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things there be no objection ; and, therefore, why this may
not be the first moving consideration in the susception of,
or designation to, the calling ecclesiastical, cannot have any
reason in the nature of the thing : for if in all things God's
glory must be the principal end, and yet in some callings the
temporal advantage is the first, mover, then it may be so
in all, the intention of God's glory notwithstanding : for if
it hinders not in that, it hinders not in this. But yet,

9. (3.) It is a great imperfection actually to think of
nothing but the temporal advantage.*, of which God hath in
that calling made provisions; but I say it is not always a
sin to make them the first mover in the designing the per-
son to that calling.


10. But therefore this is only tolerable in those persons,
who at great distance design the calling ; as when they first
study to make themselves capable of it, then it is tolerable,
because they are bound to provide for themselves in all just
ways, arid standing at so great distances from it, cannot
behold the beauties which are ' in interiori domo ;' the duty
which is on them, is to do that which is their proper work ;
that is, to fit themselves with abilities and skill to conduct
it, and therefore their intention must be fitted accordingly,
and move by the most powerful and prevailing motive, so it
be lawful. He that applies himself to learn letters, hath an
intention proportionable to his person and capacity when he
first enters, and as he grows in powers, so must he also in
purposes ; so that as he passes on to perfection, he may also
have intentions more noble and more perfect : and a man in
any calling may first design to serve that end that stands
next him ; and yet when he is possessed of that, look on
further to the intention of the thing, and its own utmost
capacity. But therefore,

11. (4.) Whoever does actually enter into orders, must
take care that his principal end be the glory of God, and the
good of souls. The reasons are these :

12. (1.) Because no man is fit for that office, but he that
is spiritual in his person, as well as his office : he must be a
despiser of the world, a light to others, an example to the
flock, a great denier of himself, of a celestial mind, he must
mind heavenly things ; with which dispositions it cannot
consist, that he who is called to the lot of God, should place
his chief affections in secular advantages.

13. (2.) This is that of which the apostle was a glorious
precedent, " We seek not yours, but you ; for the parents lay
up for the children, not children for their parents :" m mean-
ing, that between the spiritual and the natural paternity, there
is so much proportion, that when it is for the good of the
children, they must all quit their temporal advantages; but
because this is to be done for the spiritual, it follows, this
must be chief.

14. And this I suppose is also enjoined by another apo-
stle, " feeding the flock of God, not for filthy lucre's sake,"

c, that is, "of a but prompt, ready mind ;" n a

2 Cor. xii. 14. " 1 Pet. v.2.


mind moved by intrinsic arguments of fair design, not drawn
by the outward cords of vanity and gain.

15. (3.) The work of the calling being principally and
immediately for the good of souls, and for the glory of God,
it cannot be pursued as the nature of the work requires, if
that be not principally intended, which is principally to be
procured ; all that which is necessary in order to it, must also
be taken care of: thus the ministers of religion may attend
their health, and must look to their necessary support, and
may defend themselves against all impediments of their of-
fices in just and proportionable ways: but because all these
have further purposes, although they standing nearest may
be first regarded by an actual care, at some times, and in
some circumstances, and by actual attention ; yet habitually,
and principally, and constantly, the glory of God, and the
good of souls, must be in the heart, and in the purpose of
every action.

16. But the principality and pre-eminence of this inten-
tion are no otherwise to be judged of, either by ourselves or
others, than by these following significations.

(1.) No man can in any sense principally, that is, as he
ought, attend the good of souls, who enters into the sacred
ministry without those just measures of preparation and dis-
position, which are required by the Church, and the nature
of the thing itself; that is, that he be well instructed in the
Holy Scriptures, and be fit to teach, to exhort, to reprove.
For he who undertakes a work, which can serve God's end
and his own several capacities, and is not sufficiently in-
structed to serve the ends of God, it is apparent that what
he undertakes, is for his own end.

