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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
AT LOS ANGELES




THE



WHOLE WORKS



OF THE



RIGHT REV. JEREMY TAYLOR, D.D.

LORD BISHOP OF DOWN, CONNOR, AND DROMORE.



VOLUME XI.

CONTAINING

A DISSUASIVE FROM POPERV; LETTERS; A DISCOURSE OF CONFIRMATION;

A DISCOURSE OF FRIENDSHIP; AND DUCTOR DUBITA.NTIUM,

OR, THE RULE OF CONSCIENCE.



THE



WHOLE WORKS

OF THE

RIGHT REV. JEREMY TAYLOR, D.D,

LORD BISHOP OF DOWN, CONNOR, AND DROMORE:

WITH

A LIFE OF THE AUTHOR,

AND

A CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF HIS WRITINGS,

BYTHK

RIGHT REV. REGINALD HEBER, D.D.

LATE LOUD BISHOP OF CALCUTTA.

THIRD EDITION OF THE COLLECTED WORKS.
IN FIFTEEN VOLUMES.

VOL. XI.



LONDON:

PRINTED FOR LONGMAN, ORME, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMANS ; J. RICHARD-
SON J HATCHARD AND SON; J., G., AND F. RIVINGTON ; J. BOHN; HAMIL-
TON, ADAMS, AND CO.; DUNCAN AND MALCOLM; SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, AND

co.; E. HODGSON; B. FELLOWES ; H. BOHN; c. DOLMAN; H. BICKERS;
j. H. PARKER, OXFORD; j. AND J. j. DEIGHTON, CAMBRIDGE; G. AND j.

HOBINSON, LIVERPOOL J AND W. STRONG, BRISTOL.



M.DCCC.XXX1X.



LONDON s

PKIXTED BV JAMFS MOVES, CASTLE STREET,
LtlCESTEK SQUARE.



Ttt
8



CONTENTS



OF



THE ELEVENTH VOLUME.



A DISSUASIVE FROM POPERY.
PART II.

SECTION X. FACE

Of the Seal of Confession 1

SECTION XL

Of the imposing Auricular Confession upon Consciences, without
Authority from God 9



BOOK II.

SECTION I.
Of Indulgences 48

SECTION II.
Of Purgatory 58

SECTION HI.
Of Transubstantiation 94

SECTION IV.
Of the Half-Communion 119

SECTION V.
Of the Scriptures and Service in an unknown Tongue 128

SECTION VI.
Of the Worship of Images 135

SECTION VII.
Of Picturing God the Father, and the Holy Trinity 168



CONTENTS.



LETTERS.

LETTER I. PACK

To a Gentlewoman seduced to the Church of Rome 183

LETTER II.
To a Person newly converted to the Church of England 203

Three Letters written to a Gentleman that was tempted to the Com-
munion of the Romish Church 208



XPISIS TEAEIHTIKH.

A DISCOURSE OF CONFIRMATION.

The Epistle Dedicatory 217

The Introduction 229

SECTION I.

Of the Divine Original, Warranty, and Institution, of the holy Rite
of Confirmation 233

SECTION II.
The Rite of Confirmation is a perpetual and never-ceasing Ministry . . 252

SECTION III.

The holy Rite of Imposition of Hands for the giving the Holy Spirit,
or Confirmation, was actually continued and practised by all the
succeeding Ages of the purest and Primitive Church 258

SECTION IV.
The Bishops were always and the only Ministers of Confirmation .... 265

SECTION V.

The whole Procedure or Ritual of Confirmation is by Prayer and
Imposition of Hands 274

SECTION VI.

Many great Graces and Blessings are consequent to the worthy
Reception and due Ministry of Confirmation 278

SECTION VII.
Of Preparation to Confirmation, and the Circumstances of receiving it . . 287



CONTENTS. .V

A DISCOURSE OF THE NATURE, OFFICES, AND

MEASURES OF FRIENDSHIP, &c 299



DUCTOR DUBITANTIUM ; OR, THE RULE OF
CONSCIENCE.

Preface 345

BOOK I.

OF CONSCIENCE, THE KINDS OF IT, AND THE
GENERAL RULES OF CONDUCTING THEM.

CHAPTER I.

THE RULE OF CONSCIENCE IN GENERAL.

RULE I.

Conscience is the Mind of Man, governed by a Rule, and measured by
the Proportions of Good and Evil, in order to Practice ; viz. to con-
duct all our Relations, and all our Intercourse, between God, our
Neighbours, and ourselves : that is, in all moral Actions 369

RULE II.

The Duty and Offices of Conscience are to dictate, and to testify or bear
witness ; to accuse or excuse ; to loose or bind 385

RULE III.

