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with great truth and ingenuity, that this liturgy, begun and
composed by St. Chrysostom, was enlarged by many things
put into it, according to the variety of times. And it is evi-
dently so, because divers persons are there commemorated,
who lived after the death of Chrysostom, as Cyrillus, Euthy-
mius, Sabas, and Johannes Eleemosynarius, whereof the last
but one lived one hundred and twenty-six years, the last two
hundred and thirteen years after St. Chrysostom. Now how
likely, nay how certain it is, that this very passage was not
put in by St. Chrysostom, but is of later interpolation, let all
the world judge by that known saying of St. Chrysostom ;" a
" Quid enim est vilius atque humUius homine ante res inani-
matas se incurvante et saxa venerante? What in the
world is baser and more abject than to see a man worshipping
stones, and bowing himself before inanimate things ?" These
are his great authorities, which are now come to nothing;
what he hath from them who came after these, I shall leave
to him to make his best of them : for, about the time of Gre-
gory, some began to worship images, and some to break
them ; the latter of which he reproves, and the former he
condemns : what it was afterward all the world knows.

But now having cleared the question from the trifling ar-
guments of my adversaries, I shall observe some things fit
to be considered in this matter of images. 1. It came at first
from a very base and unworthy stock. I have already pointed
at this, but now I shall explain it more fully ; it came from
Simon Magus and his crew ; Theodoret says, that the fol-
lowers of Simon brought in the worship of images, viz. of
Simon in the shape of Jupiter, and Helena in the figure of
Minerva; but St. Austin 6 says that Simon Magus himself
" imagines et suam et cujusdam meretricis, quamsibi sociam
scelerum fecerat, discipulis suis prsebuisse adorandas."
E. W., c upon what confidence I know not, says, that Theo-
doret hath nothing like it, either under the title 'deSimone'
or ' Carpocrate.' And he says true, but with a shameful
purpose to calumniate me, and deceive his reader ; as if I
had quoted a thing that Theodoret said not, and therefore the
reader ought not to believe me. But since, in the ' Dissua-
sive, 'Theodoret was only quoted " lib. v. Haeret. Fabul."and

Comment, in Isai. c. ii. t. iii.

b De Hares, ad quod rult Deum. paulo ab initio. Haeres. 1. c E. W. p. 51.


no title set down ; if he had pleased to look to the next
title, " Simonis Haeresis," where in reason all Simon's here-
sies were to be looked for, he should have found that which
I referred to. d But why E. W. denies St. Austin to have
reported that for which he is quoted, viz. that Simon Magus
brought in some images to be worshipped, I cannot conjec-
ture, neither do I think himself can tell ; but the words are
plain in the place quoted, according to the intention of the
* Dissuasive.' But that he may yet seem to lay more load
upon me, he very learnedly says that Irengeus, in the place
quoted by me, says not a word of Simon Magus being author
of images ; and would have his reader believe that 1 mistook
Simon Magus for Simon Irenaeus. 6 But the good man, I
suppose, wrote this after supper, and could not then read or
consider that the testimony of Irenaeus was brought in to no
such purpose ; neither did it relate to any Simon at all, but
to the Gnostics or Carpocratians, who also were very early
and very deep in this impiety; only they did not worship
the pictures of Simon and Helena, but of Jesus and Paul,
and Homer and Pythagoras, as St. Austin f testifies of them ;
but that which he remarks in them is, that Marcellina,
one of their sect, worshipped the pictures of Jesus, &c.,
"adorando, incensumque ponendo, they did adore them,
and put incense before them :" I wish the Church of Rome
would leave to do so, or acknowledge whose disciples they
are in this thing. The same also is said by Epiphanius ;
and that the Carpocratians placed the image of Jesus with
the philosophers of the world, " collocatasque adorant, et
gentium mysteria perficiunt." But I doubt that both Epi-
phanius and St. Austin, who took this story from Irenaeus,
went further in the narrative than Irenseus ; for he says only
that they placed the images of Christ, &c. " et has coro-
nant:" no more ; and yet even for this, for crowning the
image of Christ with flowers, 8 though they did not so much
as is nowadays done at Rome, St. Irenseus made an outcry,
and reckoned them in the black catalogue of heretics, not for

d Cum ejus statuam in Jovis figuram construxissent, Helenas autem in Minervae
speciem, eis thura adolebant, et liliabarit, et tanquam Deos adorabant, Simonianos
seipsos nominantes. Theodoret. Hseret. Fab. lib. i. tit. Simonis Haeresis in fin.

c Vide Irenas.lib. i. adv. Haeres. c. 23, 24. f Ubi supra, Hferes.7.

