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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
AT LOS ANGELES




THE



WHOLE WORKS



OF THE

RIGHT REV. JEREMY TAYLOR, D.D.

LORD BISHOP OF DOWN, CONNOR, AND DROMORE :

WII H

A LIFE OF THE AUTHOR,

AMD

A CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF HIS WRITINGS,

BV THB

RIGHT REV. REGINALD HEBER, D.D.

1 A1K LORD BISHOP OF CALCUTTA.

THIRD EDITION OF THE COLLECTED WORKS.

IN FIFTEEN VOLUMES.
VOL XIII.



LONDON:

PRINTED FOR LONGMAN, ORME, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMANS; J. RICHARD-
SOX; HATCHARD AND SON; J., G., AND F. RIVINGTON; J. BOHN; HAMILTON,
ADAMS, AND CO.; DUNCAN AND MALCOLM; SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, AND CO.;
E. HODGSON; B. FELLOWES ; H. BOHN; C. DOLMAN; H. BICKERS; J.H.PARKER,
OXFORD; J. AND J. J. DEIGHTON, CAMBRIDGE; G. AND J. ROBINSON, LIVER-
POOL; AND W. STRONG, BRISTOL.



M.nccc.xxxix.



L O N D O N :

PlllNTIi.il 11 Y JAilhS MOYEf, CAaTLK SIHtET,

1 llcLsiLH SWL Al,l..



BR15
TCI

mi

v). 13
CONTENTS



OF



THE THIRTEENTH VOLUME.



THE RULE OF CONSCIENCE.



BOOK II. CHAP. III.

CONTINUED.

OF THE INTERPRETATION AND OBLIGATION OF THE LAWS OF
JESUS CHRIST.



RULE VI. PAGE

The imperate Acts of one Commandment must not contradict Uie
elicit Acts of another 1

RULE VII.

All those Things also, by which we come to a forbidden Sin, are
understood to be forbidden by the same Law 6

RULE VIH.
Suppositive Propositions are always equivalent to a Commandment . . 10

RULE IX.
The Institution of a Rite or Sacrament is a direct Law 15



IV CONTENTS.



RULE X. PAGE

If the Sense of a Law be dubious, we are sometimes to expound it
by Liberty, sometimes by Restraint 33

RULE XI.
Positive Laws cannot be dispensed with by any human Power 46

RULE XII.

Not every Thing that is in the Doctrine of Jesus Christ was intended
to bind as a Law 59

RULE XIII.

Some Tilings may be used in the Service of God, which are not com-
manded, nor explicitly commended 68

RULE XIV.
The Christian Law is fully contained in the Holy Scriptures 96

RULE XV.

In the Law of Christ no Precept wholly ministers to the Law of
Moses 169

RULE XVI.

The Laws of Jesus Christ are to be interpreted according to their
Subject-matter 172

RULE XVII.

Those whom Christ addressed were not always considered the
Representatives of the whole Church 201

RULE XVIII.

Evangelical Laws, given to one concerning the Duty of another,
concern them both in differing Degrees 210

RULE XIX.

Custom is no sufficient Interpreter of the Laws of Christ 214

RULE XX.

The Measure of Obedience expected of Christians is greater than that
of the Jews.. 223



CONTENTS.



BOOK III.

OF HUMAN LAWS, THEIR OBLIGATION AND RELAXATION;
AND OF THE COLLATERAL, INDIRECT, AND ACCIDENTAL
BANDS OF CONSCIENCE.

CHAPTER I.

OF HUMAN LAWS IN GENERAL; AND WHAT OBLIGATION THEY PASS
UPON THE CONSCIENCE.

RULE I. PAGE

The Conscience is obliged to obey the Laws of Men 230

RULE II.

Human Laws do not oblige the Conscience to an active Obedience,
when there is very grievous Evil in the Obedience 266

RULE III.

The Laws of our Superior that are not just, do not oblige the Con-
science 274

RULE IV.

A Law founded upon a false Presumption does not oblige the Con-
science , 283

RULE V.
Human Laws bind the Conscience in secret, as well as in public .... 287

RULE VI.

Human Laws, before sufficient Promulgation, do not oblige the Con-
science 293

RULE VII.

