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Livy r observes of Numa, that to establish his government he
first settled religion, as supposing that nothing is more
powerful to lead the people gently, or to drive them furiously,
than to imprint in them the fear of God, or to scare them
with religion. And therefore the prince cannot rule without
it : he is but the shadow of a king and the servant of his
priests; and if they rule religion, they may also rule him.
And that for two great causes.

10. (1.) Because the propositions and opinions of reli-
gion have and are directly intended to have great influence
upon the whole life arid all the actions of mankind. For how
if the ministers of religion preach the stoical fate, and that
all things that come to pass are unalterably predetermined,
who need to care how he serves God, or how he serves his
prince? Suetonius* says of Tiberius, that he was "circa
deos et religionis negligentior, quippe persuasionis plenus
cuncta fato agi, careless of religion, because he was fully
persuaded that all things came by destiny." To what pur-
pose are laws or punishments, rewards and dignities, pri-
sons and axes, rods and lictors, when it is injustice to punish
a criminal for being unavoidably miserable? and then all
government is at an end, when there can be no virtue nor
vice, no justice nor injustice; for what is alike necessary, is
equally just. But upon some such account as this Plato
sairl, that they are not to be suffered in a commonwealth, who
said that God is the author of evil. And what are likely to
be the effects of that persuasion, which is a great ingredient

1 Solo sacramento inclyti principes tuti sunt. Symmach. lib. x. ep. 54. Maxi-
mum, dicente Catone, majoribus nostris telum, ex quo plures pace susceptse quam
bello gentes fuere devicta?, quo solo continetur omnis societas, et dissoluto dissol-
vitur Appius, lib. vi. in fin.

r Omnium primum, rem ad multitudinem imperitam, et illis seculis rudem, effi-

cacissimam, deorum metum injiciendum ratus est Liv, i. c. 19. Ruperti. vol. i.

p. 31. Primum enim malitia? vineulum est religio, et signorum amor, et deserendi
nefas._Se;ic.

Cap. Ixix. B. Crusius. p. 471.



480 OF SUPREME CIVIL POWERS,

in the religion of some men, that " dominion is founded in
grace ;" that evil princes may be deposed ; that heretics
may be excommunicated, and their subjects absolved from
the oath of their allegiance ; that faith is not to be kept
with heretics ; that it is lawful to tell a lie before a magis-
trate, provided we think up the truth ; that kings are but
executioners of the decrees of the presbytery ; that all things
ought to be in common? By such propositions as these it
is easy to overthrow the state of any commonwealth ; and
how shall the prince help himself, if he have not power to
forbid these and the like dangerous doctrines? A common-
wealth, framed well by laws and a wise administration, can,
by any one of these, be framed anew and overturned. It is
therefore necessary, that the prince hold one end of his staff,
lest himself be smitten on the head.

11. (2.) The other great cause is this : because religion
hath great influence upon persons as well as actions ; and if
a false religion be set on foot, a religion that does not
come from God, a religion that only pretends God, but fears
him not, they that conduct it can lead on the people to the
most desperate villanies and machinations. We read in the
life* of Henry III. of England, that when he had promised
any thing to his nobility that he had no mind to perform, he
would presently send to the pope for a bull of dispensation,
and supposed himself acquitted : and who could suffer such
a religion, that destroyed the being of contracts and societies,
or bear the evils consequent to such a religion ? And of the
same nature, but something worse in the instance, is that
which Arnaldus Ferronius" tells of, that the Roman lawyers
answered to Ferdinandus Davalus, that, at the command of
the pope, he might take up arms against the Emperor Charles
V., his prince, without any guilt of treason. And it was yet
very much worse which was done and said by the Pope John
XXII. x against the Emperor Lewis IV., "Quod si nobis
obtemperare detrectaverit, patriarchis, episcopis, cunctis
sacerdotibus, principibus, civitatibus imperamus ut eundem
deserant, ac nobis parere cogant ; Patriarchs and princes,
bishops and priests, were not only allowed, but commanded
to forsake their emperor, and to compel him to obey the

