still be made and executed by men, but by men who will at least be too
discreet, if not too honest, to offend tlie sensibilities of the fair constitu-
ents to whom they look for future success, by excesses which now too
often characterize the lives of those high in office.
"But to the proposition that woman should be allowed a direct vote
in the administration of our public affairs, it is replied by those who
adopt the old-time condition of the sexes, without once stopping to think
for themselves, that none should be allowed to control our Legislature
and thereby levy war, except those who can shoulder the musket and
fight in the ranks. If this be a true test, what will you do Avith the aged
and infirm? Can a country only be saved by blood, by bayonets, by the
thunders of artillery ? Where in all the long lists of the illustrious of
the last decade stands the name of any one, amongst those who con-
tributed to the salvation of the country, so high as that of Salmon P.
Chase ? He never carried a musket ; he never heard the roar of cannon,
the thud of the minnie ball, or the scream of the shell. Yet if the ques-
HISTORY OF COLORADO 725
tion was this day put to the Americiui people, wliat single individual
contributed the most toward the suppression of the rebellion, the reply
would be almost, if not entirely, unanimous — Salmon P. Chase. Let
once the proper influence of woman be felt in our Legislative halls and
without stooping one inch from the high standard of honor and dignity
which should characterize a nation, war would cease with all its scenes
of bloodshed and sorrow. Must you retain control of the Legislature
and Executive departments of the Government in order that you may cut
each other's throat's? How much more would it ])econie the acts of a
great Christian nation, whose mission should be to cultivate the arts
of peace, to admit into its organization such influences as might and
would tend to make you more and more like that Divine Master whom
you as a nation profess to follow and worship.
"The question of female suffrage is a question which must be
solved by the American peoj^le, sooner or later, and that in the affirma-
tive. It is now only a question of time, and to you who are the repre-
sentatives of pioneers in all else, is presented the question, will you
also be the pioneers in this? Or will you be the followers of others?
Will you occupy a high niche in that temple, which must ere long be
erected to woman's worth and woman's virtues and intelligence, or will
you be content to occupy a lower place? Solve this problem by extend-
ing this right, and look to the gratitude of the women of the Republic
for your reward. It will speedily All up the waste places of your
valleys and mountains with a teeming population. It will give you
character and notoriety abroad, and in all lands and for all time will
be a living advertisement of the progress, the liberality and the intelli-
gence of Colorado and her people.
"For these reasons your committee, with the exception of Mr.
Maun, who dissents herefrom, would most respectfully report back to
the House this substitute for H. B. No. 25, with the recommendation that
"A. H. DeFrance,
Notwithstanding the affirmative arguments and appeals which were
so elaborately set forth in the reports of the two committees that had
had under consideration the question of "Female Suffrage," the Eighth
Legislative Assembly refrained from enacting any measure to extend to
women the right to vote. The adverse sentiment among the members
of the Assembly was, proportionately, stronger in the Council than in
the House, (jeorge A. Hinsdale, President of the Council, was one of
the leaders of the opposition; and that body had so high an opinion of
an "address against Female Suffrage," delivered by him at a public
meeting, that it ordered his speech to be printed for the infomiatiou
of the people.
While this failure to obtain the desired and necessary legislation
discouraged many of the advocates of the proposed reform, the cau.se
was not abandoned. However, it was not again, during the Territorial
period, urged with the vigor and enthusiasm that characterized the
efforts that were made in its behalf in 1870.
When, in December, 1875, the framers of our State Constitution
met and organized for the performance of their duties, the matter of
suffrage for women immediately was urged for favorable consideration
by them. One of the results of that movement was the convention's
adoption of a measure that opened the way for women to vote at elections
for directors of public schools and to participate officially in the adminis-
tration of school affairs. This constitutional provision, which is the
second clause of Section 1, of Article VII — Suffrage and Elections, reads
as here :
"That no person shall be denied the right to vote at any school
district election, nor to hold any school district office, on account of sex."
726 HISTORY OF COLORADO
Practical effect was given to this provisiou by an act of the State's
First General Assembly, approved on March 8, 1877, and which became
operative on June 6th of that year. Since that time women have been
elected frequently to take part in managing the affairs of public schools
While the framers of our Fundamental Law went no further in
direct measures for extending the right to vote, they made provisions
therefor which eventually resulted in conferring political equality upon
women in Colorado. The Constitution, in Section 2, of Article YII—
Suffrage and Elections, specitied as follows:
"The General A.ssembly shall, at the first session thereof, and may
at any subsequent session, enact laws to extend the right of suffrage to
women of lawful age, and otherwise qualified according to the pro\'isions
of this article. No such enactment shall be of effect until submitted to
the vote of the qualified electors at a general election, nor unless the
same be approved by a majority of those voting thereon."
