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pose we did receive Christ in the holy bread, yet that bread
is but the sacrament of his broken body ; and therefore we
must also receive the sacrament of his blood spilt for us ; or
else we omit to receive the one half of the sacrament. And
if the question were only about receiving Christ, we might
pretend the whole sacrament to be needless ; because a
spiritual communion and faith alone will do that work ;
but yet faith alone, or the spiritual communion, does not
give us the sacrament, nor obey Christ in this instance, nor
commemorate and represent his death, which is the duty here
inquired of, and here enjoined.

26. (1.) And therefore the dream of the Church of Rome,
that he that receives the body receives also the blood, because,
by concomitance, the blood is received in the body, is nei-
ther true nor pertinent to this question. Not true, because



OF THE LAWS OF JESUS CHRIST. 29

the eucharist being the sacrament of the Lord's death, that
is, of his body broken, and his blood poured forth, the taking
of the sacrament of the body does not by concomitance
include the blood ; because the body is here sacramentally
represented as slain and separate from blood : and that is
so notorious, that some superstitious persons, A.D. 490,
refused the chalice, because, said they, ' the body of Christ
represented in the holy sacrament, " exangue est, it is
without blood ;" ' but now the Romanists refuse the chalice
because the body is not without blood. They were both
amiss ; for it is true the body is represented sacramentally
as killed, and therefore without blood, which had ran out at
the wounds; and therefore concomitance is an idle and an.
impertinent dream : but although the body is without blood
in his death, yet, because the effusion of the blood is also
sacramentally to be represented, therefore they should not
omit the chalice.

27. But as to them of the Roman Church ; if the blood be
in the body by concomitance, and therefore they who receive
the body, receive also the blood ; then they who sacrifice
the body, do also sacrifice the blood ; and then it will be no
more necessary to celebrate in both kinds than to communi-
cate in both. And indeed though the Roman schools will
not endure that the ' sacrifice/ as they call it, or the conse-
cration should be in one kind ; yet Volaterranus says that
1 Pope Innocent VIII. gave leave to the Norwegians to sacri-
fice in bread only :' certain it is, the priest may as well do so,
as the people receive in one kind ; for the people do, in their
manner, as much celebrate the death of Christ as the priest,
nor he alone, nor they alone, but the whole action is the
due celebration : however, the argument of the concomitance
concludes, equally, against the celebration in both kinds, as
against the participation ; and why the priest should be
obliged to drink the chalice, and cannot be excused by con-
comitance, and yet the people are not obliged, but are ex-
cused by that pretension, abating the reasons of interest,
cannot easily be imagined.

28. Certain it is, they had other thoughts in the Council
of Turin ; for when they considered the necessities of sick
and dying people, they appointed the consecrated bread to
be sopped in the consecrated chalice ; adding this reason,



30 OF THE INTERPRETATION AND OBLIGATION

" ut veraciter presbyter dicere possit, ' Corpus et sanguis Do-
mini nostri Jesu Christi proficiat tibi in remissionem pecca-
torum et vitam seternam ;' that the priest may say truly,
* The body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ be profitable
unto you for the remission of your sins, and unto life eter-
nal.'" If they had then understood the device of concomi-
tance, they would have known, that the priest might have
said so truly, without sopping the holy bread in the chalice :
but the good fathers had not yet learned the new metaphysics.

29. (2.) Now for the consequence of this pretension ; I
consider that, let the thing be as true as the interested per-
sons would have it, yet it is not well that we should dis-
pute against a Divine institution upon a pretence of our vain
arguings. The apostles, with great simplicity, took in both
kinds at that time, in which only the device of concomitance
was or could be true ; for then when they received it, the
blood was in the body of Christ ; but it was sacramental of the
blood to be poured out the next day ; however, they obeyed
with simplicity and without inquiry, and never feared spilling,
nor argued, nor sought excuses ; such simplicity would
equally become us ; and as to the usefulness of receiving in
both kinds, although it will ill become any man to argue con-
cerning the usefulness of a Divine institution, and to pretend
excuses against Christ, upon the account of a philosophy of
their own invention, is very much unlike the spirit of humi-
lity and wisdom and obedience, which ought to be the inves-
titure of a Christian's heart and the tiara of his head ; yet I
observe that, even in this particular, the disadvantage is not
little.