17. (2.) His intentions cannot be right, who by any in-
direct arts does enter, for that which does not begin at God,
cannot be for God : " Non enim ambitione, vel pretio, sed
probatae vitee et discipliriarum testimonio, ad honoris et sa-
cerdotii insignia oportet promoveri," said the Emperor Theo-
dosius. He therefore who simoniacally enters, fixes his eye
and heart upon that which he values to be worth money, not
upon the spiritual employment, between which and money
there can be no more proportion, than between contem-
plation and a cart-rope ; they are not' things of the same
nature ; and he that comes into the field with an elephant


cannot be supposed to intend to hunt a hare : neither can he
be supposed to intend principally the ministry of souls, who
comes to that office instructed only with a bag of money.

18. (3.) He may be supposed principally to intend the
ministry of souls, and in it the glory of God, who so at-
tends to the execution of his office, that it does really and suf-
ficiently minister to the thing. For since the calling is by
God really designed to that end, and if the ministers be not
wanting to themselves, they are sufficiently enabled and as-
sisted to that purpose ; he that zealously and wisely minis-
ters in the office, hath given a most real testimony of his
fair intention, because he does that thing so as those inten-
tions only can be effected. The thing itself is sufficient for
the end if God blesses it ; he therefore that does the thing,
does actuate the intention of God, and sanctifies his own :
but this is to be understood with the addition of the following

19. (4.) He may be confident that his intentions for God's
glory and the good of souls are right and principal, who so
conjoins his other lesser ends with the conduct of the greater,
that they shall always be made to give place to the greater.
That is, who still pursues the interest of souls, and the work
of his ministry, when the hopes of maintenance, or honour,
or secular regards, do fail. For he that for carnal or secular
regards will either quit or neglect his ministry, it is certain,
his carnal or secular ends were his chief motive and incen-
tive in the work. It was the case of Demas, who was St.
Paul's minister and work-fellow in the service of the Gos-
pel, but he left him, " because he loved the present world ;"
concerning which, it is to be considered, that this lapse
and recession of Demas from the assistances of St. Paul, did
not proceed from that love of the world which St. John
speaks of, and is criminal and forbidden to all Christians,
which " whosoever hath, the love of the Father dwells not in
him,"P but is so to beun derstood of such a love, which to
other Christians is not unlawful, but was, in those times es-
pecially, inconsistent with the duty of evangelists, in those
great necessities of the Church : Demas was a good man,
but weak in his spirit, and too secular in his relations, but
he returned to his station, and did the work of an evangelist,

2 Tim. iv. 10. P 1 John, ii. 15.


awhile after, as appears in the Epistle to the Colossians and
Philemon ; but for the present he was to blame. For he
would secure his relations and his interest with too great
a caution and diligence, and leave the other to attend this.
Such as nowadays is too great care of our estates, secular
negotiations, merchandises, civil employments, not minis-
tering directly unto religion, and the advantages of its mi-
nistration. For our great King, the Lord Jesus, hath given
to all Christians some employment, but to some more, to
some less, and in their own proportion they must give a re-
turn : and in a minister of the Gospel, every inordination of
carefulness, and every excess of attendance to secular affairs,
and every unnecessary avocation from, or neglect of, his
great work, is criminal : and many things are excesses in
them, which are not in others, because the ministerial office
requires more attendance and conversation with spiritual
things than that of others.

20. (5.) If ever the minister of holy things, for hope or
fear, for gain or interest, desert his station, when he is per-
secuted, or when he is not persecuted, it is too much to be
presumed that he did not begin for God, who, for man, will
quit God's service. They that wander till they find a rich
seat, do all that they do for the riches of the place, not for
the employment : " Si non ubi sedeas, locus est, est ubi am-
bules," said he in the comedy ; the calling of these men is not
fixed, but ambulatory : and if that which fixes them be tem-
poral advantages, then that which moved them principally
is not spiritual employment.

21. For it is considerable, that if it be unlawful to under-
take the holy calling without a Divine vocation to it, then
to forsake it without a Divine permission must be criminal.
He that calls to come, calls to continue, where the need is
lasting, and the office perpetual. But to leave the calling
when the revenue is gone, to quit the altar when it hath no
offering, to let the souls wander when they bring no gifts,
is to despise the religion, and to love only the fat of the
sacrifices : for the altar indeed does sanctify the gift, but not
the gift the altar ; and he hath but a light opinion of an
eternal crown of glory, or thinks God but an ill paymaster,
that will not do him service upon the stock of his promises,
and will not feed the flock, though he have no other reward


but to be feasted in the eternal supper of the Lamb. Who are
hirelings, but they who fly when the wolf comes ? And wo
be to that evangelist, who upon any secular regard neglects
to preach the Gospel ! wo be to him to whom it shall be
said at the day of judgment, ' I was hungry, and iny flock
was hungry, and ye fed neither it nor me !'