That a Law should oblige the Conscience, does not depend upon the
Acceptation of the Law by the People 296

RULE VIII.

Human Laws of indifferent Matter do not oblige the Conscience of the
Subjects out of the Dominions of the Superior 301

RULE IX.

Obedience to Laws is to be paid according to what is commanded . . 304



VI CONTENTS.



CHAPTER II.



OF LAWS PENAL AND TIUBUTAKY.

RULE I. PAGE

It is lawful for Christian Magistrates to make penal Laws 306

RULE II.

Penal Laws do sometimes oblige the guilty Person to the suffering the
Punishment, even before the Sentence of the Judge 315

RULE III.

Penalties imposed by the Judge, may not be inflicted by the hands of
the condemned 334

RULE IV.

He that hath suffered the Punishment, must also repent of the Dis-
obedience 346

RULE V.
It is not lawful for a guilty Person to defend himself by Calumny .... 350

RULE VI.

Private Christians may not, without public Authority, punish Male-
factors, but they may require it of the Magistrate 389

RULE VII.
It is not lawful to punish one for the Offence of another 404

RULE VIII.

The Laws of Tribute are Moral Laws; and therefore do oblige the
Conscience to an active Obedience 414

RULE IX.

The Laws of Tribute have the same Measures with other Laws of
Government 417

RULE X.

Customs which are due, are to be paid, whether they be demanded
or no 420



CONTENTS, VII



FUCK





CHAPTER III.

OF KINGS, PRINCES, AND AM. SUPREME C1VJL POWERS, AND THEIR
LAWS IN SPECIAL.

RULE I. PACE

The supreme Power in every Republic is unlimited ............... 423

RULE II.

The supreme Power is superior to the civil Laws, but not wholly free
from them .............................................. 435

RULE III.
It is not lawful for Subjects to rebel, upon any Pretence whatsoever . . 453

RULE IV.

The supreme civil Power is also supreme Governor over all Persons
ecclesiastical .............................................. 470

RULE V.
Kings have a legislative Power in the Affairs of Religion ............ 492

RULE VI.

The supreme civil Power hath a Power of Coercion in the whole Order
ecclesiastical . . . ......................................... 493

RULE VII.

The supreme civil Power hath Jurisdiction in Causes internal and spi-
ritual .................................................... 530

RULE VIII.

The supreme civil Power is to govern in Causes ecclesiastical, by the
Assistance and Ministries of ecclesiastical Persons . 534



CHAPTER IV.

OF THE POWER OF THE CHURCH IX CANONS AND CENSURES, WITH THT.1R
OBLIGATIONS AND POWERS OVER THE CONSCIENCE.

RULE I.

The whole Power, which Christ hath left in ordinary to his Church, is
merely spiritual 54



Vlll CONTENTS.



RULE II. PAGE

The Church hath Power to make Laws and to give Commands obliging
the Conscience, that is, tying the Subjects to Obedience under the
Penalty of committing Sin, or of incurring the Divine Displeasure . . 563

RULE III.

The Church hath Power to make Laws in all Things of necessary Duty,
by a direct Power and a Divine Authority 568

RULE IV.

The Church hath Power to make Laws in such Things, which are Helps,
and apt Ministries, and Advantages of necessary Duty 571

RULE V.

When the Canons or Rules of the ecclesiastical Rulers are confirmed
by the supreme civil Power, they oblige the Conscience by a double
Obligation 583

RULE VI.

Kings and Princes are by the Ties of Religion, not of Power, obliged
to keep the Laws of the Church 588

RULE VII.

It is not lawful for the ecclesiastical Power to excommunicate Christian
Princes, or the supreme civil Power 593

RULE VIII.

Ecclesiastical Censures are to be inflicted by the Consent and Concur-
rence of the supreme civil Power 603



THE

RULE OF CONSCIENCE.



BOOK II. CHAP. III. Continued.

OF THE INTERPRETATION AND OBLIGATION OF THE LAWS
OF JESUS CHRIST.



RULE VI.

The imperate Acts or outward Expressions of the Virtue of one
Commandment, must not contradict the elicit Acts of another.