30. For if receiving the sacrament be of any advantage
to souls, then it is certain he that does not receive it is a
loser ; and yet he that does not receive the chalice, does not
receive the sacrament, but a piece of it only ; now, in sa-
craments, half is as good as none : as he who should only
dip a child in pure water, and yet not invocate the Trinity,
should do nothing at all with his half-baptism : so it is cer-
tain, that the effect of a sacrament is not imparted by a half-
communion. And therefore Alexander of Ales' said well,
" Sumpto hoc Sacramento digne in utraque specie, major est
effectus unius corporis mystici cum capite, quam sumpto

e Quaest. 32. mem. 1. art. 2.



OF THE LAWS OF JESUS CHRIST. 31

sub altera :" and in another place f lie says, to receive under
both kinds is " majoris meriti turn ratione augmentations
devotionis, turn ratione fidei dilatationis actualis, turn rati-
one sumptionis completions ; it is of greater merit or
value, there is a greater mystical union between the head
and the members, a greater increase of devotion, a larger and
more actual extent of faith, and a more complete sacramental
reception of Christ himself." To the same purpose there are
good things spoken in Albertus Magnus g and in Thomas
Aquinas, 11 Bonaventure' and Petrus de Palude, k and divers
others, all agreeing that one alone does not make a sacra-
ment, but a piece of one: and that there is advantage by
both kinds, which is not to be had in one : which advantage, if
it be spiritual (as it is, if it be at all), then he that robs the
people of a spiritual good, which our blessed Lord hath de-
signed for them and left unto them, is sacrilegious and pro-
fane ; it is uncharitable and it is impious. I say, it is impious.
31 . For it is not to be despised, that our blessed Lord gave
this sacrament as his last will and testament ; and though
he gave it in his body and blood, yet he expressed only ' the
new testament in his blood ;' and for any church to violate
the testament of our blessed Lord, however men may make
no great matter of it, yet it will receive a punishment, ac-
cording as God sets a value upon it: and he that shall pluck
one seal from a testament, and say that one is as good as
two, when two were put to it by the testator, cannot be ex-
cused by saying it was nothing but a formality and a cere-
mony. God's ceremonies are bound upon us by God's
commandment; and what he hath made to be a sign, does
signify and exhibit too: and as the brazen serpent, though it
was but a type or shadow of the holy crucifix, yet did real
cures ; so can the symbols and sacraments of the crucifixion,
being hallowed by the Divine institution, and confirmed by
his power; and therefore a violation here is not to be called
only a question in a ceremony : it is a substantial part of the
Christian religion, it is the sanction of the Aew Testament,
the last will of our dying Lord. " Now if it be but a man's
testament," saith St. Paul, 1 "yet no man disannulleth or
addeth thereto," and therefore to disannul or lessen a portion

f Qusest. 53. f 4. Sent.dist. 8. art. 13.

h 3. part. Sum. q. 66. art. '->. Dist. 8. q. 9.

k Dist. 11. art. 1. ' Gal. iii. 15.



32 OF THE INTERPRETATION AND OBLIGATION

of the testament of the Son of God must needs be a high
impiety. " Testamentum, quia individuum est, pro parte
agnosci et pro parte repudiari non possit," says the law." 1 If
you repudiate a part of the will, you must renounce it all ;
if you permit not to the people the blood of Christ, you
hinder them from having a part in the death of Christ, so far
as lies in you. Add to this, that this holy mystery being
acknowledged by all to be the most mysterious solemnity of
the religion, and, by the Church of Rome, affirmed to be a
proper sacrifice, and so contended for ; it would be remem-
bered that our blessed Saviour did adapt and fit this rite to
the usages and customs both of Jews and Gentiles ; amongst