8 Iren. reliquam observationem circa eas similiter ut gentes faciunt. i. e. sicut
cajterorum illustrium virorum imaginibus consueverunt facere.


joining Christ's image with that of Homer and Aristotle, Py-
thagoras and Plato, but even for crowning Christ's image
with flowers and coronets, as they also did those of the phi-
losophers ; for though this may be innocent, yet the other
was a thing not known in the religion of any that were
called Christians, till Simon and Carpocrates began to teach
the world.

2. We find the wisest and the most sober of the heathens
speaking against the use of images in their religious rites.
So Varro, when he had said that the old Romans had for
one hundred and seventy years worshipped the gods without
picture or image, adds, "quod si adhuc mansisset, castius
dii observarentur ;" and gives this reason for it ; " Quiprimi
simulacra deorum populis posuerunt, et civitatibus suis et me-
tum dempsisse, et errorem addidisse ; The making images
of the gods took away fear from men and brought in error : "
which place St. Austin quoting, commends and explicates it,
saying, " he wisely thought that the gods might easily be
despised in the blockishness of images." 11 The same also
was observed by Plutarch, and he gives this reason ; " Nefas
putantes augustiora exprimere humilioribus, neque aliter
aspirari ad Deum quam mente posse; They accounted it
impiety to express the great beings with low matter, and
they believed there was no aspiring up to God but by the
mind."' This is a philosophy which the Church of Rome
need not be ashamed to learn.

3. It was so known a thing that Christians did abomi-
nate the use of images in religion and in their churches, that
Adrian the emperor was supposed to build temples to Christ
and to account him as God, because he commanded that
churches without images should be made in all cities, as is
related by Lampridius. k

4. In all the disputations of the Jews against the Christ-
ians of the Primitive Church, although they were impatient of
having any image, and had detested all use of them, espe-
cially ever since their return from Babylon, and still retained
the hatred of them, even after the dissolution of their tem-
ple, "even unto superstition," says Bellarmine; 1 yet they

h Prudenter existimavit deos facile posse in simulacrorum stoliditate contemni.

1 Plut. in Xuma.

k ^Elius Lamprid. in Alexandro Severe, edit. Salraat. p. 120.

1 De Imag. c. vii. sect. Ad prinium.


never objected against Christians their having images in
their churches, much less their worshipping them. And let
it be considered, that in all that long disputation between
Justin Martyr and Tryphon the Jew, in which the subtle Jew
moves every stone, lays all the load he can at the Christians'
door, makes all objections, raises all the envy, gives all the
matter of reproach he can against the Christians, yet he opens
not his mouth against them concerning images-. The like is
to be observed in Tertul Han's book against the Jews; no
mention of images, for there was no such thing amongst the
Christians, they hated them as the Jews did ; but it is not
imaginable they would have omitted so great a cause of quar-
rel. On the other side, when in length of time images were
brought into churches, the Jews forbore not to upbraid the
Christians with it. There was a dialogue written a little be-
fore the time of the seventh synod, in which a Jew is brought
in saying to the Christians, " I have believed all ye say, and
I do believe in the crucified Jesus Christ, that he is the Son
of the living God ; ' Scandalizor autem in vos Christianos, quia
imagines adoratis, I am offended at you Christians that ye
worship images;'" 1 for the Scripture forbids us every where
to make any similitude or graven image." And it is very
observable, that in the first and best part of the talmud of
Babylon, called the Misna, published about the end of the
second century, the Christians are not blamed about images ;
which shews they gave no occasion ; but in the third part of
the talmud, about the tenth and eleventh age after Christ, the
Christians are sufficiently upbraided and reproached in this
matter. In the Gemara, which was finished about the end
of the fifth century, I find that learned men say the Jews
called the Christian Church * the house of idolatry ;' which
though it may be expounded in relation to images which
about that time began in some churches to be placed and
honoured, yet I rather incline to believe that they meant it
of our worshipping Jesus for the true God and the true Mes-
sias ; for at this day they call all Christians ' idolaters,' even
those that have none, and can endure no images in their
religion or their churches. But now, since these periods, it
is plain that the case is altered, and when the learned Christ-
ians of the Roman communion write against the Jews, they

m Synod vii. act. r.