Be careful that Prejudice or Passion, Fancy and Affection, Error or
Illusion, be not mistaken for Conscience 410

RULE IV.

The Conscience of a vicious Man is an evil Judge, and an imperfect
Rule 416

RULE V.

All Consciences are to walk by the same Rule; and that which is just
to one is so to all in the like Circumstances 419

RULE VI.

In Conscience, that which is first is truest, easiest, and most useful .... 421

RULE VII.

Conscience, by its several Habitudes and Relations, or Tendencies
towards its proper Object, is divided into several Kinds 423



yi CONTENTS.

CHAPTER II.

OF THE RIGHT OR SURE CONSCIENCE.

RULE I. PAGE

A right Conscience is that which guides our Actions by right and pro-
portioned Means, to a right End 427

RULE II.

In a right Conscience, the practical Judgment, that is, the last Deter-
mination to an Action, ought to be sure and evident 428

RULE III.

The practical Judgment of a right Conscience is always agreeable to the
speculative Determination of the Understanding 430

RULE IV.

A Judgment of Nature, or Inclination, is not sufficient to make a sure
Conscience 465

RULE V.

When two Motives concur to the Determination of an Action, whereof
one is virtuous, and the other secular, a right Conscience is not
prejudiced by that Mixture 468

RULE VI.

An Argument not sufficient nor competent, though it do persuade us
to a Tiling in itself good, is not the Ground of a Right, nor a
sufficient Warrant for a sure Conscience 481

RULE VII.

A Conscience determined by the Counsel of wise Men, even against
its own Inclinations, may be sure and right 493

RULE VIII.

He that sins against a right and sure Conscience, whatever the Instance
be, commits a great Sin, but not a double one 493

RULE IX.

The Goodness of an Object is not made by Conscience, but is
accepted, declared, and published by it, and made personally
obligatory . ^15



A

DISSUASIVE FROM POPERY,



PART II.

SECTION X. Of the Seal of Confession.

1. I FIRST instance in their seal of confession ; and the ques-
tion is not, whether a priest is to take care of his penitent's
fame, or whether he be not, in all prudent and pious ways, to
be careful, lest he make that intercourse odious; for certainly
he is : but whether the seal of confession be so sacred and
impregnable, that it is not to be opened in the imminent
danger of a king or kingdom ; or for the doing the greatest
good, or avoiding the greatest evil, in the world : that is now
the question, and such a broad seal as this, is no part of the
Christian religion, was never spoken of by the prophets or
apostles, in the Old or the New Testament, never was so
much as mentioned in the books of the ancient fathers and
doctors, not so much as named in the ancient councils of the
Church ; and was not heard of until after the time of Pope
Gregory the Seventh. Now how this is determined and prac-
tised in the Church of Rome, we may quickly see. The first
direct rule in the Western Church we find in this affair, is the
canon of the Lateran Council ; " cap. Omnis Utriusque;" a in
which to confess at Easter was made an ecclesiastical law ;
and as an appendix to it, this caution ; " Caveat autem om-
nino, ne verbo, aut signo, aut alio quovis modo, aliquatenus
prodat peccatorem : sed, si prudentiore consilio indiguerit,
illud, absque ulla expressione personce, requirat." This law
concerning them that do confess their secret sins to a priest,
in order to counsel, comfort, and pardon from God by his
ministry, is very prudent and pious ; and it relates only to
the person, not to the crimes: these may, upon the account

Decretal, de Poenitentiis et Remissionibus.
VOL. XI. B



2 OF THE SEAL OF CONFESSION.

of any doubt, or the advantage of better counsel and in-
struction, be revealed ; the person, upon such accounts, may
not, " nisi veritas aut obedientia aliud exigat," as St. Bona-
venture b said well ; " unless truth or obedience require the
contrary :" for indeed the person is not often so material as
to the inquiry of future counsel or present judgment, as the
greatness, and other circumstances of the sin. But this was
an ancient ecclesiastical rule, as we find it related by Sozo-
men: c " Presbyterum aliquem vitee integritate quam max-
ime spectabilem, secretorum etiam tenacem, ac sapientem,
huic officio prsefecerunt ; A penitentiary priest was ap-
pointed for the penitents, a man that was of good life, wise,
and secret." So far was well, and agreeable to common
prudence, and natural reason, and the words of Solomon : d
" Qui ambulat fraudulenter, revelat arcanum ; qui autem
fidelis est, celat amici cornmissum." There is, in this case,
some more reason than in ordinary secrets ; but still the ob-
ligation is the same, and to be governed by prudence, and is
subject to contradiction, by greater causes. The same also
is the law in the Greek Church, mentioned by St. Basil : e
" Our fathers permitted not, that women, that had committed
adultery, and were penitent, should be delated in public." 1 '
This is the whole ground and foundation, on which the seal
of confession does, or can rely ; save only, that, in several
churches, there were several laws in after-ages to the same
purpose, and particularly in the eleventh canon of the
Church of England ; adding also the penalty of irregularity,
to every priest, that shall reveal any thing committed to him
in private confession, but with this proviso, that it be not
binding, in such cases where the concealment is made ca-
pital, by the laws of the kingdom : which because it is very
strict, and yet very prudent, I shall make it appear, that
the Church of England walks wisely in it, and according to
the precedents of the ancient catholic Church, in command-
ing the seal to be broken up in some cases ; and yet she
hath restrained it more than formerly was observed in the
churches of God.



