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cian heresy for taking away of images : concerning which,
lest the less wary reader should suppose the synod of Frank-
fort to have determined for images, as Alan Cope, Gregory
de Valentia, Vasquez, Suarez, and Binius, would fain have
the world believe ; I shall note, that the synod of Frankfort
did at the same time condemn the heresy of Felix Urgetita-
nus, which was, ' that Christ was the adopted Son of God.'
Now because in this synod were condemned the breakers of
images, and the worshippers of images ; some ignorantly
(amongst which is this gentleman the objector) have sup-
posed that the Felician heresy was that of the iconoclasts.

2. Now for the second thing which the ' Dissuasive' said
from these authors ; that the fathers of Frankfort command-
ed that the second Nicene should not be called a general
council, that matter is sufficiently cleared in the proof of the
first particular ; for if they abrogated it, and called it ' pseu-
dosynodum,' and decreed against it, ' hoc ipso,' they caused
it should not be, or be called, a general synod. But I shall
declare what the synod did in the words of Adhelmus Bene-
dictinus ; q " Synodus etiam, quse paucos ante annos Constan-
tinopoli sub Helena et Constantino filio ejus congregata, et
ab ipsis non tantum septima, verum etiam universalis est
appellata, ut nee septima nee universalis diceretur, habere-
turque quasi supervacua, in totum ab omnibus abdicata est."

3. Now for the third thing, which the ' Dissuasive' said,
that they published a book under the name of the emperor,
I am to answer, that such a book about that time, within three
or four years of it, was published in the name of the emperor,
is notoriously known, and there was great reason to believe
it was written three or four years before the synod, and sent
by the emperor to the pope ; but that divers of the Church of
Rome did endeavour to persuade the world that the emperor
did not write it, but that it was written by the synod, and
contains the acts of the synod, but published under the em-
peror's name. Now this the ' Dissuasive' affirmed by the
authority of Hincmarus, who does affirm it ; and of the same

1 1n Annal.



148 OF THE WORSHIP OF IMAGES.

opinion is Bellarmine : " Scriptum videtur in synodo Franco-
fordiensi et acta continere synodi Francofordiensis : et enim
asserit Hincmarus ejus temporis auctor." r So that by all
this the reader may plainly see, how careful the ' Dissuasive'
was in what was affirmed, and how careless this gentleman
is of what he objects : only this I add, that though it be said
that this book contained the acts of the synod of Frankfort,
though it might be partly true, yet not wholly. For this synod
did indeed do so much against that of the Gijeks, and was
so decretory against the worship of images (" quod omnino
ecclesia Dei execratur," said Hoveden, and Matthew of
Westminster), 5 that it is vehemently suspected, that the pa-
trons of images (the objector knows whom I mean) have
taken a timely course with it, so that the monuments of it
are not to be seen, nor yet a famous and excellent epistle of
Alcuinus written against the Greek synod, though his other
works are in a large volume carefully enough preserved.

It was urged as an argument ' a minori ad majus,' that
in the Primitive Church it was accounted unlawi r ul to make
images ; and therefore it was impossible that the worship of
images should then be the doctrine or practice of the catho-
lic Church. To this purpose Clemens Alexandrians, Tertul-
lian,and Origen, were alleged." First for Tertullian, of whom
the Letter says, that he had said no such thing : sure it is,
this man did not care what he said ; supposing it sufficient
to pass the common reader, to say Tertullian did not say
for what he is alleged, for more will believe him, than exa-
mine him. But the words of Tertullian shall manifest the
strange confidence of this person. The quotations out of
Tertullian are only noted in the margent, but the words were
not cited, but now they must, to justify me and themselves.
1. That reference to Tertullian's book of idolatry," the ob-
jector takes no notice of, as knowing it would reproach him
too plainly : see the words, " the artificers of statues and
images, and all kind of representations, the devil brought
into the world :" y and when he had given the etymology of
an idol, saying ti'duXov is ' formula,' he adds, " Igitur omnis
forma vel formula idolum se dici exposcit : Inde omnis idoli

r Vide supra, sect. Primo quia. A.D. 793.