are forced to make apologies for the scandal they give to the
Jews in their worshipping of images, as is to be seen (besides
Leontius Neopolitanus of Cyprus's Apology, which he pub-
lished for the Christians against the Jews) in Ludovicus
Carretus's epistle, in Sepher Amnna, and Fabianus Fioghus's
Catechetical Dialogues. But I suppose this case is very
plain, and is a great conviction of the innovation in this
matter made by the Church of Rome.

5. The matter of worshipping images looks so ill, so like
idolatry, so like the forbidden practices of the heathens, that
it was infinitely reasonable, that if it were the practice and
doctrine of the Primitive Church, the primitive priests and
bishops should at least have considered, and stated the
question how far, and in what sense, it was lawful, and with
what intention, and in what degrees, and with what caution
and distinctions, this might lawfully be done ; particularly
when they preached, and wrote commentaries and explica-
tions upon the decalogue ; especially since there was at least
so great a semblance of opposition and contradiction between
the commandment and any such practice ; God forbidding
any image and similitude to be made of himself, or any thing
else in heaven, or in earth, or in the sea, and that with such
threatenings and interminations of his severe judgments
against them that did make them for worship, and this thing
being so constantly objected by all those many that opposed
their admission and veneration ; it is certainly very strange
that none of the fathers should take notice of any difficulty
in this affair. They objected the commandment against the
heathens for doing it; and yet that they should make no
account, nor take notice how their worshipping saints and
God himself by images, should differ from the heathen super-
stition that was the same thing to look upon : this indeed is
very unlikely. But so it is ; Justin Martyr and Clemens
Alexandrinus speak plainly enough of this matter, and speak
plain, downright words against making and worshipping
images; and so careless they were of any future chance, or
the present concern of the Roman Church, that they do not
except the image of the true God, nor the images of saints
and angels, no, not of Christ, or the blessed Virgin Mary
herself. Nay, Origeri expounds the commandments, and

n Homil. viii. in Exod.


St. Austin makes a professed commentary upon them, but
touched none of these tilings with the top of his finger,
only told that they were all forbidden : we are not so careless
nowadays in the Church of Rome ; but carefully expound
the commandments against the insufferable objections of the
heretics of late, and the prophets and the fathers of old. But
yet for all this, a suspicious man would conclude, that in the
first four hundred years, there was no need of any such ex-
plications, inasmuch as they had nothing to do with images,
which only could make any such need.

6. But then in the next place I consider, that the
second commandment is so plain, so easy, so peremptory,
against all the making and worshipping any image or like-
ness of any thing, that besides that every man naturally
would understand all such to be forbidden, it is so expressed,
that upon supposition that God did intend to forbid it
wholly, it could not more plainly have been expressed. For
the prohibition is absolute and universal, and therefore of
all particulars ; and there is no word or sign, by the virtue
of which it can, with any probability, be pretended that any
one of any kind is excepted. Now then to this, when the
Church of Rome pretends to answer, they overdo it, and
make the matter the more suspicious. Some of them answer
by saying, that this is no moral commandment, not obli-
gatory to Christians, but to the Jews only : others say, that
by this commandment it is only forbidden to account an
image to be very God ; so Cajetan : others say, that an idol
only is forbidden, and that an image is no idol. Others yet
distinguish the manner of worshipping, saying, that the
image is worshipped for the sampler's sake, not for its own.
And this worship is by some called dou^tia, or service, by
others, Xargsla ; saying that the first is to images of saints,
the other to God only. And yet with this difference ; some
saying that the image of God is adored with the same kind
of adoration that God is ; only it is to the image for God's
sake ; so St. Thomas of Aquine, and generally his scholars.
Others say that it is a religious kind of worship due to images,
but not at all divine ; some say it is but a civil worship. And
then it is for the image's sake, and so far is intransitive, but
whatever is paid more to the image is transitive, and passes
further. And whatsoever it be, it cannot be agreed how it


