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THE



HISTORY



OF



NEW- HAMPSHIRE.



BY JEREMY BELKNAP, D. D.,

MEMBER or THE AMERICAN PHILOSOP mC AL SOCIETY, OF THE AMKRlCAlf ACAD-
EMY OF ARTS AND SCISNCES, AND CORRESPONDING SECRETARY OF
THE MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY.



FROM

A COPY OF THE ORIGINAL EDITION,

HAVING THE AUTHORS LAST CORRECTIONS.

TO -WUICII ARE ADDED



NOTES,



CONTAINING VARIOUS CORRrCTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OB" THE TEXT,

AND ADDITIONAL FACTS AND NOTICES OF PERSONS AND

EVENTS THEREIN MENTIONED.



BY JOHN FARMER,

CORRESPONDING SECRETARY OF THE N. II. HISTORICAL SOCIETY.



YOL, I.



DOVER :

S. C. STEVENS AND ELA & WADLEIGH.

1831,



heG^ed



DISTRICT OF NEW-HAMPSHIRE— ^0 tcit :
District Clerk's Office.
Be it remembered, That on the eighth day of February, A. D. 1831, and
in tiie fifty-fifth year of the Independence of the United States of America,
George W. Ei.a, George Wadleich, and Samuel C. Stevens, of the said
District, have deposited in this office the title of a book, the right whereof
they claim as pfoprietors in the words following, viz :

" The History of New-Hampshire. By Jeremy Belknap, D. D., Member
of the American Philosophical So&jety, of the American Academy of Arts
and Sciences, and Corresponding Secretary of the Massachusetts Historical
Society. From a copy of the original edition, having the author's last cor-
rections. To which are added Notes, containing various corrections and il-
lustrations of the text, and additional facts and notices of persons and events
therein mentioned. By John Farmer, Corresponding Secretary of the N. H.
Historical Society. \'o]. I." . /

In conformity to the act of tW Congress of the United States, entitled "An
act for the encouragement of learning by securing the copies of maps, charts
and books to the authors and proprietors of sucii copies during the times there-
in mentioned ;" and also to an act entitled " an act supplementary to an act
entitled an act for the encoijfagemeiyf of learning by securing tlie copies of
maps, charts and books to tlie authoi*s and proprietors of such copies, during
the times tlierein mentioned, and extending the benefits thereof to the arts
of designing, engraving and etching historical and other prints."

CHARLES W. CUTTER,
Clerk of the District Court of the United StateSy
for the District of Mew-Hampshire.
A true copy of Record. — Attest —

CHARLES W. CUTTER, Clerk.



ILA AND WADLEIGH, printers.



\



15036



EDITOR'S PREFACE.



The first volume of the History of New-Hampshire was pub-
lished at Philadelphia, in 1784, with the following title-page :
"THE HISTORY OF NEW-HAMPSHIRE. Volume I.
Comprehending the Events of one Complete Century
FROM the Discovert of the River Pascataqua. By Jere-
my Belknap, A. M. Member of the American Philosophical
Society held at Philadelphia for promoting useful knowledge.

Tempus edax rerum, tuque invidiosa vetustas,
Omnia destruitis : vitiataque dentibus ebvI
Paulatim lenta consumitis omnia raorte.
Hasc perstant. Ovid.

Philadelphia : Printed for the author by Robert Aitken, in
Market Street, near the Coifee House. M. DCC. LXXXIV."

The author was then the minister of Dover, and it being diffi-
cult for him, at such a distance from the press, to superintend the
publication of the work, it was entrusted to his friend, Ebenezer
Hazard, Esciuire, a gentleman well acquainted with the history
and antiquities of our country, who faithfully executed the trust
committed to him.

The second volume of the work was published at Boston in the
year 1791, after the author had removed from New-Hampshire,
and had been installed over the Congregational church in Federal
Street. The title of this volume is as follows : " THE HISTO-
RY OF NEW-HAMPSHIRE. Volume II. Comprehending
the Events of Seventy Five Years, from MDCCXV, to
MDCCXC. Illustrated by a Map. By Jeremy Belknap,
A. M. Member of the Philosophical Society in Philadelphia, and



\



PREFACE.



of the Academy of Arts and Sciences in Massachusetts. Printed
at Boston for the Author, by Isaiah Thomas & Ebenezer T. An-
drews, Faust's Statue, No. 45, Newbury Street. MDCCXCI."
It is believed that there was a reprint of the first volume soon af-
ter the publication of the second.