A. L. p. V7. * Cap. iii.

1 Diabolum seculo intulisse artifices statuarum, et imaginum, et omnis generis
simulacrorum.



OF THE WORSHIP OF IMAGES. 149

artifex ejusdem et unius est criminis." And a little before :
" Exinde jam caput fucta est idololatriae ars omnis, quae ido-
lum quoquo modo edit." And in the beginning of the fourth
chapter, " Idoluui tarn fieri quarn coli Deus prohibet. Quanto
praecedit ut fiat quod coli possit, tanto prius est ne fiat si
coli non licet," And again : "Toto mundo ejusmodi artibus
interdixit servis Dei." And a little after he brings in some
or other objecting ; " Sed ait quidani adversus similitudinis
interdictae propositionem, Cur ergo Moses in eremo simula-
crum serpentis ex aere fecit?" To this at last he answers:
" Si eundem Deum observas ' habes legem ejus,' ne feceris
similitudinem ; si et prseceptum factae postea similitudinis
respicis, et tu imitare Moysen. Ne facias adversus legem
simulacrum aliquod, nisi et tibi Deus jusserit." Now here
is no subterfuge for any one : for Tertullian first says, the
devil brought into the world all the artists and makers of
statues, images, and all sorts of similitudes. 2. He makes
all these to be the same with idols. And 3. that God as well
forbade the making of these and the worship of them, and that
the maker is guilty of the same crime : and lastly I add, his
definition of idolatry, " Idololatria est omnis circa omne
idolum faniulatus et servitus ; Every image is an idol,
and every service and obeisance about any or every idol is
idolatry." I hope all this put together will convince the gen-
tleman that denied it, that Tertullian hath said some such
thing as the ' Dissuasive' quoted him for. Now for the other
place quoted, the words are these ; " Proinde et similitudinem
vetans fieri omnium quse in coelo, et in terra, et in aquis,
ostendit et causas, idololatriae scilicet siibstantiam exhi-
bentes: z God forbidding all similitude to be made of things
in heaven and earth, and in the waters, shews the causes that
restrain idolatry:" the causes of idolatry be more fully de-
scribed in the forecited place : " Quando enim et sine idolo
idololatria fiat :" for he supposes the making of the images
to be the cause of their worshipping, and he calls this making
statues and images " daemoniis corpora facere." But there
is yet another place in his books against Marcion, where
Tertullian 8 affirming that St. Peter knew Moses and Elias,
on Mount Tabor, by a spiritual ecstasy, says it upon this
reason ; " Nee enim imagines eorurn aut statuas populus

1 Lib. ii. advers. Marc. iv. c. 22. Lib. iv. c. 22.



150 OF THE WORSHIP OF IMAGES.

habuisset aut similitudines, lege prohibente." The same also
is to be seen in his book ' de Spectaculis,' c. xxiii. : " Jam vero
ipsum opus personarum, quaero, an Beo placeat, qui omnem
similituclinem vetat fieri, quanto magis imaginis suae." By
this time I hope the gentleman thinks himself in some shame,
for denying that Tertullian snid the making of images to be
unlawful.