1 Matth. Westraonast. in Hen. III. Lib. viii. Rerum Gallicar.
* Aventin. lib. vii. Annul.



AND THEIR LAWS IN SPECIAL. 481

bishop of Rome." By these and much more it appears, the
evil ministers of a false religion have great powers of doing
what they please :

Nam faciunt animos humiles formidine Divum,
Depressosque premunt ad terram :

They make the people absolute slaves, and lift them up again
with boldness to do mischief. EvaXwrov its duaidai^oviav rb
/3a(3agixbv, said Plutarch ; y " The rude people are easy and
apt to superstition :" and when they are in, they are ready
for any violence. " Superstitione qui est imbutus, quietus esse
nunquam potest," said Cicero : z " They cannot be quiet when
they have got a wild proposition by the end." And this is too
much verified by the histories of almost all nations : for there
is none but hath smarted deeply by the factions and hypo-
crisies of religion. The priests of Jupiter" in the island of
Meroe did often send the people to kill their kings. Eunus, b
a Roman slave, armed sixty thousand men upon pretence of
a religious ecstasy and inspiration. Maricus in France did
the like ; so did an Egyptian in the time of Claudius the
emperor, mentioned by Josephus, who led after him thirty
thousand men against the Romans. The two false Christs,
the one in the time of Vespasian, the other under Adrian,
prevailed to the extreme ruin of their miserable countrymen.
Leo and the Turkish annals tell us strange events and over-
throws of government, brought to pass by the arts of religion
in the hands of Elmahel and Chemin Mennal in Africa : the
first taking the kingdom of Morocco from Abraham their
king, together with his life ; the other forcing the King of
Fez to yield unto him the kingdom of Temesna. In Asia
Shacoculis, of the Persian sect, by his religion armed great
numbers of men, and, in three great battles, overthrew the
Turkish power, and put to hazard all their empire.

12. They that knew none of these stories, did know
others like them, and at least knew the force of religion to
effect what changes pleased them who had the conduct of
it ; and therefore all wise princes, ancient and modern, took
care to prevent the evil by such remedies and arts ofgovern-

y In Sertorio. * De Finib. i. c. 18. David ot Rath. p. 63.

Diod. Sicul. lib. vi. c. 10.
b Florus, lib. iii. iy. 4. Duker. p. 591.
c Lib. ii, do Bello Judaic, c. V2.
VOL. XIII. I I



482 OF SUPREME CIVIL POWERS,

ment as were in their hands. Three remedies were found
out ; two by men, and one by God.

13. (1.) The ancient governments of the world kept
themselves and their people to the religion of their nation,
that which did comply with their government, that which,
they were sure, would cause no disturbance, as being that
which was a part of the government, was bred up with it,
and washer younger sister ; but of foreign rights and strange
and new religions they were infinitely impatient : by the
prohibition and exclusion of which by their civil laws, as
the supreme power secured the interest and peace of the re-
public, so it gave demonstration, that the civil power was
supreme also in the religion. Upon this account we find
that Aristotle and Anaxagoras were accused ; Socrates and
Protagoras were condemned, for holding opinions and teach-
ing contrary to the religion of their country ; and it was usual
with the Athenians so to proceed : so Josephus d writes of
them ; H Cl<frs xai roug fifAot, JAOVOV naga, rou$ txi/vuv v6fj,ov$ (pdsy-
%a[Asyovg Ksgl Siuv a<ffa,gairriru$ JtoXas/v, "They did severely
punish any man that spake but a word against the religion
established by law." The Scythians also put Anacharsis to
death, for celebrating the feast of Bacchus by the Grecian
rites : for these nations accounted their country-gods to be
entertained and endeared by their country-religion, and that
they were displeased with any new ceremonies. But this
thing was most remarkable in the state of Rome. For this
was one of the charges which they gave to the sediles. 6
" Ne qui neu quo nisi Romani clii, alio more quam patrio,
colerentur." And Marcus YEmilius f recited a decree to this
purpose : " Ne quis in publico sacrove loco novo aut externo
ritu sacrificaret." And this they made a solemn business of,
saith Livy :. " Quoties hoc patrum avorumque setate negotium
est magistratibus datum, ut sacra externa fieri vetarent;
In the days of our ancestors they often made laws forbid-
ding any stranger-rites ;" but commanded that only their
own country-gods should be worshipped, and that after their
country manner. For this was enjoined in the laws of the
twelve tables ; g " Separatim nemo habessit Deos, No man
must have a religion of his own," but that which is appointed