Pursuant to this mandate, the First General Assembly of the State
enacted a measure providing for submitting the question of such suffrage
to a vote of the electors, at the general election to be held on October 1,
1878. In the ensuing summer, Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady
Stanton returned to the fray, and under tlieir leadership and that of
many prominent women of Colorado an active campaign in behalf of
the proposed innovation was made in most of the communities in the
However, the proposition was rejected at that election by a vote
of more than two to one, and at which there were 22,0-47 votes cast. Of
these, 14,053 were against the proposal and 6,612 in its favor, while 1,382
electors ignored the question.
After this disastrous defeat the movement for women's suffrage
practically rested for more than a decade. It was revived in 1892, and
its influence resulted in the election of a majority of Assemblymen
favorable to another submission of the question to the voters of the
State. By an act of the Ninth Assembly, and which was approved on
April 7, 1*893, provisions were made for resul)mitting the proposal at the
general election to be held on November 7th of that year. Although
the campaign in its favor was not so vigorous as that of 1878, the meas-
ure was approved by a fair, if not a large, majority. The total vote on
the question was 65,249, of which 35,798 were affirmative and 29,451
negative, the net result being a favorable majority of 6,347. After the
returns had been canvassed and the outcome determined officially. Gov-
ernor AVaite issued the following proclamation, which announced authori-
tatively that Colorado women now stood politically on an equality with
"Proclamation op the Governor of the State of Colorado.
"Whereas, The Ninth General Assembly of the State of Colorado
passed an act, approved April 7, 1893, entitled ' An act to submit to the
qualified electors of the State the question of extending the right of
suffrage to women of lawful age, and otherwise qualified, according to the
provisions of Article VII, Section 2, of the Constitution of Colorado, ' and
"Whereas, The said question, as provided in Section 2 of said act,
was submitted to the qualified voters of the State of Colorado at the
general election held on Tuesday, November 7, 1893, and
"Whereas, After canvass of the official returns of said election hy
the State Canva.ssing Board, it appeared that of the votes cast, 35,798
votes were cast for 'Equal Suff'rage Approved,' and 29,451 votes
were cast for 'Equal Suffrage Not Approved,' and that tlie majority for
'Equal Suffrage Approved' was 6,347 votes.
HISTORY OF COLORADO 727
"Now, therefoi-e, I, Davis H. "Waite, Governor of Colorado, do hereby
proclaim, as provided in Section 5 of said act, that every female person,
a resident of Colorado, shall be entitled to vote at all elections in the
same manner, in all respects as male persons, and subject to the same
"God and Liberty.
"Done at Denver, December 2, 1893.
"Davis H. Waite,
[seal] " Governor of Colorado.
"Nelson 0. McClees,
"Secretary of State."
When the barriers thus had been removed, it was believed by a
large portion of our people that the political field ofactivity would be-
come attractive to many women. But it has not yet generally proved
to be so. Those who have entered the arena of politics and attained
positions in the State's executive and legislative departments constitute
a number that is small, comparatively. Among the members of the
Tenth General Assembly, elected in November, lS9i, there were three
women. These — the pioneer feminine legi.slators in Colorado — were
Clara Cressingham and Frances S. Klock, of Denver (representatives of
the Araphoe County of that period), and Carrie S. Holly, of Pueblo (a
representative of Pueblo County). There were three women in the
Eleventh Assembly and a like number in the Twelfth. The Thirteenth
had but one. Each of the sueeeediug assemblies has had several women
in its membership. *
Since the year 1893 the office of State Superintendent of Public
Instruction has, by general consent, been conceded to women. Angette
J. Peavy, elected in November, 1891, was the first feminine incumbent
of the office, the term of which is two years, and unto the present time
the position successively has been filled by women. In the administra-
tion of county affairs women have been taking some part, aside from
serving as school directors, but thus far it has in the main been limited
in elective office to that of County Superintendent of Public Schools.