Now let us see for the other two authors quoted by the
' Dissuasive :' the objector in the Letter says, b they only spake
of making the images of Jupiter and the other heathen gods :
but E. W. c says he cannot find those quotations out of Cle-
mens of Alexandria, because the books quoted are too big,
and he could not espy them. The author of the Letter never
examined them, but took them for granted ; but E. W. did
search a little, but not exactly. However, he ought not to
have looked in the sixth book of the 'Stromata' for the
words there quoted, but in the ' Protrepticon,' as I shall shew
by and by. That other quotation in the ' Stromata' is the
sixth book, and is only referred to, as to the question in
general against images, for so St. Clement calls it ' spiritual
adultery' to make idols or images. Now to this E. W. says,
although he did not find what he looked for, yet he knows
beforehand, that the word, in the Latin translation, is
' simulacrum, d that is, E/'^XOV, ' an idol.' It is indeed well
guessed of E. W., for the word is dvs/ScuXocro/oJv, and if he
had seen the place, he now tells us what answer we might
have expected. But I am beforehand with him in this par-
ticular, and out of Tertullian have proved ' idolum ' to be
the same with ' formula, 'derived from tJdo;, and consequently
means the same with an ' image.' And he hath a good
warrant from the greatest master of the Latin tongue :
" Imagines quae idola nominant, quorum incursione non
solum videamus, sed etiam cogitemus," 6 &c. said Cicero :
and the same notion of i/'duXov is in a great master of the
Greek, St. Chrysostom, who, speaking of the statues and
images with which they adorned their houses, calls them
'idols, f Oixia; xarctffxuf&ev 1/du't.a xavrct'/ov xai %6a.va iarurtc. But
it matters not so much what Greek or Latin word is used in

b P. 27. Pp. 54, 55. d Strom, lib. vi. p. 687, edit. Paris. 1629.

e Lib. i. c. 6. de Fin. Bon. et Malor. Raih. p. 23.
r In cap. iii. Epist. ad Philip, horn. 10.



OF THE WORSHIP OF IMAGES. 151

any translation ; for in the Hebrew, in which the Spirit, of
God spake, when he forbade the worship of images, he used
two words, Vona ' pesel' and ,uion ' themunah,' and the
latter of these signifies always an image or similitude, and
that most properly, and is always so translated ; and the
former of these is translated indifferently by yXuflroi/, or
i/duXov, and eixuv, ' image,' ' carved image,' and ' idol ; ' for
they are all one. And therefore proportionably Justin Mar-
tyr, reciting this law of God, says, that God forbade every
* image and similitude ;' sixova xai 6ij,oiu/j,a, are the words.
But suppose that ' idolum' and ' imago' were not the same ;
yet because the commandment forbids not only ' idolum' but
' imago,' not only ' pesel' but ' themunah ;' they do not observe
the commandment, who make to themselves, viz. for worship,
either one or the other. But to return to St. Clement, of
whom our present inquiry is. And to deal most clearly in
this affair, as in all things else, that out of the ' Stromata' of
St. Clement, that I rather remark, is not this of the sixth
book, but out of the fifth. St. Clement of Alexandria 5 saith :
8" 5 daxruXiov //,?] <pogi?v, fAqds s/Kovag ocuro/j ey^agdffffsiv suv
o Tludayoeag' using MwtrJjg, TgocrctXa/ diu.pp7]()qv ivo/j,rjd*r?]ffsv,
fj,7}8sv detv yXuflrov, % yscuysvTov, 73 vXaffrbv, 73 ygatfrbv ayaX/xa
TS xal avsixovifffjut xou?&ar " Pythagoras commanded that
his disciples should not wear rings, or engrave them
with the images of their gods ; as Moses, many ages
before, made an express law, that no man should make
any graven, cast, or painted image ;" and of this he
gives two reasons. 1. '1$ ^ roTg ai&qro7$ vgogav'sxa/Atv,
SKI 8s ra voqra fASTiu/itv, " that we may not attend to sensible
things, but pass on to the things discernible by the under-
standing." 2. ' E!?svrsM?si y rqv roi> Qsfou ffsfAvoTqrot, q sv IroifL'j
r%$ o-^/tug tuvqdsiu, xai rr t v voyrriv ovaiav di' v\ift ffsjSdfya^ai, a-ifAat^siv
sarh avTJjv di' ait&fjCtiMg' "The custom of seeing so readily
causes that the majesty of God becomes vile and con-
temptible, and by matter to worship that which is perceived
intellectually, is to disesteem him by sensation." Now the
reader may perceive that St. Clement speaks against the
making of any images, not only of Jupiter and the hea-
then gods, but of the true God, of whatsoever intelligible being
we ought to worship ; and that upon such reasons which

Lib. Strom, v. p. 559, Paris. 1629, Gr. Lat.



