. - WOODLAND-BRIDGE. - THE MORNING IN
ARCADIA. - CHARITON. - LIANA'S LETTER AND PSALM OF
GRATITUDE. - SENTIMENTAL JOURNEY THROUGH A GARDEN. - THE
FLUTE-DELL. - CONCERNING THE REALITY OF THE IDEAL 238


NINTH JUBILEE.

PLEASURE OF COURT-MOURNING. - THE BURIAL. - ROQUAIROL. - LETTER
TO HIM. - THE SEVEN LAST WORDS IN THE WATER. - THE SWEARING OF
ALLEGIANCE. - MASQUERADE. - PUPPET MASQUERADE. - THE HEAD IN
THE AIR, TARTARUS, THE SPIRIT-VOICE, THE FRIEND, THE
CATACOMB, AND THE TWO UNITED MEN 268


TENTH JUBILEE.

ROQUAIROL'S ADVOCATUS DIABOLI. - THE FESTIVAL DAY OF
FRIENDSHIP 310


ELEVENTH JUBILEE.

EMBROIDERY. - ANGLAISE. - CEREUS SERPENS. - MUSICAL FANTASIES 334


TWELFTH JUBILEE.

FROULAY'S BIRTHDAY AND PROJECTS. - EXTRA-LEAF. - RABETTE. - THE
HARMONICA. - NIGHT. - THE PIOUS FATHER. - THE WONDROUS
STAIRWAY. - THE APPARITION 351


THIRTEENTH JUBILEE.

ROQUAIROL'S LOVE. - PHILIPPIC AGAINST LOVERS. - THE
PICTURES. - ALBANO ALBANI. - THE HARMONIC TÊTE-À-TÊTE. - THE
RIDE TO BLUMENBÜHL 384


FOURTEENTH JUBILEE.

ALBANO AND LIANA 405


FIFTEENTH JUBILEE.

MAN AND WOMAN 432


SIXTEENTH JUBILEE.

THE SORROWS OF A DAUGHTER 481




TITAN.

FIRST JUBILEE.

PASSAGE TO ISOLA BELLA. - FIRST DAY OF JOY IN THE TITAN. - THE
PASQUIN-IDOLATER. - INTEGRITY OF THE EMPIRE
EULOGIZED. - EFFERVESCENCE OF YOUTH. - LUXURY OF
BLEEDING. - RECOGNITION OF A FATHER. - GROTESQUE
TESTAMENT. - GERMAN PREDILECTION FOR POEMS AND THE ARTS. - THE
FATHER OF DEATH. - GHOST-SCENE. - THE BLOODY DREAM. - THE SWING
OF FANCY.


1. CYCLE.

On a fine spring evening, the young Spanish Count Cesara came, with his
companions, Schoppe and Dian, to Sesto, in order the next morning to
cross over to the Borromæan island, Isola Bella, in Lago Maggiore. The
proudly blooming youth glowed with the excitement of travelling, and
with thoughts of the coming morrow, when he should see the isle, that
gayly decorated throne of Spring, and on it a man who had been promised
him for twenty years. This twofold glow exalted my picturesque hero to
the form of an angry god of the Muses. His beauty made a more triumphal
entry into Italian eyes than into the narrow Northern ones from the
midst of which he had come; in Milan many had wished he were of marble,
and stood with elder gods of stone, either in the Farnese Palace or in
the Clementine Museum, or in the Villa of Albani; nay, had not the
Bishop of Novara, with his sword at his side, a few hours before, asked
Schoppe (riding behind) who he was? And had not the latter, with a droll
squaring of the wrinkle-circle round his lips, made this copious answer
(by way of enlightening his spiritual lordship): "It's my Telemachus,
and I am the Mentor. I am the milling-machine and the die which coins
him, - the wolf's tooth and flattening mill which polishes him down, - the
man, in short, that regulates him"?

The glowing form of the youthful Cesara was still more ennobled by the
earnestness of an eye always buried in the future, and of a firmly shut,
manly mouth, and by the daring decision of young, fresh faculties; he
seemed as yet to be a burning-glass in the moonlight, or a dark precious
stone of too much color, which the world, as in the case of other
jewels, can brighten and improve only by cutting _hollow_.

As he drew nearer and nearer, the island attracted him, as one world
does another, more and more intensely. His internal restlessness rose as
the outward tranquillity deepened. Beside all this, Dian, a Greek by
birth and an artist, who had often circumnavigated and sketched Isola
Bella and Isola Madre, brought these obelisks of Nature still nearer to
his soul in glowing pictures; and Schoppe often spoke of the great man
whom the youth was to see to-morrow for the first time. As the people
were carrying by, down below in the street, an old man fast asleep, into
whose strongly marked face the setting sun cast fire and life, and who
was, in short, a corpse borne uncovered, after the Italian custom,
suddenly, in a wild and hurried tone, he asked his friends, "Does my
father look thus?"