But this is to be understood with these liberties ;

22. (1.) That it be no prejudice to these ecclesiastics,
who in time of persecution do so attend to their ministries,
that no material part of it be omitted, or slightly performed,
and yet take from it such portions of time as are necessary
for their labour or support, by any just and honest employ-
ment. Thus St. Paul wrought in the trade of a tent-maker,
because he would not be a burden to the Church of Corinth ;
and when the Church is stripped naked of her robes, and
the bread of proposition is stolen from her table by soldiers,
there is no peradventure but the ecclesiastical offices are so
to be attended to, that the natural duty and necessity be not

23. (2.) That it be no prejudice to ecclesiastics in the
days of peace or war, to change their station from bishop to
bishoprick, from church to church, where God or the
Church, where charity or necessity, where prudence or obe-
dience, calls. Indeed it hath been fiercely taught, that ec-
clesiastics ought never, and upon no pretence, to desert their
church, and go to another, any more than a man may for-
sake his wife ; and for this a decretal of Pope Evaristus is
pretended, and is recorded in the canon law. " Sicut vir non
debet adulterare uxorem suam, ita nee episcopus ecclesiam
suam, ut illam dimittat ad quam fuit sacratus :" q and there-
fore when Eusebius, the bishop of Csesarea, was called to be
bishop of Antioch, he refused it pertinaciously, and for it
was highly commended by the emperor; and St. Jerome in
his epistle to Oceanus tells, " In Nicena synodo a patribus
decretum est, ne de alia in aliam ecclesiam episcopus trans-
feratur, ne, virginalis pauperculaisocietate contempta, ditioris
adulterae quserat amplexus." Something indeed like it was
decreed by the fifteenth and sixteenth canons of the Nicene
Council ; and it was a usual punishment amongst the holy
primitives, " careat cathedra propria, qui ambit alienam."

i Csip. Sicut Vir. can. 7, q. 1.


But these things, though they be true and right, yet are not
contradictory to the present case. For,

24. (1.) Evaristus, it is clear, forbade translations and
removes from church to church, " ambitus causa," for ambi-
tion or covetousness, and, therefore, it is by him expressly
permitted in their proper cases and limits ; that is, " in in-
evitabili necessitate, aut apostolica, vel regulari mutatione,"
' when there is inevitable necessity/ or the command and
authority of a superior power : and yet upon perusal of the
decree 1 find that Evaristus's intent was, that a bishop
should not thrust his church from him by way of divorce
and excommunication, and take another: as appears not only
by the corresponding part of the decree, viz. " that neither
must the Church take in another bishop or husband upon
him to whom already she is espoused;" but by the expression
used in the beginning of it, " Dimittere ecclesiam episcopus
non debet ; " and it is compared to the adultery of a man
that puts away his wife, and marries another ; and also it
appears more yet by the gloss, which seems to render the
same sense of it, and wholly discourses of the unlawfulness
to excommunicate a church or a city, lest the innocent should
suffer with the criminal : for when a church is excommuni-
cated, though all those persons die upon whom the sentence
fell, yet the Church is the same under other persons their
successors ; and, therefore, all the way it does injustice, by
involving the new-arising innocents, and at last is wholly
unjust by including all and only innocent persons. But which
way soever this decree be understood, it comes not home to
a prohibition of our case.

25. (2). As for Eusebius, it is a clear case he imposed
upon the good emperor, who knew not the secret cause of
Eusebius's denial to remove from Caesarea to Antioch. For
he having engaged the emperor beforetime to write in his
behalf, that he might be permitted to enjoy that bishoprick,
was not willing to seem guilty of levity and easiness of
change. But that was not all, he was a secret favourer of
the Arians, and therefore was unwilling to go to that church
where his predecessor Eustathius had been famous for
opposing that pest.