b In iii. dist. 21 . e Lib. vii. c. 16, Hist. Eccles.

d Prov. xi. 13. e Epist. ad Amphilochium.

r T; (totx;tu0iiffas yuvitTiutfxxi
el varies r,ftu. A. D. 1603.



OF THE SEAL OF CONFESSION. 3

Burchard g expressly affirms, that before the Nicene
Council, the penitentiary priest might publish what he heard
in confessions, if it were for tbe good of the penitent, or
for the greatness of the crime, as it seemed fit to the con-
fessor.

And that he says true, we have sufficient testimony from
Origen: h " Tantumniodo circumspice diligentius, cui debeas
confiteri peccatum tuum. Si intellexerit et prseviderit talem.
esse languorem tuum, qui in conventu totius ecclesiae exponi
debeat et curari, ex quo fortassis et caeteri sedificari pote-
runt, et tu ipse facile sanari, multa hoc deliberatione et satis
perito medici illius consilio procurandum est." By which
words he affirms, 1. That it was in the power of the confessor
to command the publication of certain crimes. 2. That
though it was not lightly to be done, yet, upon great reason,
it might. 3. That the spiritual good of the penitent, and
the edification of others, were causes sufficient for the pub-
lication. 4. That of these, the confessor was judge. 5. That
this was no otherwise done by the consent of the party, but
because he was bound to consent, when the confessor en-
joined it : and the matter is evident, in the case of the incest-
uous Corinthian ; who either was restored without private
confession ; or, if he was not, St. Paul caused it to be pub-
lished in the Church, and submitted the man to the severest
discipline, and yet public, that was then or since in the world.
The like to this, we find in a decretal epistle of Pope Leo ; '
for when some confessors, exceeding the ancient ecclesias-
tical rule, were not so prudent and deliberate in conducting
their penitents, as formerly they were, but commanded that
all their whole confessions should be written down, and pub-
licly read ; he says, " Though the plenitude of faith might be
laudable, that is not afraid to blush in public, yet the con-
fession is sufficient, if it be made in secret, first to God, and
then to the priest :" and adds, " Nou omnium hujusmodi
sunt peccata, ut ea quse poenitentiam poscunt, nou timeant
publicari ; All sins are not of that nature, that are fit to be
published:" and therefore " reinoveatur tarn improbabilis con-
suetudo ; let such a reprovable custom be taken away."
In which words of St. Leo, we find, 1. That the seal of con-

s Lib. xix. Decreti sui, c. 37. Concil. Mogual. c. x. zxi.

h Homil.ii. in Psalm xxxvii. ' Epist. xxx. ad Episc. Campania;.



4 OF THE SEAL OF CONFESSION.

fession, as at this day it is understood at Rome, was no such
inviolable and religious secret; for by a contrary custom,
it was too much broken. 2. That he blames not the publi-
cation of some sins, but that they indiscriminately did pub-
lish all. 3. That the nature of some sins did not permit it:
for, as he adds afterward, men by this means were betrayed
to the malice of their enemies, who would bring them before
tribunals, in some cases. 4. That this was not spoken in
case of public crimes, delated, and brought into public
notice, but such as were spoken in private confession. And
here I cannot but desire, there had been some more inge-
nuity in Bellarmine, k who, relating to this epistle of St. Leo,
affirms, that St. Leo says, ' It is against the apostolical rule,
to reveal secret sins, declared in confession ;' when it is
plain, that St. Leo only blames the custom of revealing all ;
saying, ' that all sins are not of that nature, as to be fit to be
revealed.' And by these precedent authorities, we shall the
easier understand that famous fact of Nectarius, who abo-
lished the custom of having sins published in the Church,
and therefore took away the penitentiary priest ; whose
office was (as I proved out of Origen, Sozomen, and Bur-
chard) to enjoin the publication of some sins, according to
his discretion. It happened in Constantinople, that a foul
fact was committed, and it was published in the ears of the
people, and a tumult was raised about it ; and the remedy
was, that Nectarius took away the office and the custom to-
gether. " Consulentibus quibusdam, ut unicuique liberum
permitteret, prout sibi ipse couscius esset et confideret, ad
mysteriorum communionem accedere, poenitentiarum ilium
presbyterum exauctoravit." Every man was thenceforth
left to his liberty, according to the dictate and confidence
of his own conscience, to come to the communion ; and this
afterward passed into a rite : for the manners of men grow-
ing degenerate, and worse sins being now confessed than,
as he supposes, formerly they had been; the judges having
been more severe, and the people more modest, it was fit
enough that this custom, upon the occasion of such a scandal,
and so much mischief like to follow it, should be laid aside
wholly ; arid so it was. Here is a plain story, truly told by
Sozomen, and the matter is easy to be understood. But