The work having been nearly all sold, a new edition was called
for by the public in 1810, and Mr. Samuel Bragg, of Dover, com-
menced the printing of it from a copy, into which had been tran-
scribed the marginal notes and corrections made by the author at
different times in a printed copy which he kept for this purpose.
The printing had not proceeded far before the office of Mr. Bragg,
with his printing materials and the corrected copy of the first vol-
ume, which contained nearly all the corrections and additions
made to the historical part of the work, was consumed by fire. A
new edition however appeared in 1812, printed at Dover by John
Mann and James K. Remicii, for 0. Crosbv & J. Varney, but
without the advantages of the corrected copy of the first volume,
which had been used by Mr. Bragg, and w hich it was supposed
could never be replaced. Some of the copies, and it is believed
a considerable part of the impression, have a false title page, pur-
porting that the work was published at Boston by Bradford &, Read,
and that it contains " large additions and improvements from the
author's last manuscript," but it is not apprehended that either
the original publishers or printers had any agency in such a gross
imposition on the public.

After the copy for the present edition had been prepared for the
press, I received from John Belknap, Esquire, of Boston, son of
the venerated author, a letter respecting the w'ork, of which the
following is an extract. " When I sold to Mr. Bragg and Mr.
Varnet the corrected copy, with the right to print an edition,
with the corrections, two other copies had all the corrections trans-
cribed into them, and remain in the family. My object in writ-
ing, is to offer you an opportunity to avail yourself of these cor-
rections, in case you proceed in the publication, which may be
done, by exchanging one of these corrected copies, for a copy of
your new edition." I lost no time in accepting the kind ofler of
Mr. Belknap, and soon received the copy which had been corrected
by the author, together with the original appendix which had been
prepared by him, and in his hand writing. The corrections and
additions of the historical part have been introduced into this vol-



PREFACE. V

ume ; aud the appendix of original papers and public docuuients
has been printed from the manuscript copy of the author.

In the Notes which I have added to the work, endeavors have
been made to correct the errors occasioned by the author's reli-
ance on the authenticity of the Wheelwright deed of 1629 ; to
supply some facts which had been omitted for want of information,
and to give short biographical notices of some of the most promin-
ent characters mentioned in the course of the history. The notes
which I have added are included within brackets.

At the head of the left hand page, is the running title of the
former editions ; at the head of the right hand page, stands the
name of the governor or chief magistrate for the time being. The
authorities, wliich were placed on the side margin of the former
editions, are here placed next after the text, at the bottom of the
page. The references to them in the text may be sometimes mis-
placed, as none had before been used, but they are believed to be
generally correct. In spelling the names of persons, autographs
have been followed, whenever they could be obtained. This has
occasioned a difference in the orthography of the names of Andros,
Chamberlain, Cutt, Endecott, Godfrey, Holyoke, Leveridge,
Moodey, Wheelwright and VViggin, which were before printed, An-
drosse, Chamberlayne, Cutts, Endicot, Godfrie, Holiock, Leverich,
Moody, Whelewright and Wiggen. The name of Pickering was
often, at an early period, written by those bearing it, Pickerin.
The name of Hinckes which occurs a number of times in the
text should probably be Hinks. The spelling of the names of
places has been altered in a number of instances ; and the orthog-
raphy of common words aud the punctuation have undergone
some changes. The latter might have been still further improved.
In all these alterations, great care has been taken to preserve the
text unimpaired, and no changes affecting that have been allowed.

A copious General Index, embracing every important subject
and every name in the text, notes, and tables to the 418th page,
has been prepared with considerable labor, but is necessarily omit-
ted. It may, however, ajipear with the second volume.

Concord, 2 February, 1831.



CORRECTIONS.

rage 4, vhcrrforc. in tlie Gth lino, should be whereof.