152 OF THE WORSHIP OF IMAGES.

will greatly condemn the Roman practices. But hence also
it is plain, how careless and trifling this objector is, minding
no truth but the number of objections. See yet further out
of St. Clement : h " Nobis enim est aperte vetitum fallacem
artem exercere. Non facies enim (inquit propheta) cujusvis
rei similitudinem ; We are forbidden to exercise that cozen-
ing art (viz. of making pictures or images) ; for (says the pro-
phet, meaning Moses), Thou shalt not make the likeness of
any thing." E. W. it seems 1 could not find these words of
St. Clement in his ' Para3netic : ' he should have said his ' Pro-
treptic,' for I know of no Parametic that he hath written.
But E. W. followed the printer's error in the margent of the
' Dissuasive,' aud very carefully turned over a book that was
not, and compared it in bigness with a book that was. But
I will not suppose this to be ignorance in him, but only want
of diligence : however, the words are to be found in the
forty-first page of this ' Protreptic,' or his 'Admonition to the
Gentiles/ and now they are quoted and the very page named ;
only I desire E. W. to observe, that in this place St. Clement
uses not the word i"du\ov, but ^dvrog o^o/w.aa, not ' simula-
crum,' but ' cujusvis rei similitudinem.'

In the place which was quoted out of Origen k in his
fourth book against Celsus, speaking of the Jews he hath
these words : Ovdel$ ruv tr/.wus KOIO-JVTUV efoXirivsro' O : JTS ya.o
ty'yeapoc, VJT ayaX^ccrocro/og Iv rrj Kokirtiq, avruv qv' " All
makers of images were turned from their commonwealth :
for not a painter or a statuary was admitted, their laws
wholly forbidding them, lest any occasion should be given
to dull men, or that their mind should be turned from the
worship of God to earthly things by these temptations."
Then he quotes the law of God against making images, and
adds, " By which law this was intended, that being content
with the truth of things, they should beware of lying fig-
ments." There it is plain that Origen affirms the law of God
to have forbidden the making images, any similitude of
thino-s in heaven, earth, or waters : which law also he in

O * '

another place ' affirms to be of a moral and eternal obligation,

h Vide etiam eundem in ' Protreptico,' p. 41. Nobis enim est aperte vetitum
fallacem artem exercere. Non facies enim (inquit propheta) cujusvis rei simili-
tudinem. Id. Stromat. lib. vi. p. 687.

P. 55. k P. 181, edit G. L. Cantab. 1653.

1 Homil. viii. in Exod. apud Bellarm. Imagin. lib. ii. c. 7, sect. Sed bajc.



OF THE WORSHIP OF IMAGES. 153

that is, not to be spoken to them only who came out of the
terrestrial Egypt ; and therefore is of Christian duty. And
of the same mind are St. Irenseus," 1 Tertullian," St. Cy-
prian, and St. Austin,P affirming the whole decalogue,
except the law of the Sabbath, to be an unalterable, or natural
law. But for the further verification of the testimony from
Origen against the worship of images in the Primitive
Church, I thought fit to add the concurrent words of the

7 O

prudent and learned Cassander : q " Quantum autem veteres
initio ecclesire ab omui veneratione imaginum abhorruerunt
declarat untis Origenesadversus Celsum :" but of this I shall
have occasion to speak yet once more. And so at last all
the quotations are found to be exact, and this gentleman to
be greatly mistaken.

From the premises I infer : If in the Primitive Church
it was accounted unlawful to make images, certainly it is
unimaginable they should worship them ; and the argument
is the stronger, if we understand their opinion rightly : for
neither the second commandment, nor yet the ancient
fathers in their commentaries on them, did absolutely pro-
hibit all making of images ; but all that was made for reli-
gious worship, and in order to adoration, according as it is
expressed in him, who among the Jews collected the negative
precepts, which Arias Montanus translated into Latin : r the
second of which is, " signum cultus causa ne facito;" the
third, "simulacrum divinuni nullopactoconflato;" the fourth,
" signa religiosa nulla ex materia facito."