It has been conceded, even by those who have not approved the ex-
tension of suffrage to women, that in all the public positions which have
been held by women under that dispensation the duties thereof genei'ally
have been as intelligently and efSciently discharged as ever they had
been by masculine incumbents; and yet it may fairly be said that no
eon.spicuous political or economic reform has resulted directly from the
active participation of women in politics. The "conservative" element
in our State's population still maintains that the only conclusion that
is warranted clearly by the consequences of this expansion of suffrage
was expressed concisely in the words of a toast by a Denver jurist at a
banquet in that city, shortly after the advent of the innovation, and
which ran as follows : ' ' The women : once our superiors, now our eciuals.
COLORADO IN THE WAR WITH SPAIN. — INTEREST EXCITED IN OUR STATE BY
THE ONCOMING OP THE CONFLICT. — THE PRESIDENT'S C.VLL TO ARMS.
— CAMP ADAMS. — FIRST REGIMENT OF COLORADO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY.
— ITS ORGANIZATION. — NAMES AND RANK OF ITS OFFICERS. — DEPAR-
TURE OF THE »EGIMENT ON ITS WAY TO THE ORIENT. — DISTINGUISHED
SERVICES RENDERED BY IT IN THE PHILIPPINES. — ITS GALLANT PART
IN THE BATTLE OP ilANILA, AND IN OPERATIONS AGAINST THE FILIPINO
INSURGENTS. — RETURN OP THE REGIilENT FROM ITS FIELD OF DUTY. —
RECEPTION AT DENVER. — TRANSFERENCE OF ITS COLORS TO THE STATE.
— LIST OP ITS MEMBERS WHO DIED IN SERVICE. — THE REGIMENT "s LOW
fifTE OF MORTALITY FROM DISEASE. — COLORADO "s CAVALRY ORGANIZA-
TIONS.— NAMES AND RANK OP THEIR OFFICERS. — THEIR ASSIGNMENT
TO TORREY's REGIMENT OF "ROUGH RIDERS," OFFICIALLY KNOWN AS
THE SECOND REGIMENT OF UNITED STATES VOLUNTEER CAVALRY. — ITS
MOVEMENT TO JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA.- DEADLY ACCIDENT THAT BE-
FELL IT AT TUPELO, MISSISSIPPI. — ITS LACK OP OPPORTUNITY TO EN-
GAGE IN ACTIVE SERVICE. — ITS STAY AT JACKSONVILLE UNTIL MUS-
TERED OUT. — DEATHS AMONG ITS MEN AT THAT PLACE. — BATTERY A,
OF COLORADO VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY. — ITS ORGANIZATION. — NAMES AND
RANK OF ITS OFFICERS. — ITS BRIEF EXISTENCE, WITHOUT ACTIVE SERV-
ICE.— EARLY CONCLUSION OF THE CONFLICT WITH SPAIN. — PHASES OP
WAR BROUGHT BEFORE THE PEOPLE OF COLORADO.
In common with the citizens of every other part of the United
States, the people of Colorado watched with keen and absorbing inter-
est the international events in the winter of 1897-98 which foreshadowed
a war between our country and Spain, because of the intolerable con-
ditions which existed in Cuba at that time. As the situation became
more acute, public interest, in our State, as in all of the others, became
more intense ; and on receipt of tidings of the frightful and treacherous
tragedy in the harbor of Havana in the night of Februaiw 15, 1898,
causing the destruction of the United States battleship Maine, and the
death of 266 American sailors, the war-spirit instantly tiamed here as
it did elsewhere in every section of this land of ours.
The Nation waited patiently for the report of the commission ap-
pointed by President ]\IcKinley to investigate the unprecedented out-
rage that had occurred in the Havana harbor. But the temper of the
American people was reflected in the ominous and unanimous action
of Congress, on ]\Iarch 8th. appropriating for the national defense the
sum of $50,000,000 from the cash in the Federal Treasury— a financial
transaction that would have staggered any other nation in the world.
The report on the destruction of the Maine was sent to Congress by
the President on March 28th. Its eft'ect produced a nation-wide resolu-
tion that Spain must and immediately be driven out of the western
hemisphere; and the determination that she should be was as strong
in Colorado as in New York, or Georgia, or Oregon, or Massachusetts.
The awe-inspiring spectacle of the most powerful and yet the most
peaceful people in the world drawing the sword unselfishly in behalf
of neighbors cruelly oppressed was one that marked an epoch in the
histoi-y of the political divisions of the earth.