d Lib. ii. cont. Apion. e Livy, iv. 30. Ruperti, vol. i. p. 3.05.

f Lib. xxxix. 16. Ruperti, vol. iii. p. 531.
K Cic. de Leg. ii. 8. Davis et Rath. p. 121.



AND THEIR LAWS IN SPECIAL. 483

by laws. And upon this stock Claudius banished the Jews
from Rome, and quite extinguished the superstition of the
druids, which Augustus Caesar had so often prohibited.
But most full to this purpose is the narrative which Dio
makes of the counsel which Mecsenas gave to young Octa-
vian : To ^b Sa/ov cravr?j xdvrug avrog re a'ifiw Kara, TO, xargia,
KO.I TOV$ aAXoyg rtfj,(py avdyxa^t' roOj ds ^gv/^oi/raj
KO.) xoXa^s, ori xaivd rivet ftaifAovia, o't roioiJroi
avafiidovKiv aXXorg/o^ttf/V' xax rovrov xa!

traigsi'at rs yiyvovrai, " Worship God always and
every where according to your country-customs, and compel
others so to do : but hate and punish the bringers in of
strange religions ; because they who bring in new deities and
forms of worship, they persuade men to receive other laws,
and make leagues, covenants, factious, and confederacies."

14. And therefore, to prevent innovations in religion, the
Romans often inquired after those who had books of strange
religions, and when they found any, they burned them ; as
we find in Livy b and Suetonius.' They would not suffer
the rites of religion to be publicly disputed : and Augustus
would not have the causes of the rites of Ceres heard in open
court. And when Ptolemy of Egypt was pressed to hear the
controversy between the Jews and the Samaritans concerning
the antiquity of their religion, he would not admit any such
dispute, till the advocates would undertake their cause to be
just upon the pain of death, so that they who were overcome
in the cause should die for it ; and that they should use no
arguments, but those which were taken from the received
laws of their country, the law of Moses : they did so, and
the advocates of the Samaritan party, being overcome, were
put to death. k For they knew that to introduce a new reli-
gion with fierceness and zeal would cause disturbances and
commotions in the commonwealth ; and none are so sharp,
so dangerous, and intestine, as those which are stirred by
religion. ' Pro aris et foe is' is the greatest of all contentions ;
for their country-religion and their country-dwellings, ' for
their altars and their hearths,' even old women and children
will carry clubs and scalding water. This caution therefore
was also observed by Christian princes. Justinian 1 gave iu

h Lib. xl. c. 39. ' In Augusto, c. 31.

k Joseph, lib. xiii. Antivj. Judic. c, o. ' Novel, ciii. C. i.'.



484 OF SUPREME CIVIL POWERS,

charge to the proconsul of Palestine to prevent all popular
tumults, which, from many causes, use to disturb the pro-
vince, " turn vero maxime ex diversitate religionum : quan-
doquidem ut multos illic tumultus existere cernimus, neque
leves horum eventus ; but especially those that proceed
from diversities of religion ; for this begets many tumults,
and these usually sit very heavy upon the commonwealth :"
the changes of religion being most commonly the most des-
perate paroxysms that can happen in a sickly state. Which
Leontinus, bishop of Antioch, expressed prettily by an em-
blem ; for, stroking of his old white head, he said, " When
this snow is dissolved, a great deal of dirty weather would fol-
low :" meaning, when the old religion should be questioned
and discountenanced, the new religions would bring nothing
but trouble and unquietness.