The authorities of these fathers being rescued from slan-
der, and proved very pungent and material ; I am concerned
in the next place to take notice of some authorities, which
my adversaries 3 urge from antiquity, to prove that in the
Primitive Church they did worship images. Concerning their
general council, viz. the second Nicene, I have already made
account in the preceding periods: the great St. Basil is with
great solemnity brought into the Circus, and made to speak
for images as apertly, plainly, and confidently, as Bellar-
inine or the Council of Trent itself. His words are these:'

m Lib. iv. c. 31, 32. " Lib. de Tdololat. c. 5.

Lib. iii. ad Quirinum, c. 59 ; et de Exhort. Martyrii, c. i.

P Lib. xv. contra Faustum, c. 4, 7. <J Consult, de Imagin. et Simulacris.

r Lib. iv. de General, et R egeneratione Adam. E. VV. p. 49.



154 OF THE WORSHIP OF IMAGES.

" I admit the holy apostles, and prophets, and martyrs, and
in my prayer made to God call upon them, that by their
intercession God may be propitious unto me. Whereupon I
honour and adore the characters of their images: and espe-
cially those things being delivered from the holy apostles,
and not prohibited, but are manifested, or seen in all our
churches." Now I confess these words are home enough,
and do their business at the first sight ; and if they prove
right, St. Basil is on their side, and therefore E. W. with
great noise and preface insults, and calls them unanswer-
able. The words he says are found in St. Basil's two hun-
dred and fifth epistle ' ad Julianum.' I presently consulted
St. Basil's works, such as I had with me in the country, of
the Paris edition by Guillard, 1547, and there I found that
St. Basil had not two hundred and five epistles in all ; the
number of all written by him and to him being but one hun-
dred and eighty, of which, that to Julianus is one, viz. epistle
one hundred and sixty-six, and in that there is not one word
to any such purpose as is here pretended. I was then put to
a ' meliusinquirendurn.' Bellarmine 11 (though both he, and
Lindan, and Harding, cry up his authority as irrefragable)
quotes his authority not upon his own credit, but as taking
it from the report of a book published 1596, called ' Synodus
Parisiensis,' which Bellarmine calls " unworthy to see the
light." From hence arises this great noise ; and the foun-
tain being confessedly corrupt, what wholesome thing can be
expected thence ? But in all the first and voluminous disput-
ations of Bellarmine upon this question, he made no use of
this authority, he never saw any such thing in St. Basil's
works, or it is not to be imagined that he would have omitted
it. But the words are in no ancient edition of St. Basil,
nor in any manuscript that is known in the world. 2. John
Damascen, and Germanus, bishop of Constantinople, who
wrote for the worship of images, and are the most learned
of all the Greeks that were abused in this question ; yet
they never urged this authority of St. Basil, which would
have been more to their purpose than all that they said

6ta ixvffiav rourov; \'rixa.\aSJff.oc.i, rou 2/ avrav, %yow S/a Ttj; ft<<riT'!a.f at/rut, "tXtuv pai
<y(viir$a.i' 0611 xa.} rav; gagaxritga; <r<vv iix.it ui ttvrtav <rif&iu xa,i Tfioff xvtu' XO.T l^etloiTer
rouruv vexoaoiOOfAivuf IK vuv a.yiav enroffTohav, XK'I aux avyyofivf&ivctiy XX' tv "jra.ffa.if
rais ixx).nrriais tipa* rovrav avi<r<rogavft,ivuv.

u Appendix ad Tract, de Cultu Imaginum in prooem. ante c. i. et in c. iv.