o * o

whom laws, and societies, and contracts, and sacrifices, were
made solemn by effusion and drinking of blood ; and instead
of blood, amongst the more civil nations, they drank wine :
and by that were supposed partakers even of the blood of the
sacrifice. 'A - 6 rourou yz <pa<ti ftiduuv uvo/j>do^ai (says Philo),
on i^iTO, rb Su/i/ e6og i]v ro?$ vgor'egots ohov<&ai. " To be
drunk," viz. in the Greek, " hath its name from their drinking
wine after their sacrifices :" and with this custom among
the Gentiles, and with the paschal ceremony of this nature
amongst the Jews, our blessed Lord, complying, loses the
wisdom and prudence of it, if the priest shall sacrifice, and
the people drink none of the blood of the sacrifice, or that
which ritually and sacramentally represents it. The covenant
of the Gospel, the covenant which God made with us, our
blessed Saviour established and ratified with blood : wine
was made to represent and exhibit it ; he therefore that takes
this away, takes away the very sacramentality of the mystery,
and " without blood there is no remission." For as he that
gives bread and no water, does not nourish the body but
destroy it ; so it is in the blessed sacrament : for (that I may
use St. Austin's expression which Paschasius and Algerus in
this article did much insist upon) " nee caro sine sanguine,
nee sanguis sine carne jure communicatur. Totus enim
homo ex duabus constans substantiis redimitur, et ideo carne
simul et sanguine saginatiir ; neither the flesh without the
blood, nor the blood without the flesh, is rightly commu-
nicated. For the whole man consisting of two substances, is
redeemed, and therefore nourished both with the flesh and

m Lib. vii. Jus nostr. Dom. de Reg. Jur.



OF THE LAWS OF JESUS CHRIST. 33



the blood." Ka/ ou xaddfffg IT/ rJjg $raXa/a, roc, piv o
fji&ie, rot, ds o dgo/Avo, xai ^/A/; oux %v rw Xaw fjt,tT%in 6j
fj,trtr%tv o ifgtus, ctXXa vaffiv iv Gupa. trgoxsirai xal forrigiov ev'
"It is not now as it was in the Old Testament, where the
priest ate one portion, the prince another, and the people
another ; here it is alike to all, the same body and the same
chalice is to all." c I end this inquiry with the saying of St.
Cyprian : d "Si ne unum quidem ex minimis mandatis legis
solvere debemus, inulto minus ex his magnis mandatis, per-
tinentibus ad ipsum Dominicae passionis et nostrae redemp-
tionis sacramentum, fas est ullum infringere, vel humana
traditione mutare ; If it be not permitted to break one of
the least commandments of the law, much less is it to be
endured, to break any one, or by human tradition to change
any, belonging to the sacrament of our Lord's passion and
of our redemption:" and therefore if ever any sect or any
single person was guilty of the charge, it is highly to be
imputed to the Church of Rome, " that they teach for doc-
trine the commandments of men ; and make the command-
ment of God of none effect by their tradition."



RULE X.

If the Sense of a Law be dubious, we are sometimes to expound
it by Liberty, sometimes by Restraint.

1. ALTHOUGH all the laws of Jesus Christ are so legible
in the sense intended, that all good men, being placed in
their proper circumstances, conducted by the Divine Provi-
dence, making use of all their prepared and ready instru-
ments, can certainly read the prime intention and design of
God ; yet because some laws are so combined with matter,
and twisted with material cases, so intricated by the ac-
cidents of men and the investiture of actions, that they cast a
cloud upon the light of God's word, and a veil upon the guide
of our lives ; and because the sense of words does change,
and very often words cannot be equal with things, it comes
to pass, that the laws are capable of differing senses : when,
therefore, any thing of this nature happens, the first sense of

c Chrysost Horn, xviii. in 2 Cor. * Lib. ii. ep. 3.

VOL. XIII. D



34 OF THE INTERPRETATION AND OBLIGATION

the words is either to be enlarged or restrained according to
the following measures.

In what Cases the stricter Sense of the Laws of Christ
is to be followed.

2. (1.) When the duty enjoined by the law is in delibe-
ration, and is to be done, we are to use restraint, and take
the severer sense of the law. The reason is, because that is
the surer way, and hath in it no inconvenience or impos-
sibility ; but being it is the matter of choice, in all delibera-
tion for the future we must give sentence for God, and far
the interest of religion. Thus, when it is commanded we
should "judge ourselves, that we be not judged of the Lord ;"
in the inquiry, which every penitent man makes concerning
the extension of the duty of judging ourselves, if the question
be whether judging ourselves means only 'to condemn' our-
selves for having sinned, and to confess ourselves justly liable
to the Divine judgment ; or does it also mean ' to punish' our-
selves, and by putting our own sentence against our sin into
a severe execution of that sentence upon ourselves by corpo-
ral inflictions ? He that can no otherwise be determined in the
question, can safely proceed by choosing the severer side ;
for there is no loss in it, no omission, it contains all that any
man can think to be required ; and therefore hath in it pru-
dence and charity, caution and regard, to God and to himself.