15. This course of forbidding new religions is certainly
very prudent, and infinitely just and pious. Not that it is
lawful for a prince to persecute the religion of any other
nation, or the private opinion of any one within his own :
but that he suffer none to be superinduced to his own to the
danger of peace and public tranquillity. The persuasions of
religion are not to be compelled ; but the disturbances by
religion are to be restrained by the laws. And if any change
upon just reason is to be made, let it be made by authority
of the supreme : " ut respublica salva sit ;" that he may
take care that peace and blessings may not go away to give
place to a new problem. When it is in the prince's hands,
he can make it to comply with the public laws ; which he then
does best of all, when he makes it to become a law itself.
But against the law no man is to be permitted to bring in
new religions, excepting him only who can change the law,
and secure the peace. Beyond this no compulsion is to be
used in religion : Tlgorgtirrixri ya.g ^ vaaa
vv Kct.1 r^s /AEXXouffTjs ogefyv eyytvvuea. r$
said St. Clemens Alexandrinus ; m "All religion must enter
by exhortation ; for it is intended to beget a desire in our
mind that is of the same cognation, a desire of the life that
now is, and of that which is to come." The same with that
of Theodoricus," king of the Romans : " Religionem imperare
non possumus, quia nemo cogitur ut credat invitus:" and

m Lib. i. Pasdag. c. 1. " Apud Cassiodorum, lib. ii.



AND THEIR LAWS IN SPECIAL. 485

Theobaldus" writing to the Emperor Justinian, argued well :
"Since God himself is pleased to permit many religions, we
dare not by force impose any one ; for we remember to have
read, that we must sacrifice to God with a willing mind, not
by the command of any one that compels." And therefore
the old Romans, the Greeks, the Scythians, although they
would admit no new religion amongst their own people,
would permit to every nation to retain their own ; by this
practice of theirs declaring, that religion is not to be forced
abroad, nor changed at home, but that it was by the supreme
power of the republic to be conducted so as to comply with
the interest of the commonwealth. This was the first re-
medy against the evils of religious pretences; which, by
being conducted in the hands of the civil power, shews that
to be supreme even in the questions of religion.

16. (2.) The other, which was found out by men, is that
they did take the priesthood into the hands of the supreme
civil power ; and then they were sure that all was safe. The
Egyptians P chose their priests out of their schools of learn-
ing, and their kings out of their colleges of priests. The
kings of Aricia, q a place not far from Alba, were also priests
of Diana : the same is reported of the priests of Bellona, that
they were the kings of Cappadocia, saith Hirtius ; r and the
priests of Pantheon s were supreme judges of all causes, and
conductors of all their wars. The kings of Persia were
always consecrated to be princes of the ceremonies, so was
the King of Lacedemon : and at this day the kings of Ma-
labar are also brahmins, or priests : and it was a law amongst
the Romans, " Sacrorum omnium potestas sub regibus esto,
The power of religion, and all holy things, was to be under
their kings ;" and Virgil i ever brings in his prince ^Eneas as
president of the sacrificial rites ; and of something to the
same purpose Ovid u makes mention,

Utque ea nunc certa est ; ita rex placare sacrorum
Numina lanigene conjugo debet ovis.

" The king, with the sacrifice of a ram, was to appease the
gods." So did Romulus and Numa; "Romulus auspiciis,

Yariar. ep. -27. Lib. x. ep. 26. P Marsil. Ficin. in Praefat. lib.Trismeg.

5 Strabo, lib. v. ' In Bell. Alexandr. c. 36. Oberlin. p. 636.

Diod. Sicul. lib. vi. c. 10. l Lib. x. JEneid.
11 Fastor. i. 334. Gierig. p. 28.



