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whatever eminence they have for their spiritual employment,
it gives them no temporal advantage ; that comes in upon
another stock : but for the spiritual, it is as much as it is
pretended ; but then it is no more.

2. For it is purely spiritual. Where'any thing of temporal
is mingled with it, it is not greater in that, but subject to the
temporal power. Without this, there could never be peace :
and where the jurisdiction of two courts does interfere, there
are perpetual wranglings. But God having ordained two
powers, hath made them both best ; and yet so that both of
them are inferior : but because it is in different powers, they
both rule in peace, and both obey with pleasure. How the
ecclesiastic state is subject to the civil, I have largely ac-
counted : now I am to describe the eminences, powers,
advantages, and legislations, of the spiritual : concerning
which we shall have the best light, if we rightly understand
the nature and quality of the power.

3. " As my Father sent me, so send I you," said Christ to
his apostles. Now it is plain that the Father was pleased to
send his Son ; with humility and miracles, with a low fortune
and a great design, with poverty and power, with fulness of
the Spirit and excellence of wisdom. That was the manner.
The end was the redemption of man ; the conquering of the
devil ; the preaching of the Gospel ; the foundation of the
Church; the instruction of faith; the baptizing converts;



IN CANONS AND CENSURES. 551

the reformation of manners; the extirpation of sin. This
was the entire end, and that was the just manner in which
Christ was sent into the world : and since his apostles and
their successors were to pursue the same ends and no other,
they were furnished with the same power : and Christ gave
them the Holy Ghost, and gave them commandment and
power to teach all nations, to baptize them, to bind and to
loose, to minister his body and his blood, to exhort and to
reprove, to comfort and to cure, to make spiritual separations
of the vile from the precious. This is the sum of all the
commissions they had from Christ.

4. This power, and these commissions, were wholly
ministerial without domination, without proper jurisdiction,
that is, without coaction ; it being wholly against the design
of the religion that it should be forced; and it being far
removed from persons so disposed, so employed, so in-
structed, to do it. And therefore one of the requisites of a
bishop is /.AT) sTvai ffXTjxr/xiv, " he must be no striker:" he
had no arms put into his hand to that purpose : the ecclesi-
astic state being furnished with authority, but no power,
that is, " auctoritate suadendi, magis quam jubendi potestate"
(that I may use the expression in Tacitus) ; c " an authority
to persuade and to rebuke, but no power to command," as the
word is used in the sense of secular dominion.

5. Concerning which, that the thing be rightly under-
stood, we must first truly understand the word. Accursius d
defines jurisdiction to be " potestatem de publico introduc-
tam cum necessitate juris dicendi et aequitatis statuendae ;
a public power of doing right and equity." It is " potestas
ad jus dicendum," so Muscornus Cyprius; "a power of
giving sentence in causes between party and party." But we
shall best understand the meaning of ' jurisdictio' by that place
of Cicero : e " Quid ego istius in jure dicundo libidinem de-
monstrem ? Quis vestrum non ex urbana jurisdictione cogno-
vit ? Quis unquam, isto praetore, Chelidone invita, lege agere
potuit? Judicescitarijubet : jubet citari Heraclium : citatur
reus Sopatrus : Sthenium citari jubet : atque, ut aliquando de
rebus ab isto cognitis, judicatisque, et de judiciis datis desis-

c De Mor. Germ. c. xi. Oberlin. Lend. edit. vol. ii. p. 3t52.

d lu lib. i. in Verbo Potest. ff. de Jurisdict.

' Orat. in Verrem ii. c. 1C et 48. Priestley's Cicero, vol. i. pp. 204, 233.



552 OF THE POWER OF THE CHURCH

tamus dicere,"&c. From which words, it is plain that juris-
diction is a power of magistracy to summon the parties, to
hear their cause, and to give sentence. And therefore in
Suetonius we often find these expressions ; " Imperatoretn
jus dixisse, cognovisse, judicasse ; The emperor took cog-
nizance, did judge, did give sentence," that is, did exercise
jurisdiction. Empire is always included under jurisdiction ;
and it is divided into a cognition of capital and pecuniary
causes, as appears plainly in the title of the code * de Juris-
dictione,' which handles both causes ; and Asconius Paedia-
nus, in his argument upon the fourth action against Verres,
proves expressly that capital actions are part of jurisdiction.
To which purpose is that of Suetonius * in the life of Augus-
tus ; " Dixit autem jus non diligentia modo summa sed et
lenitate, siquidern manifesti parricidii reum, ne culeo insu-
eretur, quod non nisi confessi afficiuntur hac poena," &c.
But of this there is no question. Now of jurisdiction thus
understood, it is evident that the ecclesiastic state hath no
right derived to them from Christ, that is, no power to
punish any man corporally, or to compel him to answer in
criminal causes ; they have no power of the sword, no re-
straint upon the body ; but having care of souls, which can-
not be governed by force, they are to govern as souls can be
governed, that is, by arguments and reason, by fear and hope,
by preaching of rewards and punishments, and all the ways
of the noblest government, that is, by wisdom and by the
ways of God.