74, Pcnu'aicct, in the 18th line, should be Pcquawket.
100, in the 2d and 3d lines of second note, 9 December, 1087, may be

substituted for about the year 1089.
110, after to, in the SOth line, he should be inserted.
IIG, insert the name of John Cummings as one of the founders of the

church in Dunstable.
133, »>, in the llth line, should be /(/:.•. , , , , , , ,

144, thefiguresl'J against Groton, and under JroMnrferf, should be placed

under Cont'd.
1G4, council, in the 14th line, should be counsel.
160, Gen-7>ien, in the 8th and 9tii lines, should be Gentlemen.
285. St. Frances, in the Wih line, should be St. Francis.
292^ ShatlacJ^'s in the 9th line, should be Shatluck's.
336, Charhstoioi.in the 9th line, should be Charleston.
355, 7ieat. in the 40th line, should be 7ict.

390, ichich, in the last line of the text, should be tcith. , , ^

410 the yearl(!8J, preceding Job Clements, should be placed before

Robert Mason, and the year 1717, after Job Clements, Dover, should

be 1683.

411, the year 1745, in the first note, should be 1715.

412, Gamlinff, in the 7th line, should be GamhJing.

413, the year 1778, in the 2d line, should be 1776.
416, the yearl(!G9, in the 11th line, should be 1699.

" the list of Treasurers requires the following corrections :

1809, Thomas W Thompson, Concord, 1810.

1810, Nathaniel Oilman, Exeter, 1814.
1814, William Austin Kent, Concord, 1816.

418, the list of Representatives in Congress requires the following ad-
dition : 182.'>. Neheniiah Eastman, 2 years.
" the year 1830, in the last lino, should be 1823.
422, the Kos. 55 and 59, in the 20th line, should be 58, 59 and 62.
464, after ^Acy, in the 41st line, the word /rcc/^ should be inserted, and
conferred, in the same line, should be confessed.
«' contimiance, in the 45th line, should be contrivance.
'■ admit, in the last line, should be attaint.
480, sew, in the 34th line, should be serve.

It may be gratifying to some readers to know something further respecting
the three men, who commenced tlie first settlement of New-Hampshire. —
The following note is therefore added.

Edward IIh.to.n lived at Dover between fifteen and twenty years, and
then removed to Squamscot patent, or Exeter, and died about the year 1671,
leaving sons. Edward, William, Samuel, and Charles, who administered on
his estate, which was appraised at £2204. William Hilton removed from
Dover, and his name i.s found at several places, particularly at Newbury,
whore five of his children were born. He was a representative at the Gener-
al Court at Ri)Klon, at the March and May sessions in 1644. He finally re-
moved to Charlestown, where he died 7 September, 1675. Of David Thomp-
so.v I had concluded that nothing farther could be known than what is given
in the text and notes, page 5, when unexpectedly the Rev. Joseph B. Felt, of
Hamilton, Massachusetts, sent me from the Mass. Colony Records some ex-
tracts, which enable me to state, that Thompson took possession of the island
known i)v hi.s name, situated within the present limits of the town of Dorches-
ter, in the year 1626 ; that he died in 1628, or soon after that time, leaving an
infant son, John, who, in 1648, claimed the island which belonged to his fath-
er, as ho had done before, and wiiich was granted to him by the General
Court nf Maasachusotls. DoHCenihmts of tlie Hillons are numerous in the
ntnte of .New-ll;itiii)Khiro, and in Maine. Of a name so common as that of
ThoinpHon, it would be dilficult to identify any of the posterity ol tJie first
unftlor of Lillle-Hnrbor.



PREFACE

TO THE FIRST VOLUME.



When a new pul)lication appears, some prefatory account of the reasons
wliich led to it, and the manner in which it has been conducted, is generally
expected.

The compiler of this history was early impelled by his natural curiosity to
inquire into the original settlement, progress, and improvement of the coun-
try which ga->'e him birth. When he took up his residence in New-Hamp-
shire, his inquiries were more particularly directed to that part of it. Having
met with some valuable manuscripts which were but little known, he began
to extract and methodise the principal things in them ; and this employment
was (to speak in the style of a celebrated modern author) his " hobby horse."

The work, crude as it was, being communicated to some gentlemen, to
whose judgment he paid much deference, he was persuaded and encouraged
to go on with his collection, until the thing became generally known, and a
publication could not decently be refused.