4-86 OF SUPREME CIVIL POWERS,

Numa sacris constitutis, fundamenta jecerunt Romance civi-
tatis," said Cicero : x " They built Rome, and religion was the
foundation of the city." And the same custom descended
with the succeeding kings, as Dionysius Halicarnasseus
reports : Tlgurov /j,sv hguv r.at ^uffiuv ifytftttfa/l si^v, xai xdv-
70. di' sKiivon Kgurrtff'Sai ra Tgis S?oy$ offiov;, " They had the
government of all sacrifices and holy rites ; and whatsoever
was to be done to the holy gods, was done by them."

17. When afterward they separated the priesthood from
the civil power, they appointed a sacrificing king to take care
of the rites, but they kept him from all intermeddling with
civil affairs; he might bear no office in the commonwealth,
nor have any employment in the army, nor make an oration
to the people, nor meddle with public affairs: and yet besides
this caution, the supreme magistrate was pontifex maximus;
and although he did not usually handle the rites, yet when
he pleased, he made laws concerning the religion, and pu-
nished the augurs and the vestal virgins, and was superior
to the 'rex sacrorum,' and the whole college of priests. y

18. But when the commonwealth was changed into mon-
archy, Augustus annexed the great pontificate to the impe-
rial ; dignity and it descended even to the Christian emperors,
who because it was an honorary title, and was nothing but a
power of disposing religion, they at first refused it not : but
upon this account it was that Tacitus 2 said of the Roman em-
peror, " Nunc Deum munere summuin pontificem summum
hominum esse ; The greatest priest is also the greatest
prince." Now this device of theirs would indeed do their
business, but it was more than was needful. For though it
were certain that religion, in the hands of the supreme
magistrate, should never disturb the public, yet it might be
as sure, if the ministry were in other hands, and the empire
and conduct of it in their own. And that was God's way.

19. (3.) For God hath intrusted kings with the care of
the Church, with the custody of both the tables of his law,
with the defence of all the persons of his empire; and their
charge is to preserve their people in all godliness and ho-
nesty, in peace and in tranquillity; and how this can be done

* De Nat. D. lib. iii. c. 2. Creuzer.p. 497.

1 Festus Pompeius, lib. ivii. Dionys. Halic. lib. iv. A Cell. lib. x. c. 15.
Liv. lib. ii. * Annal. lib. iii.



AND THEIR LAWS IN 7 SPECIAL. 487

without the supreme care and government of religion, is not
easy to be understood.

4. But this appears, in that kings, that is, the supreme
power of every nation, are vicegerents of Christ, 3 who is
head of the Church, and heir of all things; he ruleth with a
rod of iron; he is prince of the kings of the earth; the only
potentate, King of kings and Lord of lords ; to him is given
all power in heaven and earth, and by him kings reign. So
St. Athanasius : b Aa/if3dvuv o5v 6 Xg/<ft-6$ rbv Sgovov (ttrta-
rqfftv aiirov, KO.I tduxt ro?g aytois XgiffnavSiv fiaffitevffiv Jffa-
vasrg't-^ai rovrovs IT/ rbv oJxov 'laxw/3* " Christ, taking his
throne, hath translated it, and given it holy Christian kings
to return them back to the house of Jacob." The fathers of
the Council of Ariminum, writing to Constantius, the Arian
emperor, say to him, that by Christ he had his empire given
him ; A/' o-J [Xg/ffroD] eoi xai rb /Sarf/Xeiig/v ourwj Itir^sv u$ xai
r5j.- zap r^ag otxovp'evris xganTv- "By him thou art appointed
to reign over all the world." And upon this account, Liberius
gave him this advice; MJJ ^a^ov vgbs rbv deduxora aoi rqv
ug%fiv ravrW (tri avr' sv%agiff>rias ctcrs/S^tfJjj tig aurov' *' Fight
not against him who hath given thee this empire ; and in-
stead of thanksgivings, pay him not with dishonour." For
the prince, being an Arian and denying the Divinity of
Christ, did dishonour the Prince of the kings of the earth,
who had deserved better at his hands. The consequence of
this consideration is this, If Christ as the supreme King does
rule his Church, and in this kingdom hath deputed the kings
of the earth, and his vicars they are, then they are immedi-
ately under him in the government of Christ's Church. For
Christ, in heaven, is both King and Priest. As King, he
reigns over all the world for the glory of his Father and the
good of his elect ; as Priest, he intercedes for all mankind,
and particularly 'for them who shall be heirs of salvation.'
Now, in both these relations, he hath on earth deputed cer-
tain persons to administer and to imitate his kingdom and
priesthood respectively. For he governs all the world, but
he does it by his angel-ministers, and by kings his deputies.
He officiates in his priesthood himself, and in this he hath no
deputy ; for he intercedes for us continually : but he hath