(3). To that of St. Jerome out of the Nicene Council, I
answer, That the prohibition is only of such as without


authority, upon their own head, for their own evil purposes,
and with injury to their own churches, did it ; and of covet-
ousness it is, that St. Jerome notes and reproves the practice :
to despise our charge because it is poor, is to love the money
more than the souls, and, therefore, this is not to be done by
any one of his own choice ; but if it be done by the com-
mand or election of our superior, it is to be presumed it is
for the advantage of the Church in matter of direct reason, or
collateral assistances, and, therefore, hath in it no cause of

26. And to this purpose the whole affair is very excel-
lently stated by the fourteenth Canon of the Apostles: " A
bishop must not leave his own parish or diocess, and invade
that of another man, 'nisi forte quis cum rationabili causa
compellatur, tanquam qui possit ibidem constitutus plus lucri
conferre, et in causa religionis aliquid profectus prospicere.'"
If there be a reasonable cause, he may ; and the cause is
reasonable, if by going he may do more good or advantage to
religion : but of this he is not to be judge himself, but must
be judged by his superiors ; " et hoc non a semetipso per-
tentet, sed multorum episcoporum judicio, et maxima suppli-
catione perficiat ; he must not do it on his own head, but
by the sentence and desire of the bishops."

27. There needs no more to be added to this, but that if
a greater revenue be annexed to another charge, and that
it be ' in rem ecclesia?,' that the more worthy person should
be advanced thither, to enable his better ministries by those
secular assistances, which our infirmity needs, there is nothing
to be said against it, but that if he be the man he is taken
for, he knows how to use those advantages to God's glory,
and the good of souls, and the services of the Church ; and if
he does so, his intentions are to be presumed pure and holy,
because the good of souls is the principal.

28. Upon the supposition of these causes, we find that
the practice of the ancient bishops and clerks in their trans-
lations was approved. Origen did first serve God in the
Church of Alexandria, afterward he went to Caesarea, to An-
tioch, to Tyre : and St. Gregory Nazianzen changed his epi-
scopal see eight times. Nay, the apostles themselves did so :
St. Peter was first bishop of Antioch, afterward of Rome :
and the necessity and utility of the churches called St. Paul


to an ambulatory government and episcopacy, though at last
he also was fixed at Rome, and he removed Timothy and
Titus from church to church, as the need and uses of the
Church required. But in this our call must be from God, or
from our superiors, not from levity or pride, covetousness
or negligence. Concerning which, who please further to be
satisfied, may read St. Athanasius's epistle to Dracontius,
of old; and of late, Chytrseus 'in epistolis p. 150 et 678,'
aud Conradus Porta in his ' Formalia.' This only ; If every
man were indispensably tied to abide where he is first called
to minister, then it were not lawful for an inferior minister
to desire the good work of a bishop ; which because it is not
to be administered in the same place or charge, according
to the universal discipline of the Church for very many ages,
must suppose that there can be a reasonable cause to change
our charges, because the apostle commends that desire which
supposes that change.

29. These being the limits and measures of the rule, it
would be very good if we were able to discern concerning
the secrets of our intentions, and the causes of actions. It
is true, that because men confound their actions and delibe-
rations, it will be impossible to tell, in many cases, what
motive is the principal ingredient. " Sed ut tune commuui-
bus magis commodis, quam privatae jactantiae studebamus,
cum intentionem adfectumque muneris nostri vellemus in-
telligi ; ita nunc in ratione edendi veremur, ne forte non ali-
orum utilitatibus, sed proprise laudi servisse videamur." r It
is hard for a wise and a gallant man, who does public actions
of greatest worthiness deserving honour, to tell cerlainly
whether he is more pleased in the honours that men do him,
or in the knowledge that he hath done them benefits. But
yet in very many cases, we may at least guess probably
which is the prevailing ingredient, by these following mea-
sures; besides those which I have noted 5 and applied to the
special case of undertaking the calling ecclesiastical.

Signs of Difference whereby ice may, in a mixed and compli-
cated Intention, discern which is the principal Ingredient.