1. BY ' imperate acts' I mean such which -are commanded
to be done by the interest of any virtue whatsoever, not
proper to the virtue, but such as may minister to it, or
signify it. Thus to deny the impure solicitations of an un-
chaste person, is a proper, an elicit act of the virtue of chas-
tity ; but to lie upon the ground, to wear a hairen shirt, to
use disciplines, to roll our naked body upon thorns, to
sleep in snows, are imperate acts ; that is, such which the
virtue may choose and exercise for its own advantage and
interest ; but such which are not necessary to any man in
particular, nor to most men in the general : useful, indeed,
in some cases, but not necessary in any. To eat and drink
sparingly, and so as may minister to health and religion, is
directly, that is, a proper and elicit act of temperance ; but
if a man spares to eat, that he may have wherewithal to pay
his debts, it is an imperate act of justice; if to make him-
self healthful and strong to war, it is an act of fortitude.
The terms being so explicated, the measures of the rule are
these following particulars :

2. (1.) The elicit acts of several virtues can never be con-
trary to each other: as an act of religion is never against an
* VOL. xni. B



2 OF THE INTERPRETATION AND OBLIGATION

act of charity ; chastity is never against justice ; temperance is
never against piety. The effect of which proposition is this,

that one ought not to be pretended against another ; and
no piety to parents can engage us to be drunk for their sakes ;
no pretence of religion can make it lawful to neglect the care
of onr children : and to this purpose was that excellent pre-
cept of the son ofSirach : " Let not the reverence of any man
cause thee to sin ; " it is no good manners to comply with our
superiors against our supreme, and there is a time and a
place for every virtue : but no time nor place, no cause or
opportunity, of doing against any. It may so happen, that
the external actions of several virtues cannot consist : as
sometimes I cannot pay the gabel to the prince, and the offer-
ing to the priest ; I cannot feed my child and the poor that
begs ; I cannot, at some times, tell truth, and yet preserve
the life of my brother. Now when the two external elicit
acts of virtue are inconsistent, the one must, of necessity,
give place : the rules of which are to be given more properly
in another place : a but that which, for the present, I am to
say, is this, that although the outward act cannot, at all
times, be exercised, and so must, in certain cases, be omitted,

yet, in no case, can it be lawful for the interest of one
virtue to do against another.

3. (2.) The imperate acts of one virtue may contradict
the imperate or instrumental and ministering acts of another :

as fasting, when it is commanded by religion, may be
against the advice of our physician, whom to observe it is
sometimes a precept of prudence, sometimes of charity.
Religion commands us sometimes to feast ; and, at the same
time, our charity bids us save our expense, that the poor
may be fed the more plentifully. The reason of this is,
because all the imperate acts of virtue are external, and must
depend upon something from without : which because it can
uiuivoidably be hindered, it must needs also be, that it may
inculpably be omitted. But then the rule is this ; Because
all imperate acts of virtue are nothing in themselves, but
wholly in relation to the virtue, that imperate act, which
ministers to that virtue which is then to be preferred, must
also be preferred. The reason is plain : the accessory must
follow the nature of the principal : and therefore, if we must



OF THE LAWS OF JESUS CHRIST. 3

now prefer the virtue, we must also prefer the instrument.
The case is this : Don Antonio Licente, of Portugal, accord-
ing to the Portuguese and Spanish vanity, loved to see his
wife painted ; and one evening commanded her to appear
with him so disguised at a mask : she having notice that a
young gentleman, who was passionately in love with her,
would be there, and knowing that it would inflame his pas-
sion if she were so adorned, inquires of her confessor, by
what means she should restrain the folly of that inamorato,
and receives this amongst other advices : that, at no hand,
she should appear before him with any artificial handsome-
ness : if she obeys her husband's humour at that meeting,
she does hurt to a soul, and gives fuel to an impure flame,
which already is too big : if she does not obey him in that
instance, her husband will lose the pleasure of his fancy.
But because she finds there is no other evil will be conse-
quent to her omission, but that her husband shall want a
little fantastic pleasure ; and the consequence of her obey-
ing him would be, for aught she knew, that God might lose
a soul, she chose to do an act ministering to spiritual cha-
rity, and the chastity of her brother, rather than an act that
could be instrumental to nothing but the airy pleasure of
her husband ; though otherwise she had been bound to
signify her obedience to him by any thing that had been
lawful.