6. This appears in the apostle's description of their
own office and power. " What is Paul, 8 and what is A polios,
but ministers by whom ye believed ? " " ministers of Christ,"
"stewards of the mysteries of Christ:" "To us is com-
mitted the word of reconciliation ;" h " We are ambassadors
for Christ;"' ov xupsvovrss, we are "not lords over the
flock ;" k but " as though God did beseech you by us, we pray
you, in Christ's stead, to be reconciled to God." Thus Christ
set them over the household, 1 not to strike the servants, but
*' to give them their meat in due season ;" that is, as Optatus ra
expresses it, to minister the food of God's word and sacra-

f Cap. xxxiii. B. Crusius, vol. i. p. 259. ? 1 Cor. iii.

h 2 Cor. v. 18. 9 COT. v. 20. * 1 Pet. v. 3.

1 Luke, xii. "> Lib. v. cont. Parmen.



IN CANONS AND CENSURES. 553

ments to the servants of the family: " Nolite vobis majes-
tatis dominum vindicare ; nam si ita est, vindicent sibi et
ministri, qui mensae dominicae famulantur, ut pro humanitate
exhibita ab invitatis gratulatio eis referatur Est ergo in
universis servientibus non dominium sed ministerium ;
Therefore esteem not yourselves to have any thing but the
ministry and service, nothing of dominion." And indeed we
need challenge no more : it is honour enough to serve such a
prince, to wait at such a table, to be stewards of such a family,
to minister such food. This service is perfect freedom ;
and that is more than can be said of the greatest temporal
dominion in the world. " Principes ecclesise fiunt ut servi-
ant minoribus suis, et ministrent eis quaecunque acceperunt
a Christo." n The same with the words of Christ ; " He that
is greatest amongst you, let him be your minister." " For
the honours in Christian religion at the first look like dig-
nities ; but indeed they are not divers honours, but divers
services : as it seems to be an honour to the eye, that it
enlightens the whole body, but it is not its honour, but its
ministry ; so it is amongst the saints ; it is not his honour, but
his act. And so is the apostleship thought to be a great dig-
nity, but it is not so ; but it is his ministry. For so St. Paul?
says, ' If I preach the Gospel, it is no glory to me; for neces-
sity is laid upon me, arid wo is unto me if I do not preach
the Gospel ; for if I do it willingly, I have a reward ; but if
unwillingly, there is nothing but a stewardship intrusted to
me.' " The consequent of this discourse is this, in the words
of the same father, " Quicunque desiderat primatum in terra,
inveniet confusionem in coelo ; Whosoever desires primacy
(meaning amongst the ecclesiastics, and by virtue of their
order and office) upon earth, shall find confusion in heaven."
7. But this is most expressly and clearly taught by the
fathers of the Church. So St. Chrysostom Nazianzen ; q
" He that is set over others (speaking of bishops), laying
behind him every sin, must proceed in godliness ; so that, by
the example of his spiritual growth, he may draw others
unto virtue, especially by that form of humility which was
delivered to us by the Lord ; ' non enim oportet vi vel neces-
sitate constringere, sed ratione et vitae exemplis suadere ;

n Homil. xxxv. in Matt, apud Chrysost. Ibid.

P 1 Cor. ix. 16, 17, < In Apologet.