ought to be paid : whether properly or improperly, univocally
or equivocally, for themselves or for something else, whether
analogically or simply, whether absolutely or by reduction.
And it is remarkable what Bellarmine answers to the
question, With what kind of worship images may be adored?
He answers with this proposition : "The worship which by
itself and properly is due to images, is a certain imperfect
worship, which analogically and reductively pertains to a
kind of that worship, which is due to the exemplar :" and a
little after, " To the images a certain inferior worship is due,
and that not all one, but various according to the variety of
images." To the images of saints is due "dulia secundum
quid ;" which if you do not understand, Bellarmine in the
next words explains most clearly ; ' dulia secundum quid,'
is, as a man may say, * reductive and analogical.' But after
all this we may be mistaken, and we cannot tell whom to
follow nor what to do in the case. Thomas and his scholars
warrant you to give the same worship to God's image as to
God : and this is the easiest way indeed to be understood,
and indeed may quickly be understood, to be direct idolatry.
Bellarmine and others tell you, Stay, not so altogether :. but
there is a way to agree with St. Thomas, that it shall be the
same worship, and not the same worship ; for it is the same
by reduction, that is, it is of the same kind, and therefore
divine, but it is imperfectly divine; as if there could be
degrees in Divine worship; that is, as if any worship could be
divine, and yet not the greatest. But if this seems difficult,
Bellarmine illustrates it by similitudes : " This worship of
images is the same with the worship of the example, viz. of
God, or of Christ, as it happens ; just as a painted man is the
same with a living man, and a painted horse with a living
horse ; for a painted man and a painted horse differ speci-
fically, as the true man and the true horse do; and yet the
painted man is no man, and tlie painted horse is no horse."
The effect of which discourse is this, that the worship of
images, is but the image of worship ; hypocrisy and dissimu-
lation all the way ; nothing real, but imaginative and fan-
tastical; and indeed though this gives but a very ill account
of the agreement of Bellarmine with their saints, Thomas
and Bonaventure, yet it is the best way to avoid idolatry,
because they give no real worship to images : but then on

Lib. ii. de Imagin. S. S. c. 25.


the other side, how do they mock God and Christ, by offer-
ing to them that which is nothing ; by pretending to honour
them by honouring their images; when the honour they do
give to images, is itself but imaginary, and no more of reality
in it, than there is of human nature in the picture of a man !
However, if you will not commit downright idolatry, as some
of their saints teach you, then you must be careful to observe
these plain distinctions, and first be sure to remember that
when you worship an image, you do it not materially but
formally ; not as it is of such a substance, but as it is a sign ;
next take care that you observe what sort of image it is, and
then proportion your right kind to it, that you do not give
* latria' to that where 'hyperdulia' is only due; and be
careful that if ' dulia' only be due, that your worship be not
' hyperdulical.' In the next place consider that the worship
to your image is intransitive but in few cases, and according
but to a few doctors ; and therefore when you have got all
these cases together, be sure that in all other cases it be
transitive. But then when the worship is passed on to the
exemplar, you must consider, that if it be of the same kind
with that which is due to the example, yet it must be an
imperfect piece of worship, though the kind be perfect; and
that it is but analogical, and it is reductive, and it is not
absolute, not simple, not by itself; not by an act to the image
distinct from that which is to the example, but one and the
same individual act, with one intention, as to the supreme
kind, though with some little variety if the kinds be dif-
fering. Now by these easy, ready, clear, and necessary dis-
tinctions, and rules, and cases, the people being fully and
perfectly instructed, there is no possibility that the worship
of images should be against the second commandment,
because the commandment does not forbid any worship that
is transitive, reduct, accidental, consequential, analogical, and
hyperdulical, and this is all that the Church of Rome does,
by her wisest doctors, teach nowadays. But now after
all this, the easiest way of all certainly is to worship no
images, and no manner of way, and trouble the people's
heads with no distinction ; for by these no man can ever be
at peace, or understand the commandment, which without
these laborious devices (by which they confess the guilt of
the commandment does lie a little too heavy upon them)
would most easily by every man and every woman be plainly