4. But in this there is some variety, and ought to be some
caution : for although the principal virtue is to be preferred
not only in itself, or in its proper and elicit acts, but also in
its imperate and instrumental ; yet this is to be understood
to be true, when the instruments are in equal order to their
respective virtues, or when there is no considerable differ-
ence. For if the action in question ministering to the less
principal virtue do very much promote it, and the other,
which is instrumental to the more principal, do it but an in-
considerable advantage ; the ministry of the less principal
is, in that case, to be preferred : the reason is, because, by
this omission of an inconsiderable instrument, the present
duty is not hindered ; but the service of God is advantaged
in the other ; because it is able to effect something, that is
considerable towards the service of God, which the other is
not. The case is this ; I knew a brave man, who, by a con-



4

spiracy of evil persons, was condemned to die. He having,
of a long time, used to fast till the morning-office was com-
pleted, because he found fasting to be practised by anti-
quity, and by holy persons in their more solemn offices, and
thinking it might or did him some advantage in order to the
bettering of his prayer, did think to do so in the morning
before his execution. But then, on the other side, he
considered, that if he fasted, he should suffer a great
diminution of spirits, and possibly might be suspected of
pusillanimity, if he did suffer a natural lipothymy ; and
therefore could not tell what he should do. He was sure
that to acquit himself before God in his duty was much to be
preferred before the other, of appearing brave and hardy
before men ; and, therefore, that his private prayers were
more to be regarded than his public confidence ; and there-
fore was choosing to fast : but then he reflected again on the
instrumental actions, and considered that his abstinence from
a little meat would bring but a very little and inconsider-
able advantage to his prayers, but his eating would very
much strengthen his heart, and do him a very considerable
advantage that way, he chose this; because the other
could easily be supplied by the intenseness of his spirit, his
zeal, and his present necessity, but this could not but by
natural supplies and supportations of the strengths of the
body.

5. But, in the like cases, prudence and the conduct of a
good guide is the best security to him that inquires with an
honest heart and pure intention ; and then the determination
is best, and the conscience is safest, when both can be recon-
ciled ; but when they cannot, the former measures are to be
observed.

6. (3.) Those actions which can only signify or serve the
interest of virtue by way of collateral advantage and indi-
rect ministry, must ever give place, when they hinder the
proper acts of any virtue whatsoever. Fasting must never
be used, when to fast is against charity; because charity is
directly commanded, but fasting is relative to something
else, and is not commanded for itself. Now in those things
which are of a disparate nature, a principal is ever to be
preferred before an instrument, and an act of duty before an
act of prudence, and necessity before convenience.



OF THE LAWS OF JESUS CHRIST. 5

7. (4.) But in things subordinate, that is, when the out-
ward act is an elicit act of virtue, and truly subordinate to
the internal, there can be no contradiction of one to the
other; but the outward act and the inward must be both
performed ; that is, neither of them must be pretended in
objection to the other; for they cannot hinder each other;
but the outward can be hindered only by something from
without, but the inward by nothing. So that in order to
conscience, the rule is this; " He that does an inward and
elicit act of virtue, will certainly, if it be in his power, do the
outward elicit act : " that is, the hand will move at the com-
mand of the will, and the foot will go if it be commanded;
and if the soul be charitable, the hand will be apt to minister.
For it is not well within, unless it be well without ; that is,
unless the virtue express itself in outward action, where it
can. And on the other side ; an outward elicit act of virtue
can never go alone ; unless it be the product of a good heart
and of an inward elicit act, it is the imperate act of pride, or
ambition, or a vicious fear, or covetousness, or something
criminal ; but neither the imperate nor the elicit act of any
virtue whatsoever.