3. (2.) This is not to be understood only in case there is
a doubt no otherwise to be resolved, but by the collateral
advantage of the surer side ; but this severer sense of the law
is of itself most reasonable to be chosen, as being the in-
tended sense and design of the lawgiver, who certainly puts
no positive measures to his own laws of love and duty. For
since the great design of the law is such a perfection, which
must for ever be growing in this world, and can never here
arrive to its state and period, that sense which sets us most
forward, is the most intended : and therefore this way is not
only to quiet the doubt, but to govern and to rule the con-
science : this is not only the surer way, but the only way that
is directly intended. It is agreeable to the measures of
charity, or the love of God, which is to have no other bounds
but even the best we can, in the measures of God and the
infirmities and capacities of man.



OF THE LAWS OF JESUS CHRIST. 35

4. (3.) In the interpretation of the laws of Christ, the
strict sense is to be followed, when the laws relate to God
and to religion, and contain in them direct matter of piety
and glorifications of God, or charity to our neighbour;
because in them the further we go, the nearer we are to God,
and we are not at all to be stopped in that progression, till
we are at our journey's end, till we are in the state of com-
prehension. To this purpose are those words of Ben Sirach,'
" When you glorify the Lord, exalt him as much as you can ;
for even yet will he far exceed ; and when you exalt him, put
forth all your strength, and be not weary, for you can never
go far enough. Who hath seen him that he might tell us, and
who can magnify him as he is? There are hid greater things
yet than these be, for we have seen but a few of his works ; "
meaning, that although we cannot glorify God sufficiently
for the works of power and mercy which we see and feel, yet
because there are very many works, which we see not, and
infinite numbers and seas of glories above the clouds, which
we perceive not, and cannot understand, the only measures
of religion and the love of God which we are to take, are to
" pray continually, to love God always, to serve him without
end, to be zealous beyond all measures, excepting those of
duty and prudence, to be religious without a limit, always to
desire, always to endeavour, never to rest as long as we can
work, never to give over as long as any thing is unfinished ;"
and consequent or symbolical to all this, that in all disputes
of religion we choose the sense of love, not of weariness ;
that we do not contend for the lesser measures, but strive in
all our faculties and desire beyond 'their strength, and pro-
pound Christ for our precedent, and heaven for our reward,
and infinity for our measures, towards which we are to set
forth by our active and quick endeavour, and to which we
are to reach by our constancy and desires, our love and the
Divine acceptance.

When the Laws of Christ are to be expounded to a Sense of
Ease and Liberty.

5. If to the sense of the duty there be a collateral and
indirect burden and evil appendage, the alleviating of that
burden is to be an ingredient into the interpretation of the

e Ecclus. xliii. 30-32.



36 OF THE INTERPRETATION AND OBLIGATION

law, and the direct duty is to be done in such measures, as
may do the most good with suffering the least evil. This
happens in two cases :

6. (1.) If the strict and severer sense of the law be too
great for the state and strength of the man, that is, if it be
apt to make him despair, to make him throw away his bur-
den, to make him tire, to be weary of, and to hate religion,
his infirmities are to be pitied, and the severest sense of the
law is not to be exacted of him. " Apices juris non suut jus,"
say the lawyers : " The little punctilios and minutes of law
are not law;" because if our duty be extended to every little
tittle of duty, it were necessary that our observation and at-
tendance should be as particular and punctual ; but because
that cannot always be actual and intent, particular and in-
cumbent, those things which insensibly pass by the observa-
tion of a diligent watchful person, do also inculpably pass
by the man. But of this I have already given accounts in
another place/ For the present I further consider, that cha-
rity being the great end of the law, and every law being a
design of making a man happy, every commandment of God
is then best understood, when it is made to do most good,
and rescued from being an occasion of evil. The government
of Jesus Christ is most paternal and serene : his rod is not
heavy, his commandments are not grievous, his bands are not
snares : but they are holiness, and they are liberty, they are
* glory to God, and good- will towards men .'