554 OF THE POWER OF THE CHURCH

for no man is to be constrained by force or by necessity,
but persuaded by reason and good examples.' " And thus
St. Jerome r distinguishes the ecclesiastical power from the
regal : " Ille nolentibus prajest, hie volentibus : ille terrore
subjicit, hie servituti donatur : ille corpora custodit ad mor-
tem, hie animas servat ad vitam ; The king governs whe-
ther men will or no : the bishop none but the willing. He
subdues them by terror ; but the bishop is but the servant
of the people's souls. The king keeps bodies reserved for
death ; but the bishop takes care of souls that they may
live eternally." Upon this account St. Chrysostom 5 considers
the great difficulty there is in the discharge of the episco-
pal office, and affirms it to be more troublesome than that
of kings ; as much as the rage of the sea in a tempest is
greater than the curlings of a troubled river: and he gives
this reason for it ; " Quoniam illic plures sunt qui adjuvant,
eo quod legibus ac mandatis omnia peraguntur : hie vero nihil
tale, neque enim licet ex auctoritate praecipere ; Because
there are more helpers in the secular government ; for
all things are transacted by laws and by commandments :
but here (meaning in the ecclesiastic state) there is no such
thing ; for it is lawful, but we have no authority to command
any thing." For' " in potestate subjectorum est obedire vel
non." They are not domestics, they are not properly sub-
jects, but ** obedientiam habentes in sua ipsorum potestate ;
they have their obedience in their own power:"" they
may if they will, and they shall have a good reward ; but if
they will not, they may choose. For with this power, and
upon these terms, " the Holy Ghost hath made them over-
seers to feed," not to rule, " the Church of God," that is, not
to rule by empire, but by persuasion. And this is intimated
by the Epistle" to the Hebrews; "Obey them that are set
over you, and submit yourselves ; for they watch for your
souls as they that must give account : that they may do
it with joy, not with grief; for that is unprofitable for
you ; " that is, submit yourselves to your spiritual rulers,
cheerfully and willingly : if you do not, they can have
no comfort in their ministry ; it will grieve them to find
you refractory, and you will be the losers by it, for their

T In Epitaph. Nepot. ep. iii. Homil. iii. in Acta Apost.

Homil. iii. in Tit Horn. iii. in Acta, x Heb. xiii. 17.



IN CANONS AND CENSURES. 555

grief will do you no profit. Now if these rulers had
a power of coercion, he could quickly make them willing,
and the grsmypos, ' the anguish ' would fall on the disobe-
dient. The same precept is in the Epistle to the Thessalo-
nians, y where the words do themselves expound the nature
of the government ; " We beseech you, brethren, to know
them which labour amongst you, and are over you in the
Lord, and admonish you, and to esteem them very highly in
love for their work's sake." And immediately after, 2 he calls
them ' in partem solicitudinis, into a participation of this
rule ; ' Nou0m/rs araxrouj, " We beseech you, brethren, to
admonish," or to warn, to reprove, " them that are unruly :"
that is, you must help us in our government : we are over
you to admonish you, but you must admonish one another :
that will help our work forward when you are willing. But
" they which are over you," must be highly esteemed, not
for their dignity, but for their work's sake, not in fear, but
" in love ;" for they are over you not by empire, but by dis-
courses, not by laws, but by exhortation. And certainly
this is the best government in the world ; that the people of
God " sit populus voluntarius," should serve God with reason
and choice, with love and pleasure, and eternity of satisfac-
tion. And this is observed also by St. Chrysostom : " The
princes of this world (saith he) are so much inferior to this
spiritual power, by how much it is better to rule over the
wills of men than over their bodies : " and that is the state
of ecclesiastical government, concerning which, who please
to see much more, may with pleasure read it in St. Chrysos-
tom, in his first homily upon the Epistle to Titus, and the
eleventh homily upon the Epistle to the Ephesians, and in
his second book of ' Priesthood.'

8. Now, against this it will not be sufficient to oppose any
precedents of government under the Old Testament. He
there that did not obey the word of the high-priest, was to
die the death : a for they had avayxagnx.^ dixaioxoig/av, a
true, proper, formal jurisdiction given them by God : and
when Moses sat in judgment, gw^osvov hg*?:, saith Philo,
"the priests were his assessors;" and "Judaei sacerdotii
honos firmamentum potentiae erat ; The honour of the
Jewish priesthood was a great establishment to the power of

i 1 Thess. v. 12. * Verse 14. Deut. xvii. 12.



556 OF THE POWER OF THE CHURCH

the nation," saith Tacitus. b For the priests were eirigxovoi,
' bishops,' and judges of controversies, and by the law ap-
pointed to inflict punishment upon criminals, said Josephus. c
But in the Gospel there was no such thing. The Jewish ex-
communications were acts of power and a mixed empire; ours
are securities to the sound part, and cautions against offend-
ers. Their preachings were decrees sometimes ; ours can
be but exhortations and arguments to persuade and invite
consent.