But what impels him with such intense emotions towards the island is
this: He had, on Isola Bella, with his sister, who afterward went to
Spain, and by the side of his mother, who had since passed to the
shadowy land, sweetly toyed and dreamed away the first three years of
his life, lying in the bosom of the high flowers of Nature; the island
had been, to the morning slumber of life, to his childhood's hours, a
Raphael's painted sleeping-chamber. But he had retained nothing of it
all in his head and heart, save in the one a deep, sadly sweet emotion
at the name, and in the other the squirrel, which, as the family
scutcheon of the Borromæans, stands on the upper terrace of the island.

After the death of his mother his father transplanted him from the
garden-mould of Italy - some of which, however, still adhered to the
tap-roots - into the royal forest of Germany; namely, to Blumenbühl, in
the principality of Hohenfliess, which is as good as unknown to the
Germans; there he had him educated in the house of a worthy nobleman,
or, to speak more meaningly and allegorically, he caused the pedagogical
professional gardeners to run round him with their water-pots,
grafting-knives, and pruning-shears, till the tall, slender palm-tree,
full of sago-pith and protecting thorns, outgrew them, and could no
longer be reached by their pots and shears.

And now, when he shall have returned from the island, he is to pass from
the field-bed of the country to the tanvat and hot-bed of the city, and
to the trellises of the court garden; in a word, to Pestitz, the
university and chief city of Hohenfliess, even the sight of which, until
this time, his father had strictly forbidden him.

And to-morrow he sees that father for the first time! He must have
burned with desire, since his whole life had been one preparation for
this meeting, and his foster-parents and teachers had been a sort of
chalcographic company, who had engraved in copper a portrait of the
author of his life-book so magnificently opposite the title-page. His
father, Gaspard de Cesara, Knight of the Golden Fleece (whether Spanish
or Austrian I should be glad to be precisely informed myself), a spirit
naturally three-edged, sharp, and brightly polished, had in his youth
wild energies, for whose play only a battle-field or a kingdom would
have been roomy enough, and which in high life had as little power of
motion as a sea-monster in a harbor. He satisfied them by playing
star-parts with all ranks in comedies and tragedies, by the prosecution
of all sciences, and by an eternal tour: he was intimate and often
involved with great and small men and courts, yet always marched along
as a stream with its own waves through the sea of the world. And now,
after having completed his travels by land and sea round the whole
circumference of life, round its joys and capacities and systems, he
still continues (especially since the Present, that ape of the Past, is
always running after him) to pursue his studies and geographical
journeyings; but always for scientific purposes, just as he visits now
the European battle-fields. As for the rest, he is not at all gloomy,
still less gay, but composed and calm; he does not even hate and love,
blame and praise other men any more than he does himself, but values
every one in his kind, the dove in hers and the tiger in his. What often
seems vengeance is merely the determined, soldier-like tread wherewith a
man, who can never flee and fear, but only knows how to advance and
stand his ground, tramples down larks'-eggs and ears of corn.

I think that the corner which I have thus snipped off from the
Whistonian chart of this comet, for the benefit of mankind, is broad
enough. I will, before I discourse further, reserve the privilege to
myself, of sometimes calling Don Gaspard _the Knight_, without appending
to him the Golden Fleece; and, secondly, of not being obliged by
courtesy towards the short memory of readers to steal from his son
Cesara (under which designation the old man will never appear) his
Christian name, which, to be sure, is _Albano_.

As Don Gaspard was about leaving Italy for Spain, he had, through
Schoppe, caused our Albano, or Cesara, to be brought hither without any
one's knowing why he did it at so late a period. Was it his pleasure,
perhaps, to gaze into the full spring-time of the young twigs? Did he
wish to unfold to the youth some rules for rustics in the
century-almanac of court life? Would he imitate the old Gauls, or the
modern inhabitants of the Cape, who never suffered their sons in their
presence till they were grown up and capable of bearing arms? Was
nothing less than that his idea? This much only I comprehend, that I
should be a very good-natured fool if I were, in the very fore-court of
the work, to suffer myself to be burdened with the task of drawing and
dotting out from the few data that I now have, in the case of a man so
remarkable, and whose magnetic needle declines so many degrees, - a
Wilkes's magnetic table of inclinations; - he, not I, is the father of
his son, to be sure, and he knows of course why he did not send for him
till his beard was grown.

When it struck twenty-three o'clock (the hour before sundown), and
Albano would have counted up the tedious strokes, he was so excited that
he was not in a condition to ascend the long tone-ladder;[2] he must
away to the shore of the Lago, in which the up-towering islands rise
like sceptred sea-gods. Here stood the noble youth, his inspired
countenance full of the evening glow, with exalted emotions of heart,
sighing for his veiled father, who, hitherto, with an influence like
that of the sun behind a bank of clouds, had made the day of his life
warm and light. This longing was not filial love, - _that_ belonged to
his foster-parents, for childlike love can only spring up toward a heart
whereon we have long reposed, and which has protected us, as it were,



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