OF THE WORSHIP OF IMAGES. 155

beside. 3. The first mention of this is in an epistle of Pope
Adrian to the emperors in the seventh synod, and that
makes the business more suspicious, that when the Greek
writers knew nothing of it, a Latin bishop, a stranger, not
very well skilled in antiquity, should find this out, which no
man ever saw before him, nor since, in any copy of St.
Basil's works : but in the second Psicene Council such for-
geries as these were many and notorious. St. Gregory the
Great is there quoted as author of an epistle * de Veneratione
Imaginum,' when it is notorious, it was written by Gregory
III. ; and there were many Basils, and any one of that name
would serve to give countenance to the error of the second Ni-
cene synod ; but in St. Basil the Great there is not one word
like it. And therefore they who set forth St. Basil's works at
Paris, 1618, who either could not or ought not to have been
ignorant of so vile a cheat, were infinitely to blame to pub-
lish this as the issue of the right St. Basil, without any
mark of difference, or note of inquiry.

There is also another saying of St. Basil, of which the
Roman writers make much, and the words are by Damascen
imputed to the great St. Basil ; ' Iniaginis honor exemplum
transit,' which indeed St. Basil speaks only of the statues
of the emperors, and of that civil honour, which by consent
and custom of the world did pass to the emperor, and he
accepted it so ; but this is no argument for religious images
put up to the honour of God ; he says not, the honour of any
such image passes to God : for God hath declared against
it (as will appear in the following periods), and therefore
from hence the Church of Rome can have no argument, no
fair pretence ; and yet upon this very account, and the too
much complying with the heathen rites and manners, and
the secular customs of the empire, the veneration of images
came into churches. But suppose it be admitted to be true ;
yet although this may do some countenance to Thomas
Aquinas and Bonaventure's way of worshipping the image
and the sampler with the same worship ; yet this can never
be urged by all those more moderate papists, who -make the
worship to an image of a lower kind ; for if it be not the
same worship, then they that worship images, worship God
and his saints by the image not as they deserve, but give to
them no more than the image itself deserves : let them take



156 OF THE WORSHIP OF lAfAGES.

which part they please, so that they will but publicly own it.
But let this be as it will, and let it be granted true, that the
honour done to the image can pass to the sampler, yet this
is but an arbitrary thing, and a king may esteem it so if he
please ; but if the king forbids any image to be made of him,
and counts it a dishonour to him, then I hope it is; and
that is the case now ; for God hath forbidden any such way
of passing honour to him by an image of him ; and he hath
forbidden it in the second commandment, and this is con-
fessed by Vasquez : x so that upon this account, for all the
pretence of the same motion to the image and the sampler,
to pass such a worship to God, is no better than the doing
as the heathen did, when they worshipped Mercury by
throwing stones at him.

Another authority brought by E. W. y for veneration
of images, is from Athanasius, but himself damns it in the
margent, with and without ingenuity ; for ingenuously say-
ing, that he does not affirm it to be the great Athanasius,
yet most disingenuously he adds, ' valeat quantum valere
potest,' that is, they that will be cozened, let them. And
indeed these questions and answers to Antiochus are notori-
ously spurious ; z for in them are quoted St. Epiphanius,
Gregory Nyssen, Chrysostom, Scala Johannis, Maximus,
and INicephorus, who were after Athanasius; and the book
is rejected by Delrio, by Sixtus Senensis, and Possevine.
But with such stuff as this the Roman doctors are forced
to build their Babel ; and E. W., in page fifty-six, quotes
the same book against me for worshipping the cross, to-
gether with another spurious piece, ' de Cruce et Passione
Domini,' which Nannius, a very learned man of their own
and professor at Louvaine, rejects, as is to be seen in his
' Nuncupatory Epistle.'

Yea, but St. Chrysostom's liturgy is very clear, for it is
said, that ' the priest turns himself to our Saviour's picture,
and bows his head before the picture, and says this prayer ;'
these words indeed are very plain ; but it is not plain that
these are St. Chrysostom's words, for there are none such in
St. Chrysostom's liturgy in the editions of it by Claudius de
Saintes, or Morellus; and Claudius Espencaeus acknowledges

1 Tom. iii. comment, in 3. part. qu. 25, art. 3, disp. 94, c. iii. 1 P. 50.

1 Martinus Delrio Vincliciae Areopng. c. xiv.



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