9. But neither can it be denied but that the apostles did
sometimes actions of a delegate jurisdiction. Thus St. Peter
gave sentence of death against Ananias and Sapphira ; St.
Paul inflicted blindness upon Elymas the sorcerer, and de-
livered Hyinenaeus and Alexander, and the incestuous Corin-
thian, to be buffeted by Satan; and St. John threatened to
do the like to Diotrephes. That this was extraordinary ap-
pears by the manners of animadversion, which were by mira-
cle and immediate Divine judgment; for those which were
delivered to Satan were given up to be corporally tormented
by some grievous sickness or violence of an evil spirit, as
St. Chrysostom, d St. Ambrose, 6 St. Jerome, and divers others
of the fathers f do affirm. But therefore this was>an act of
Divine jurisdiction, not of apostolical : it was a miraculous
verification of the Divine mission seldom used, not by ordi-
nary emission of power, but by an extraordinary spirit : for so
St. Paul 8 threatened some criminals in the Church of Corinth,
that if he did come, he would not spare them: but it was
because they made it necessary by their undervaluing of his
person and ministry : ' Since ye do so, since ye do look for
a sign and proof of Christ speaking in me, you shall have it.'
It is not St. Paul's ordinary power, nor his own extraordinary,
but doxipti Xg/rfroD, 'an experiment of Christ's power/ who
was pleased to minister it by St. Paul, as well as by any
other apostle : something like those words of our blessed
Saviour, " An evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a
sign; and the sign of the prophet Jonas shall be given them."
But then there was great necessity ; and some prodigious
examples were to be made to produce the fear of God and

b Histor. v. 8. Oberlin. Lond. ed. vol. ii. p. 331.

c Com. Apion. lib. xi. c. 6.

d 1 Cor. homil. xv. e De Pocnit. lib. i. c. 17.

f S. August, cont. Epist. Parmen. lib. iii. c. 1. 2 Cor. xiii. 2.



IN CANONS AND CENSURES. 557

the reverence of religion, that the meanness and poverty of
the ministers might not expose the institution to contempt :
and because the religion was destitute of all temporal coer-
cion, and the civil power put on armour, not for it, but against
it, therefore God took the matter into his own hand, and by
judgments from heaven verified the preachings apostolical.
Thus when the Corinthians' 1 did use the Lord's supper un-
worthily, God punished them with sickness and with death,
as the apostle himself tells them: for to denounce them after,
and to pronounce them before, were equal actions of ministry,
but equally no parts of jurisdiction. This way continued in
the Church, though in very infrequent examples, till the em-
perors became Christians, and by laws and temporal coer-
cions came to second the word of ecclesiastical ministry. For
St. Cyprian' tells of some persons who, being afflicted with
evil spirits, were cured at their baptism, who afterward, upon
their apostasy from the faith, were afflicted again, and again
fell into the power of the devil: " recedente siquidem dis-
ciplina recessit et gratia ;" when they forsook Christ, himself
took the matter into his own hand, and was not wanting, by
an act of his own jurisdiction, to declare that he was their
Lord, and would be honoured by them or upon them.

10. And this was " the rod" that St. Paul k threatened to
the schismatical Corinthians ; not any emanation of the ordi-
nary power of ministry, but a miraculous consignation of it:
for these things, as St. Chrysostom l observes, St. Paul calls
" signa apostolatus mei, the signs of his apostleship,"
wrought among them in signs, and miracles, and powers: this
was effected in healing the sick, and in striking the refractory
with the rod of God ; in giving sight to the blind, and mak-
ing them blind that would not see ; in raising the dead to
life, and causing them to die that would not live the life of
righteousness. But this was not done Idiq Swapst, not ' by
any power of their own,' but by that power to which they
only ministered, by the power of Christ, who (blessed be
his holy name for it) keeps this power only in his own hands.
In these their power was no more a power of jurisdiction
than Elias had, who, as St. James said, " prayed that it
might, and prayed that it might not rain ; and called for

h 1 Cor. xi. 30. Epist. Ixxv. k 2 Cor. xii. 12.

1 Hoiuil. xiv. in 1 Cor. ; bomil. xxix. in 2 Cor. ; hornil. v. in 1 Tim.



558 OF THE POWER OF THE CHURCH

fire from heaven. And just so the apostles, being moved by
an extraordinary spirit, did, when the spirit saw cause, minister
to the Divine judgment. But that was not their work; they
were sent of another errand, and were intrusted with other
powers.