30. (1.) Whatsoever came in after the determination was
made, though it add much the greater confidence, and-

r Gierig, vol. i.p. 33. Vide Rule of Holy Living, chap. 1, sect. 2.


makes the resolution sharper and more active, yet it is not
to be reckoned as the prevailing ingredient ; for though it
add degrees, yet the whole determination was perfected
before. The widow Fulvia was oppressed by Attilius ; she
complains to Secundus the lawyer. He considers whether
he should be advocate for his friend Attilius, or for the
oppressed Fulvia ; and at last determines on the side of piety
and charity, and resolves to relieve the widow, but with some
abatement of his spirit and confidence, because it is against
his friend ; but charity prevails. As he goes to court he
meets with Caninius, who gloriously commends the advoca-
tion, and by superadding that spur made his diffidence and
imperfect resolution confident and clear. In this case the
whole action is to be attributed to piety, not to the love of
fame ; for this only added some moments, but that made the

31. ('2.) When the determination is almost made, and
wants some weight to finish it, whatsoever tben supervenes
and casts the scales, is not to be accounted the prevailing
ingredient, but that which made most in the suspension and
time of deliberation, and brought it forward. It is like
buying and selling : not the last niaravedi that was stood
upon, was the greatest argument of parting with the goods ;
but that farthing added to the bigger sum, made it big
enough, and a child's finger may thrust a load forward, which
being haled by mighty men stands still for want of a little

32. (3.) That is the prevailing ingredient in the deter-
mination which is most valued, not which most pleases ; that
which is rationally preferred, not that which delights the
senses. If the man had rather lose the sensual than the in-
tellectual good, though in that his fancy is more delighted,
yet this is the stronger and greater in the Divine acceptance,
though possibly in nature it be less active, because less
pleasing to those faculties, which, whether we will or no, will
be very much concerned in all the intercourses of this life.
He that keeps a festival in gratitude and spiritual joy to do
God glory, and to give him thanks, and in the preparation
to the action is hugely pleased by considering the music, the
company, the festivity and innocent refreshments, and in his
fancy leaps at this, but his resolution walks on by that, hath


not spoiled the regularity of his conscience by the intertex-
ture of the sensual with the spiritual, so long as it remains
innocent. For though this flames brightest, yet the other
burns hottest, and will last longer than the other. But of
this there is no other sign, but that first we be infinitely
careful to prescribe measures and limits to the secular joy,
that it may be perfectly subordinate to, and complying with,
the spiritual and religious : and'secondly, if we are willing to
suppress the light flame, rather than extinguish the solid fire.
33. (4.) Then the holy and pious ingredient is over-
powered by the mixture of the secular, when an instrument
towards the end is chosen more proportionable to this, than
to that. Caecilius, to do a real not a. fantastic benefit to his
tenants, erected a library in his villa, and promised a yearly
revenue for their children's education, and nobler institution:
and thus far judgment ought to be made, that he intended
piety rather than fame ; for to his fame, plays and spectacles
would (as the Roman humour then was) have served better :
but when in the acting his resolution he praised that his
pious purpose, and told them he did it for a pious, not a vain-
glorious end, however the intention might be right, this pub-
lication was not right : but, when he appointed that anni-
versary orations should be made in the praise of his pious
foundation, he a little too openly discovered what was the
bigger wheel in that motion. For he that serves a secret piety
by a public panegyric, disorders the piety by dismantling the
secret : it may still be piety, but it will be lessened by the
publication ; though this publication be no otherwise crimi-
nal than because it is vain. " Meminimus, quanto inajore
ammo honestatis fructus in conscientia, quam in fama, repo-
natur. Sequi enim gloria, non appeti, debet : nee si casu
aliquo non sequatur, idcirco quod gloriam meruit, minus
pulchrum est. li vero, qui benefacta sua verbis adornant,
non ideo praedicare, quia fecerint, sed ut prsedicarent, fecisse
creduntur ;" u which is the very thing which I affirm in this
particular. If the intermediate or consequent actions serve
the collateral or secular end, most visibly it is to be supposed
that this was the greater motive, and had too great an influence
into the deliberation.

u Plin. lib. i. ep. 8. Gierijr, vol. i. p. 35.

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