Heb. i. 2. Rev. i. 5 ; xi. 17 j xvii. 14 j xix. 16. 1 Tim. yi. 15. Matt, xxviii. 18.
b Serm. de B. Virg.



488 OF SUPREME CIVIL POWERS,

appointed an order of holy and consecrated persons to imi-
tate the offices of this priesthood, to minister the blessings
of it to the people, to represent the death of the cross, to
preach pardon of sins to the penitent, to reconcile lapsed and
returning sinners, that is, to minister to the people all the
blessings which he, by the office of priesthood, procures
in heaven for us. Now it is certain, that he hath made
deputies of his kingdom ; for all power being given to
him as the great King, there can be no government upon
earth but what he appoints. ' The government is upon his
shoulders,' and all the earth is his inheritance, and therefore
from him all just government is derived. Now it being
manifest that he is the fountain of all kingly power, it
is also as manifest that all this power is delegated to the
kings of the earth; for "by me kings reign," saith the
Wisdom of God ; and it is one of his most glorious appel-
latives, that he is "Prince of the kings of the earth;"
and it is as certain that none of this kingly power was given
to the ministers of religion, but expressly denied to them.
"The kings of nations exercise dominion;" that is their
province : " but it shall not be so amongst you : but he that
is greatest amongst you, let him be your minister." That is
your state, you are ministers of the kingdom to other pur-
poses, in other manners; you do your work by serving, by
humility, by charity, by labours and compliance, by gentle
treatments and the gentlest exhortations ; nothing of a king
is to be in you, but the care : on euvd'Trrsiv rw ficKSiXtiav Tif

hgotvvri ffwyKXudtiv tHr) ra affvyxXuffra, " for to join the

kingdom and the priesthood evangelical is to join in one
band things of the most differing nature:" for the name of
kings hath power and constraint, rods and axes ; the name
of priests and apostles hath in it nothing but gentle manners
and holy ministries. Kings can compel ; the ministers of
religion must entreat. They can kill ; but, at the most,
these can but rebuke sharply. These can cut off from spi-
ritual communion, and deny to give them mysteries that
will hurt the wicked and the indisposed ; but they can cut
them off from life itself. Kings justly seek honours, wealth,
and dignity, and it is allowed them by laws and by necessity,
and by their reason: but priests must "not seek their own,

* Synes.



AND THEIR LAWS IN SPECIAL. 489

but only the things of Jesus Christ." They must indeed be
maintained ; the ox cannot labour, if his mouth be muzzled :
but though this be his maintenance, it must be no part of
his reward. Our blessed Saviour's word is rendered by
St. Matthew d by xarxu^/iif/v, " The kings of the people do
rule imperiously." This very word is also used by St. Peter,
and forbidden to the elders of the Church ; and to it is
opposed -ro/^am/x, " to feed the flock like shepherds." The
manner of xugiweiv, used by St. Paul, or xaraxvgieveiv used
by St. Matthew and St. Peter, " the exercising dominion is
compulsion," and great riches : this is also forbidden to the



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