He owns himself particularly obliged to the public officers both in this and
the neighboring state of Massachusetts, under the former as well as the pres-
ent constitutions, for their obliging attention in favoring him with the use of
the public records or extracts from them. He is under equal obligation to a
number of private gentlemen, who have either admitted him to their own
collections of original papers or procured such for him. In the course of his
inquiry, he has frequently had reason to lament the loss of many valuable ma-
terials by fire and other accidents : But what has pained him more severe-
ly, is the inattention of some persons, in whose hands original papers have
been deposited, and who have suffered them to be wasted and destroyed as
things of no value. The very great utility of a public repository for such
papers under proper regulations, has appeared to him in the strongest light,
and he is persuaded that it is an object worthy the attention of an enlighten-
ed legislature.

The late accurate and indefatigable Mr. Prince, of Boston, (under whose
ministry the author was educated, and whose memory he shall always revere)
began such a collection in his youth and continued it for above fifty years.
By his will, he left it to the care of the Old South Church, of which he was
pastor, and it was deposited with a library of ancient books in an apartment
of their meeting-house. To this collection, the public are obliged for some



^.jii PREFACE.

material hints in the present work, the author liaving- had frequent access to
that library before the commcnceraent of tjie late war. But the use which
the Britisli troops in 1775 made of that elegant building, having proved fatal
to this noble collection of manuscripts ; the friends of science and of Ameri-
ca must deplore the irretrievable loss. Had we suffered it by the hands of
.Saracens, the grief had been less poignant !

Historians have mentioned the affairs of New-Hampshire only in a loose and
general manner. Neal and Douglass, though frequently erroneous, have giv-
en some hints, which, by the help of original records and other manuscripts,
have, in tiiis work, been carefully and largely pursued. Hutchinson has said
many things, which the others have omitted. His knowledge of the antiqui-
ties 'of the country was extensive and accurate, and the public are much
obliged by the publication of his history ; but he knew more than he thought
proper to relate. The few publications concerning New-Hampshire, are fu-

fitive pieces dictated by party or interest. No regular historical deduction
as ever appeared. The late Mr. Fitcii, of Portsmouth, made a beginning of
this sort, about the year 17:28. From liis papers, some things liave been col-
lected, which have not been met with elsewhere. The autliorities from which
information is derived, are carefully noted in the margin. Where no written
testimonies could be obtained, recourse has been had to the most authentic
tradition, selected and compared with a scrupulous attention, and with proper
allowance for the imperfection of human memory. After all, the critical
reader will doubtless find some chasms, which, in such a work, it would be
improper to fill bj' the help of imagination and conjecture.

The author makes no merit of his regard to truth. To have disguised or
misrepresented facts, would have been abusing the reader. No person can
take more pleasure in detecting mistakes, than the author in correcting them,
if he should have opportunity. In tracing the progress of controversy, it is
impossible not to take a side, though we are ever so remote from any personal
interest in it. Censure or applause, will naturally follow the opinion we
adopt. If the reader should liappen to entertain different feelings from the
writer, he has an equal right to indulge them ; but not at the expense of
candor.

The Masonian controversy lay so directly in the way, that it could not be
avoided. The rancor shewn on both sides in the early stages of it, has now
subsided. Tiie present settlement is so materially connected with the gener-
al peace and welfare of the people, that no wise man or friend to the coun-
try, can, at this day wish to overthrow it.

Mr. HcBB.^RD, Dr. Mather and Mr. Pk.n'hallow, have published narra-
tives of the several Indian wars. These have bee^i compared with the pub-
lic records, with ancient manuscripts, with Charlevoix's history of New-
France, and with the verbal traditions of the immediate sufferers or their de-
scendants. The particular incidents of these wars, may be tedious to stran-
gers, but will be read with avidity by the posterity of those, whose misfor-
tunes and bravery were so conspicuous. As the character of a people must
be collected from such a minute series, it would have been improper to have
been less particular.

The writer has had it in view not barely to relate facts, but to delineate the
characters, the passions, tlie interests and tempers of the persons who are the
subjects of^ his narration, and to describe the most striking features of the
times in which they lived. How far he has succeeded, or wherein he is de-
fective, must be left to the judgment of frery candid render, to which this
work is most respectfully submitted.

Dor er, June 1, 1784.