7. But this at no hand means, that any material or in-
tegral part of duty can be omitted, and the omission indulged
in compliance with any man's infirmity or danger ; for the
law is to be our measure, our weaknesses cannot be the mea-
sure of the integrity of the law ; that infirmity by which we
omit any part of duty is a state of sin ; and God, who knew
all our infirmities, and possibilities or impossibilities of obe-
dience, complied sufficiently in the sanction of the law, and
imposed no more burden than was even with our powers ;
and therefore for what remains we must stoop our shoulder
and bear the burden which God's wisdom made reasonable
and tolerable, and our necessity and interest make unavoid-
able, and love will make easy and delectable.

8. But the burden which can be lessened, is the burden

' Doctrine and Practice of Repentance, c. hi.



OF THE LAWS OF JESUS CHRIST. 37

of degrees of intension, or any thing which consists not in a
mathematical point, but is capable of growth : whatsoever is
of such a nature as is always to increase in this life, in that
such abatements may be made as will fit the person and the
state ; and no man is to be quarrelled at for degrees in the
beginnings, or in the first progressions of his piety, only he
is to be invited on by proper and fair inducements ; and if
he stands still always, as he is to be suspected for want of
love, so he is to be warned of his danger, and thrust forward
by the memory of the best examples. Thus it may not, upon
any terms, be permitted to any weak person to do an act of
injustice, to blaspheme God, to reproach his father, to be
wanton ; he may not be allowed to slander his brother, to neg-
lect his children, to despise his wife, to part from her because
he is weary of her ; for fear the not indulging any thing of
this nature to him should provoke him to anger against the
religion. We may not give easy answers in cases of con-
science, or promise heaven to them that live evil lives, for
fear that our severity should make them forsake our commu-
nion and go to the Roman Church ; that is, we must not
allow any man to do one evil to hinder him from another, or
give leave to him to break one commandment that we may
preserve another. But of this I have already given more par-
ticular accounts. 5 That which at present I intend is, that no
sin or omission of duty is to be permitted, no law of Christ
is to be expounded to comply with us against God ; but when
a less severe sense is within the limits of duty, that our weak-
nesses are to be complied withal, is affirmed as being most
charitable and necessary. Thus, if it be inquired whether
our sorrow for our sins ought to be punitive and vindictive,
sharp and sensible as the perception of any temporal evil, as
the sorrow of a mother for the death of her only child, this
being a question of degrees which cannot consist in an indi-
visible point, is never limited and determinate ; any degree
that can consist with the main duty, may be permitted to him
whose necessity requires such indulgence : and if he be sor-
rowful in such a degree as to move him to pray passionately
and perseveringly forpardon, to beget in him a wise and awary
caution against temptation, to produce in him hatred against
sin, and dereliction of it, a war and a victory, the death of sin,
* Vide book i. chap. 5, rule 8, n. 16, &c. usque ad finem.

O tfTiMr**-*



38 OF THE INTERPRETATION AND OBLIGATION

and the life of righteousness, the penitent is not to be preju-
diced by the degree of his sorrow, or the thickness of its edge,
and the commandment is so to be expounded as to secure the
duty and secure the man too : and if he be told that a less
degree of sorrow than the supreme will not serve his turn, and
that the commandment is to be expounded in the greatest and
severest measures, he that finds this impossible to him, will
let it alone, for as good never a whit as never the better ; but
then, he that tells him so, hath laid a snare for his brother's
foot, and binds upon his shoulder a burden too heavy for him.
For to what purpose can we imagine that there should be a
latitude in the commandment, and yet no use to be made of
the least degree ? and if God cherishes the babes in Christ,
and is pleased in every step of our progression, then it is cer-
tain that they who are but babes, are to be treated accordingly,
and the commandment is to be acted by the proportions of
the man. But then if the question be concerning ^the inte-
grity of the repentance, he that is troubled at heart because
he is told that a resolution to leave sin is not enough, that
without restitution there is no repentance ; he that will kick
at religion, because it requires all the duties which integrate
the commandment, is not to be complied with, nor permitted
to his folly. I have read of a gentleman who, being on his
death-bed, and his confessor searching and dressing of his
wounded soul, was found to be obliged to make restitution
of a considerable sum of money, with the diminution of his
estate. His confessor found him desirous to be saved, a
lover of his religion, and yet to have a kindness for his estate,
which he desired might be entirely transmitted to his beloved
heir : he would serve God with all his heart, and repented
him of his sin, of his rapine and injustice, he begged for par-
don passionately, he humbly hoped for mercy, he resolved, in
case he did recover, to live strictly, to love God, to reverence



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