8. (5.) Though the words of art here used be not com-
mon, yet the practice of these rules in the questions of con-
science will not be difficult, if w r e shall "but with some dili-
gence observe the difference of external actions, and be able
to discern what outward actions are the elicit or proper, and
which are the imperate and instrumental acts of virtue ; be-
cause these being to give place to other acts by the events
and constitution of their own nature, and the other never
but when they are hindered from without , our duty will be
easy, when we once understand of what nature the outward
action is. The rule, therefore, for the direction of our con-
science in this affair, is this; " Those actions, which either
are commanded by name and in particular, or by direct and
proper consequence from the general, they are the elicit and
proper actions of a virtue." Thus to give alms is a proper
and elicit act of charity : to condemn the criminal is a pro-
per act of justice : to speak well of all men behind their
backs, so far as we can with truth, is an elicit act of equity.
But whatever is of that nature that it can be done innocently,
and yet not be an act of virtue properlv that only is instru-



6 OF THE INTERPRETATION AND OBLIGATION

mental to a virtue, and is an imperate action. Thus to
invite rich men to a feast maybe done prudently and without
scruple; but he that does so and no more, shall have no
reward in heaven for it: but yet to invite rich men to a
banquet may minister to friendships or peace, or it may
obtain relief to a poor oppressed brother; and then it may be
a good instrument of that virtue to which, by accident or the
personal intention of the man (not the natural order or in-
tention of the thing), it does minister. By the serious obser-
vation of this difference of acts we may be guided in many
cases of conscience, and in the interpretation of some of the
laws of our religion.



RULE VII.

When any Thing is forbidden by the Laws of Christ, all those
Things also, by which we come to that Sin, are understood
to be forbidden by the same Law.

1. IN this, there is one great difference between positive ^
and negative laws. When any thing is commanded or en-
joined, to take or use any instrument to it is left to our choice,
and is matter of prudence and not duty : as when we are com-
manded to mortify the lusts of the body : we are not com-
manded to lie upon the ground, or to masticate rhubarb, or
to go barefoot, or to put on St. Francis's girdle upon the
bare body : as we find these actions aptly instrumental to the
duty, and fitted to the person, so we may use them : but if
the fear of hell, or the hopes of heaven, can mortify us suffi-
ciently to all the purposes of the Spirit, or if he who is
married, be not tempted, or he who is unmarried, be by
nature abstinent, or by disease and imperfection, these in-
struments are out of use, as to these purposes. For here no-
thing is under command but the duty itself ; and if, by any
good instrument it be done, it is all one as to the law. But
in negative precepts, the case is otherwise : for the crime is
not only to be abstained from, but every instrument of it,
every path that leads to it, whatsoever can begin or promote
it : and the reason is, because all these things are of the
same nature with the sin ; and therefore although every thing



OF THE LAWS OF JESUS CHRIST. 7

that is or may be good, is not commanded, yet every evil is
forbidden. " One fly can spoil a pot of ointment." But
this we are plainly taught by our blessed Saviour's sermon
on the mount; where he expounded the precepts of the
ancients, not only to signify the outward act, but the inward
desire : and in this our blessed Master's law is much more
perfect than the digest of Moses ; for although there also
God forbade concupiscence, yet it was only instanced in the
matter of covetousness ; and was not extended to the other
instances of duty ; but in Christ's law, ' non concupisces ' is
the ' apex juris;' it is the conservatory and the last duty of
every commandment.

Nam scelus intra se taciturn qui cogitat ullum,
Facti crimeu habet*

He that thinks a lustful thought, hath broken a command-
ment ; and if the eye be full of adultery, or the mouth be
impure, or the hand be unclean, the whole man is polluted
before God, and stands guilty of the breach of the main law.
" Exercetur, atque aperitur opere nequitia, non incipit." The
deed tells the heart, and opens the shop of crimes ; but they
begin in the heart, and end in the outward work.

2. But in this there is no difficulty: for God being lord
of all our faculties, and the searcher of hearts, and the judge
of our thoughts, he must be served by all ; and he searches,
that he may judge all, and judges, that he may punish or
reward all. But the rule is only thus to be limited ; that in
those sins, whose being criminal is wholly relative to persons
with whom we converse, every thought is not a sin, unless
that thought also be relative. As he sins not that thinks a
lie, if he resolves not to abuse any body with it, and a man
may love to please himself with false news, and put on a
fantastic confidence and persuasion of the truth of what he
would fain have to be true; though to his reason it seem
improbable. In this there is some folly, but no malice : but
to lie is a relative action ; and if he have but a thought or
purpose to abuse the credulity of any one, then that thought
or purpose is a lie ; that is, it is of the same nature with a lie ;
and, therefore, of the same condemnation. The case is the
same in all things, which are forbidden only because they

Juv. xiii. 209.



8 OF THE INTERPRETATION AND OBLIGATION



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