PREFACE

TO THE SECOND VOLUME,



When the first volume was printed, I had not seen the ' Political Annals'
of the American Colonies, published in 1780, by George Chalmers, Esq.
This gentlem.an, being in England, was favored with some advantages, of
which I was destitute ; having access to the books and papers of the Lords of
Trade and Plantations, from the first establishment of that Board. He seems
to possess the diligence and patience which are necessary in a historian : but
either through inadvertence or want of candor, has made some misrepresen-
tations respecting New-Hampshire, on which I shall take the liberty to re-
mark.*

In page 491 , speaking of the first Council, of which President Cutt was
at the head, he says, ' they refused to take the accustomed oaths, as the Eng-
' lish law required, because liberty of conscience was allowed them.' In the
first volume of my history, page 91, 1 have said, ' they published the com-
' mission and took the oaths ;' for which I cited the Council records ; and on
recurring to them, 1 find the following entry, in the hand writing of Elias
Stileman, Secretary.

' Jawwary 21, 1679—80.

' His Majesty's Commissioners, nomynated in said commission, tooke their
' respective oathee, as menconed in said commission.'

That the oaths were really taken, is a fact beyond all dispute ; but if there
is any ground for what Mr. Chalmers is pleased to call a refusal, it must have
been respecting the/orm of swearing ; which was usually done here by lift-
ing the hand, and not by laying it on the bible, as was the form in England.
Was it a forced construction of the clause respecting liberty of conscience,
to suppose, that this indulgence was granted to them .' What otlier use
could they have made of this liberty, than to act according to the dictates of
their consciences ? Is it then consistent with candor, to publish an asser-
tion, so worded as to admit the idea, that these gentlemen refused to obey an

* [It appears from the History of the Rise and Progress of the United
States of North America, till the British Revolution in IG88, by James Gra-
liam, Esq., that Mr. Chalmers commenced his acquaintance with colonial
history in this country. Prior to the American revolution, he emigrated to
the American colonies, and settled as a lawyer at Baltimore, but adhering to
the royal cause, he returned to England, and was rewarded by an appoint -
ment from the Board of Trade. The North American Review, No. LXX.
(January, 1831,) p. 179, has pronounced a severe, but probably just sentence
on the character of the work above mentioned.]

2



X PREFACE.

essential part of the duty prescribed by the commission, which they under-
took to execute ? Or is it consistent with the character wliich he gives of
the President, Cutt, p. 492, that ' he was allowed to have been an honest
' man and a loyal subject r' The commission required them to taice tlie oaths
of allegiance and supremacy, and an oath of otiice, wliich last is recited in
the commission ; but not a word is said of the mode and form, in which the
oaths should be taken ; neither was it said that they should be taken ' as the
' English law required.' They were therefore left at their liberty, to take
them in any form which was agreeable to their conscience, or their former
usage .

In the same page (491) he says ; ' An Assembly was soon called, which, by
' m.eans of the usual intrigues, was composed of persons, extremely favorable
' to the projects of those who now engrossed power.' And in a note (page
507) ' the Council transmitted to the towns, a list of those who should be al-
' lowed to vote.'

With what propriety can it be said that these gentlemen engrossed power,
when they were commissioned by the king ; and it is acknowledged, that not
only their appointment, but their entering on office, was contrary to their
inclinations ?

That the persons chosen into the Assembly should be ' favorable' to the
sentiments of the Council, or of ' the wise men of Boston,' was not the result
of any intrigues ; but because the majority of the people were of the same
mind. As to sending ' a list of those who should be allowed to vote ;' the
true state of the matter was this. The commission provided for the calling of
an Assembly, within three months after tlie Council should be sworn, by sum-
mons under seal, ' using and observing therein such rules and methods, as to
' the persons who are to choose the deputies, and the time and place of meet-
' ing, as they (the Council) shall judge most convenient.' The mode which
they judged most convenient was, to order the select men of the four towns,
to take a list of the names and estates of their respective inhabitants, accord-
ing to their usual nianner of making taxes, and send it to tlie Council. The
Council then issued an order, appointing the persons therein named, to meet in
their respective towns, and elect by a major vote, three persons from each, to
represent them in a general Assembly, on the 16th of March ; and in the
order, there is this proviso, * Provided that wee do not intend that what is
' now done be presidential for the future, and that it shall extend noe farther,
' than to the calling this first assembly.'

Now as the rules and methods of calling an assembly, and the persons who



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