HISTORY OF COLORADO 729
It is not within my present pui'poses here to enter upon a discus-
sion of the causes of the then king-existing friction between the United
States and Spain, nor of the particulars of the immediate events that
precipitated the remarkable war of 1898. All that applies properly to
the present purpose is to relate the main circumstances and results
of Colorado's response to the Nation's call to arms.
War practically was declared by a joint resolution that was adopted
by Congress on April 13th, which recognized the independence of
Cuba, and directed the President to vise, if necessary, the land and
naval forces of the United States to compel Spain to cease her attempts
to maintain her authority over the island; and the impending struggle
was made inevitable by the ultimatum of the United States, on April
20th, giving Spain three days within which to comply with the de-
mand expressed in the .joint resolution. War formally was declared
by Congress on April 25th.
Under authority given, and as directed, by an act of Congress,
that was approved on April 22d, the President, at noon of the 23d—
the expiration of the three days of time specified in the ultimatum-
issued a proclamation calling for 125.0U0 volunteers to serve for two
years, unless sooner discharged. The response was an amazing rush
to amis by the men of the Nation. The quotas of the several States
relatively were small, and there was almost fierce competition among
gallant spirits to get into the ranks. The 125,000 were enlisted within
three weeks, and an army of a million others was disappointed and
dejected because its services could not be accepted. On May 25th the
President called for 75,000 additional volunteers, compliance with which
was only a physical matter of mustering in that number of applicants.
With the authorized increase of the regular army that had been made
in the meantime, the Nation, within two mouths from the first call, had
under arms 278,500 soldiers, and which probably were the best fighting-
men on the face of the earth.
At the time of the declaration of war, the Philippine Archipel-
ago was a part of the world that was but little known by the great body
of our country's population, and ^lanila was an oriental city that was
only a little more familiar to our people. The latter "s commercial fame
rested chiefly upon its large exports of hemp fi'om which a superior
quality of heavy cordage is made; but beyond this its name was asso-
ciated with nothing very definite by the great majority of the citizens
of the United States. Even after war was declared but few thought
of the Philippine Islands or of the city of Manila in connection with
the conflict. It was supposed almost by everyone that whatever there
would be of warfare would occur in the AVest India Archipelago. Yet
it wa.s to the former and far-oft' quar-ter of the globe that the Colorado
military organization that parti'-ipated in fighting service, departed
from Denver, trained, armed and completely equipped, on the twenty-
fourth day after the President had is.sued his first call for volunteers.
The events in :Manila Bay and their consequences, precipitated by
Admiral Dewey and his fleet, on :\Iay 1, 1898, had been as profound a
surprise to the" people of our country— though of a kind quite different
— as they were to Spain and the rest of the world.
In our State., as in the others, there was but one sentiment— an en-
thusiastic desire for a vigorous prosecution of the war, not only against
Spain, but also against any power that might have the temerity to at-
tempt to interfere in her "behalf. Party lines vanished, partisanship
disappeared, in the presence of the patriotic spirit that ruled th(j
thouuhts of every man.
Coloi-ado's apportionment under the President's calls for volun-
teers was one regiment of infantry, two troops of cavalry, and a battery
of artillery; a total of about 1,600 men— a meager moiety in compari-
son with the military ardor and possibilities of the State. Prior to
730 HISTORY OP COLORADO
1898, the States military establishment had consisted of two half-
strength regiments of infantry, three incomplete troops of cavalry, and
the Chaffee Light Artillery; but, early in 1898, in anticipation of war
with Spain, many recruits eagerly had enrolled themselves in these or-
ganizations in order that they might be in line for active service. Gov-
ernor Adams promptly mobilized the entire force, and on April 29th,
the sixth day after the President's call for volunteers, and in less than
forty-eight hours after receipt of advices from Washington announcing
Colorado's quota, the State's military organizations went into camp
near Denver's City Park, and named the encampment "Camp Adams,"
in honor of the Governor. AVithin one week thei'eafter a full regi-
ment of infantry, two troops of cavalry, and a battery of artillery —
Colorado's full allotment— practically were ready for service.