11. But after all this, it is certain that there were in the
Church some images and similitudes of jurisdiction in their
spiritual government. The soul is not, cannot be, proper to any
jurisdiction but that of God. For jurisdiction is the effect of
legislation, and is in the mixed empire as the other is in the
mere. Now none can give laws to souls but God ; he only
is Lord of wills and understandings ; and therefore none can
give judgment or restraint to souls but God. But as, by
preaching, the ecclesiastic state does imitate the legislation
of God ; so by the power of the keys, she does imitate his
jurisdiction. For it is to be observed, that by the sermons
of the Gospel the ecclesiastics give laws to the Church, that
is, they declare the laws of God ; and, by the use of the keys,
they also declare the Divine jurisdiction ; for as the Church
can make no law of Divine worship or Divine propositions of
faith or manners but what she hath received from Christ
and his apostles, so neither can she exercise any judgment
but the judgment of God. To that she ministers by threaten-
ings and denunciations, by comforts and absolutions, as she
ministers to the legislative of God by preaching and publish-
ing, by exhortation and command.

12. For there is an empire in preaching; there is a power
of command which the bishops and ministers of the Church
of God must exercise. To this purpose St. Chrysostom 1 "
discourses excellently ; " There are some things which need
teaching, some which need commanding: if therefore you
invert the order, and had rather command where it is neces-
sary for you to teach, you are ridiculous; and as bad if you
go about to teach where you rather should command. That
men should do no evil, you need not teach, but to forbid it
with the force of a great authority : and so you must com-
mand them that they should not give heed to Jewish fables.
But if you would have them give their goods to the poor, or
keep their virgin, here you have need of doctrine and exhort-
ation. Therefore the apostle said both, Com in and and teach.

m 1 lomil. xiii. in 2 Tim.



IN CANONS AND CENSURES. 559

Thus you see that a bishop must not only teach, but some-
times it is necessary that he should command." But then
this being a doctrinal precept, or commanding by the force
of a clear confessed doctrine, hath in it no empire, but that
it is a commanding in the name of God ; and means this only,
that some things are so clear and obvious, so necessary and
confessed, that he who neglects them is condemned by him-
self; he need not be taught, but only commanded to do his
duty : but, if he will not, God, who gave him the law, hath
also jurisdiction over him : and to this also the Church does
minister ; for the bishop commands him in God's name ; and
if he will not, he can punish him in God's name, that is, he
can denounce God's judgments against him ; and that is our
ministerial jurisdiction : he can declare him to be out of the
way of salvation, and unworthy to receive the holy mysteries
and pledges of salvation. This is our coercion.

13. But the use of the keys does differ from proper juris-
diction in this great thing, That if the keys be rightly used,
they do bind or loose respectively ; but if they err, they do
nothing upon the subject, they neither bind nor loose. Now
in proper jurisdiction it is otherwise: for, right or wrong, if
a man be condemned, he shall die for it ; and if he be hanged,
he is hanged. But the Church gives nothing but the sen-
tence of God, and tells upon what terms God will, or will
not, pardon. If the priest minister rightly, and judge accord-
ing to the will and laws of God, the subject shall find that
sentence made good in heaven by the real events of the other
world, which the priest pronounces here upon earth. But if the
priest be deceived, he is deceived for himself and for nobody
else ; he alters nothing of the state of the soul by his quick
absolution, or his unreasonable binding. For it is not true here
which the lawyers say of human jurisdictions, " Quod judex
errans pronunciavit, obauctoritatem jus dicentis transit in rem
judicatam." The priest hath no such authority, though the
civil power have. The error of the judge does not make the
sentence invalid ; his authority prevails above his error : but in
the other, it is the case of souls ; and therefore is conducted
by God only as to all real and material events, and depends
not upon the weakness and fallibilities of men. And there-
fore the power of remitting sins, given to the Church, is
nothing but an authority to minister that pardon which God



560 OF THE POWER OF THE CHURCH

gives by Jesus Christ. " The Church pardons sins as the
Levitical priest did cleanse the lepers," said St. Jerome;
that is, he did discern whether they were clean or no, and
so restored them to the congregation : but " apud Deum
non sententia sacerdotum, sed reorum vita quaeritur; God
regards not the sentence of the priest, but the life of the
penitent." For " the priest ' aliquid est ad ministrandum ac
dispensandum verbum ac sacramenta, ad mundandum autem
et justificandum non est aliquid, is something as to the
ministry and dispensation of the word and sacraments, but
nothing as to the purifying and justification of a sinner :' for
none works that in the inward man, but he who created the
whole man:" they are the words of St. Austin. This there-
fore is but * verbum reconciliationis ; the word of reconcilia-
tion is intrusted to us :' but we properly give no pardon, and
therefore inflict no punishment.

14. Indeed the power of the keys is, by a metaphor,
changed into a sword ; and St. Paul's wish, ' I would they



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