k De Pcenitentia, lib. iii. c. 14. Deuique cum Secreta.



OF THE SEAL OF CONFESSION. 5

Bellarmine, seeing the practice and doctrine of the Church of
Rome pinched by it, makes a distinction, derived from the
present custom of his Church, of public confession and pri-
vate, saying, that Nectarius took away the public, and not
the private. This I shall have occasion to discuss in the
next section. I am now only to speak concerning the seal
of confession ; which, from this authority, is apparent was
not such a sacred thing, but that it was made wholly to
minister to the public and private edification of the penitent,
and the whole Church.

Thus this affair stood in the Primitive Church. In de-
scending ages when private confessions grew frequent, and
were converted into a sacrament, the seal also was made
more tenacious ; and yet, by the discipline of the Church,
there were divers cases in which the seal might be broken
up. 1. There is a famous gloss in "cap. Tua nos, lib. iv.
Decretal, tit. 1, de Sponsalibus et Matrimonio ; " where the
pope, answering to a question concerning a pretended con-
tract of marriage, says, that the marriage is good, unless the
inquiring bishop of Brescia could have assured him that the
man did never consent, or intend the marriage, " Quod qua-
liter tibi constiterit, non videmus." The gloss upon these
words say, " Imo bene potuit constare : quia vir ille hoc ei
confitebatur ; The bishop might well know it, because the
man had confessed it to him ; or because he had revealed it
to him in penitential confession. For though, in judicial
confession before a tribunal, no man is to believed to the
prejudice of a third person, yet, in penitential confession, he
is to be believed ; because it is not to be supposed that he
then is unmindful of his salvation." Where the gloss ob-
serving that he did, or might have received it in confession,
and yet make use of it in consultation with his superiors, and
upon that answer was to pronounce it to be, or not to be, a
marriage, and to treat the persons accordingly, it follows
that the thing itself might be revealed for the good of the
penitent's soul ; and this was done by the cardinal of St.
Lawrence in the case of a woman introducing a supposititious
child to the inheritance of her husband; and this revelation
of the confession produced a decretal epistle 1 from the pope

1 Lib. S. Decret. tit. 38, cap. Officii. de Poenit. et Remiss.



6 OF THE SEAL OF CONFESSION.

in that particular case ; and of this doctors give this reason,
because a tiling so odious, and that would bring so certain
ruin to souls, might not be permitted, with so great scandal
and so great mischief. 2. And that confession may be re-
vealed for the regulating a doubtful case of marriage, is the
opinion of many great canonists. 3. That it may be re-
vealed in the case of heresy confessed, I think there was no
doubt of it at any time. 4. And that every confessor may
reveal the confession by the penitent's leave, is taught by
Durandus, Almain, Medina, and Navar ; and generally by-
all the ancient scholars of St. Thomas. Now if a law be made,
that, in certain cases, the confessor shall publish the con-
fession, then every man's consent is involved in it, as his pri-
vate right is in the public interest, of which it is a part, and
to which it is subordinate and must yield. But who pleases
to see how this affair once did stand in the Church of Rome,
and more especially in the catholic Church, if he be not yet,
may be satisfied by the proofs which Altisiodorensis gives of
the lawfulness of publishing confessions in certain cases.
5. Lastly, if a sinful intention of committing a grievous crime
be revealed in confession, and the person confessing cannot
desist from, or will not alter, his purpose, then that the seal
of confession may be broken open, is affirmed by Alexan-
der of Ales, n by the ' Summa Angelica,' which also reckons
five cases more, in which it is lawful to reveal confessions.
The same also is taught by Panormitan, p Hostiensis, q the
* Summa Sylvestrina,' r and by Pope Innocent himself. 8