The field and staff' officers, appointed by Governor Adams for the
First Regiment of Colorado Infantry, and mustered into the service of
the United States on May 1st, were Irving Hale, of Denver, Colonel;
Henry B. McCoy, of Pueblo, Lieutenant Colonel; Cassius j\I. Moses
(former Adjutant General), of Pueblo, and Charles H. Anderson, of
Denver, Majors; Dr. Clayton Parkhill, of Denver, Surgeon, with the
rank of Major; Louis H. Kemble, of Denver, Surgeon, with the rank
of Captain; Charles E. Locke, of Denver, Assistant Surgeon, with the
rank of First Lieutenant; Alexander McD. Brooks, of Denver, Adju-
tant, with the rank of First Lieutenant : AVilliam B. Sawyer, of Denver,
Adjutant, with the rank of First Lieutenant ; and David L. Fleming,
of Leadville, Chaplain, with the rank of Captain.
The twelve company-organizations were designed to be, so far as
practicable, repi'esentative of ditt'erent sections of the State. The Na-
tional Guardsmen were in the main residents of the cities and towns,
and the companies of the National Guard had been identified with town
eonnnunities. In the organization of the new regiment it was the aim
to have this identity continued; although in adding recruits to fill the
Guard companies to the war standard the fresh men were assigned
without much regard to their individual local identity. However, when
the regimental organization had been completed, its several companies
were in a general way representative of several cities and towns and
their immediate neighborhoods; that is to say. Companies A and C were
from Pueblo; Companies B, E, I and K were fi-oni Denver; Companies
F and L from Leadville ; Company G from Cripple Creek ; Company H
from Boulder; and Company M from Colorado Springs. The company
Company A— John S. Stewart, Captain; William F. Dortenbaeh,
First Lieutenant; Samuel E. Thomas, Second Lieutenant.
Company B— Frank W. Carroll, Captain; Charles B. Lewis, First
Lieutenant ; Charles E. Hooper, Second Lieutenant.
Company C — Ewing E. Booth, Captain; William H. Sweeney,
First Lieutenant ; AVillard P. Bidwell, Second Lieutenant.
Company D— John A. Taylor, Captain ; George Borstadt, First
Lieutenant; Albert J. Luther, Second Lieutenant.
Company E — Kyle Rucker, Captain ; Clarence W. Lothrop, First
Lieutenant ; Rice W. ]\Ieans, Second Lieutenant.
Company F — G. Ralph Cummongs, Captain; Charles S. Haugh-
wout, First Lieutenant; AVillard G. Riggs, Second Lieutenant.
Company G — David P. Howard, Captain; Thomas C. Brown, First
Lieutenant; Walter P. Burke, Second Lieutenant.
Company H— Charles B. Eastman, Captain; Charles H. Wilcox,
First Lieutenant; Fred L. Perry, Second Lieutenant.
Company I— William R. Grove, Captain; Charles H. Hilton, Jr.,
First Lieutenant; Charles 0. Zollars, Second Lieutenant.
Company K— AMlliam A. Cornell, Captain : William J. Vannice,
First Lieutenant ; Ralph B. Lister, Second Lieutenant.
HISTORY OF COLORADO 731
Company L— David P. LaSalle, Captain; Cornelius F. O'Keefe,
First Lieutenant; Franklin Ballou, Jr., Second Lieutenant.
Company il— Clyde C. Spieer. Captain ; Charles H. Sleeper, First
Lieutenant ; James H. Gowdy, Second Lieutenant.
The First Colorado was a superb regiment; even above the high
standard of American volunteer organizations. Men from every walk
of western life were in its ranks, and a majority of them had beeii
made familiar with military dutias by their training- in the National
Guai'd. Every man had passed an unusually rigid physical examina-
tion, under which many others had failed to be aeeept&d. A consid-
erable number of the men of the two National Guard infantry regiments
were rejected under that exacting examination, and hundreds of others
also failed to meet its requirements. The result of this was that the
regiment included none but picked men, as nearly perfect, physically,
as men may be ; and a further result of this was seen later in the organi-
zation's small loss by disease in a country and under conditions pecul-
iarly favorable to large losses by such cause.
The regiment had hoped to be, as events quickly placed it, among
the pioneers in foreign service ; but the general expectation was that the
sei-vice would be in- Cuba. This appeared to be confirmed by early orders
that included the regiment among those which were directed to move to
Chickamauga, Tennessee. But within a few days thereafter the situa-
tion in the Philippines caused a change in the programme ; and on
May 13th the First Colorado was ordered to proceed to San Francisco,
anci thence by sea to Manila. On the 14th, the regiment left camp and
marched into Denver in the pride of its strength, and was presented
by the Sons of the Revolution with a fine national flag. On the loth, a
regimental flag, the gift of ]\Irs. AVilliam Cooke Daniels, was added