and properly understood. And therefore I know not whether
there be more impiety, or more fearful caution, in the Church
of Rome in being so curious, that the second command-
ment be not exposed to the eyes and ears of the people ;
leaving it out of their manuals, breviaries, and catechisms,
as if when they teach the people to serve God, they had a
mind they should not be tempted to keep all the command-
ments. And when at any time they do set it down, they
only say thus, " Non facies tibi idolum," which is a word
not used in the second commandment at all ; and if the
word which is there used be sometimes translated ' idolum,'
yet it means no more than ' similitude ;' or if the words be of
distinct signification, yet because both are expressly for-
bidden in that commandment, it is very ill to represent the
commandment so, as if it were observed according to the
intention of that word, yet the commandment might be
broken, bv the not observing it according to the intention of


the other word, which they conceal. But of this more by
and by.

7. I consider that there is very great scandal and offence
given to enemies and strangers to Christianity ; the very
Turks and Jews, with whom the worship of images is of very
ill report, and that upon, at least, the most probable grounds
in the world. INow the apostle having commanded all
Christians to pursue those things which are of good report,
and to walk circumspectly and charitably towards them that
are without, and that we "give no offence neither to the Jew
nor to the Gentile :" now if we consider, that if the Christian
Church were wholly without images, there would nothing
perish to the faith or to the charity of the Church, or to any
grace which is in order to heaven ; and that the spiritual
state of the Christian Church may as well want such baby-
ceremonies as the synagogue did ; and yet on the other
side, that the Jews and Turks are the more, much more,
estranged from the religion of Christ Jesus, by the image-
worship 1 ' done by his pretended servants; the consequent
will be, that to retain the worship of images is both against
the faith and the charity of Christians, and puts limits, and
retrenches the borders of the Christian pale.

8. It is also very scandalous to Christians, that is, it
makes many, and endangers more, to fall into the direct sin

P 1 Cor. viii. 13.


of idolatry. Polydore Virgil q observes out of St. Jerome,
that "almost all the holy fathers damned the worship of
images, for this very reason, for fear of idolatry ;" and Cas-
sander says, that all the ancients did abhor all adoration of
images ; and he cites Origeri 1 " as an instance great enough to
verify the whole affirmative : " Nos vero ideo non honora-
mus simulacra, quia quantum possumus cavemus, ne quo
modo incidamus in earn credulitatem, ut his tribuamus di-
vinitatis aliquid." This authority E. W. (p. 55) is not
ashamed to bring in behalf of himself in this question,
saying, that " Origen hath nothing against the use of
images, and declares our Christian doctrine thus ;" then he
recites the words above quoted ; than which, Origen could not
speak plainer against the practice of the Roman Church ; and
E. W. might as well have disputed for the Manichees with
this argument: "The Scripture doth not say that God made
the world, it only declares the Christian doctrine thus, In the
beginning God made heaven and earth," &c. But this gen-
tleman thinks any thing will pass for argument amongst his
own people. And of this danger St. Austin 5 gives a rational
account ; " No man doubts but idols want all sense : but
when they are placed in their seats, in an honourable sub-
limity, that they may be attended by them that pray and
offer sacrifice, by the very likeness of living members and

* De Invent. Rerum, lib. vi. c. 13. Eo insaniae deventum est, ut hsec pietatis
pars parum differat ab impietate. Sunt enim bene multi rudiores stupidioresque,
qui saxeas vel ligneas, seu in parietibus pictas imagines colant, non ut figuras, sed
perinde ac si ipsae sensum aliquem habe;mt, et eis magis fidant quam Chris to :
Polyd.Yirg. lib. vi. c. 13, de Invent. Rerum. Lilius Giraldus, in Syntiig. de Diis
Gentium, loquens de excessu Romanae ecclesiae in negotio imaginum, prasfatur
Satius esse ea Harpocrati et Angeronas consignare. Illud certe non praetermit-
tam, DOS dico Christianos, ut aliquando Romanes fuisse sine imaginibus in primi-
tiva, quae vocatur, ecclesia. Erasmus in catecbesi ait, usque ad astatem Hiero-
nymi erant probatae religionis viri, qui in templis nullam ferebant imaginem, nee sculptam, nee textam, ac ne Christi quideru. Et ibid. Ut imagines
int in templis nulla praecepit vel humana constitutio ; et ut facilius est, ita tutius

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