But now, if we consider how it is in the Church of Rome
at this day, and hath been this last age for the most part, we
shall find that this human constitution, relying upon prudent
and pious considerations, is urged as a sacramental obliga-
tion, and a great part of the religion, and is not accounted
obliging only for the reasons of its first sanction, nor as an
act of obedience to the positive law, but as a natural, essen-
tial, divine, and unalterable obligation. And from thence
these doctrines are derived. 1. That what a priest knows in
confession, he knows it not as a man, but as God : which



" Vide Suarez. de Paz in Pract. Criminal. Eccles. c. cix.

n Par. 4, q. 28, mem. 2, art. 2, in Respons. Confessio ult. num. 7.

P Cap. Omnis. de Pcenit. et Remis. num. 24. 1 Super. 5. cap. Omnis.

r In Confess. 3, num. 2. In cap. Omnis. Verb, prodit.



OF THE SEAL OF CONFESSION. 7

proposition, as it is foolish, and too near to blasphemy, and
may as well infer that the priest may be then adored by the
penitent with the distinction, viz. not as a man, but as God,
so is expressly confuted by the gloss above cited, and by
Scotus ; * but taught by the modern casuists, and is the
ground of a strange practice. For, 2. As a consequent of
the former, it is taught in the Church of Rome by their
greatest guides, that if a priest having- heard a thing only in
confession," if being asked, and sworn, he shall say he
never heard that thing, he neither lies nor forswears. So
Emanuel Sa teaches;" and adds, that in the same manner
the penitent may also swear, that he said nothing, or no such
thing, in confession. But how this should be excused, or
whether they think the penitent to have spoken to none but
God, I am not yet satisfied. 3. It is not lawful to reveal
any thing that is told only in confession, though it be to
avoid the greatest evil that can happen, so said Bellarmine; y
to save a whole commonwealth from damage temporal or
spiritual, so Suarez ; z to save the lives of all the kings in
Christendom, so Binet a told Isaac Casaubon in the king's
library at Paris. The same is openly avowed by Eudsemon
Johannes, b that there is no evil so great, for the avoiding of
which it can be lawful to reveal confession ; and that this may
appear to be a catholic doctrine, the same author reckons up
so many moderns teaching the same, that the very names of
the authors and books fill up several pages ; and that it is
the catholic doctrine, is expressly taught by the author of
the famous apology made for the Jesuits, after the horrid
parricide of Henry the Fourth of France. They add, eveu
beyond this, all the curiosity of the very circumstances of
silence ; that this silence does not only oblige in the case of
perfect confession, but, if it be begun, not only in case of
confession clear and express, but if it be so much as in rela-
tion to confession ; not only the confessor, but the messenger,
the interpreter, the counsellor, he that hears it by chance,

'In quartum librum Sent. (list. 21.
u Vide Richard, in lib. iv. Sent dist. ead. art 4, q. 1.
x Apbor. v. Confess, n. '23. Apolog. adv. Reg. M. Brit.

* Disp. 33, in 3. par. D. Thorn, sect 1, n. 2.

a Praestaret reges omnes perire, quam si vel serael confessionis sigillum vio-
laretur. Epiit. ad Fontonem Duceeum, p. 140.
b Apolog. pro Garnette, c. xiii.



8 OF THE SEAL OF CONFESSION.

or by stealth ; and he that was told of it by him that should,
but did not, conceal it : the seal is to be kept by all means,
directly and indirectly, by words and signs, judicially and
extrajudicially, unless the penitent give leave : but that leave
is to be express, and is not to be asked but in the case of
a compelling necessity ; neither can the confessor impose
a public penance upon him who hath confessed privately.
Which things, especially the last, are most diametrically
opposed to the doctrine and discipline of the Primitive
Church, as I have already proved ; but these things are ex-
pressly taught as the doctrine of the most famous casuists of
the Church of Rome, by Escobar, who comparing his book
in method to the seven seals of the Revelation, which the
four living creatures read, Suarez, the ox ; Molina, the man;
Vasquez, the eagle ; and Valentia, the lion ; and twenty-four
elders, that is, twenty-four Jesuits also read these seven
seals , though when they come to be reckoned, they prove
twenty-five, so fatal is that antichristian number to the
Church of Rome, that it occurs in every accident ; but his
meaning is, that the doctrine he teaches are the doctrines of
all those twenty-five famous leading men ; " Penes quos im-
perium literarum et conscientiarum." If now it be not the
catholic doctrine, then is it heretical? And, then, why is it



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