F. Schichau, Elbing.
Castle" . .
Harland & Wolff.
Castle" . .
Fairfield & Co.
White Star Line
Reciprocating and I L.P.
Harland & Wolff.
" Empress of
627-0 x 77-7x42-0
" Empress of
570-1 x 68-2 X42-O
" Niagara "
Union S. Ship-
ping Co. of
J. Brown, Clyde-
J. Brown, Clydebank,
" Narkunda " .
P. & O. Line.
Harland & Wolff.
" Ausonia ".
Cunard S.S. Co.
Parsons geared turbines,
" Mongolia " .
P. & O. Line.
SHIP AND SHIPBUILDING
field. On the deck, well protected by deckhouses, are four lines of
rails, which will take 54 lO-ton wagons. Heavy guns and heavy
machinery of all description were transported by these vessels.
Some of the most remarkable vessels in the world are the Sound
and Lake steamers of the United States. Recent vessels on the Lakes
are the largest paddle steamers ever built, such as the " City of
Cleveland III." (1907), 4,568 tons and 19 knots speed; " City of
Detroit III." (1912), 6,061 tons and 20 knots speed; and " Seand-
bee " (1912), 6,381 tons, 19! knots. This last remarkable vessel is
484-5 ft. x 58-1 ft. x 24-0 ft. To drive her paddle wheels she is
fitted with compound, three cylinder engines; cylinders being, one
66 in. in diameter, and two 96 in. in diameter, with a stroke of 9 feet.
Developments in Shipbuilding. The greatest innovations during
1910-20 were in connexion with rapid shipbuilding during the war.
The production of " standard ships " in Great Britain has been
already referred to. Six types were " standardized " (see Carter
I.N.A., 1918, and, for detailed summary with dimensions, Ship-
builder, May 1918).
Others were approved at a later date, and permission to build
large numbers of such ships was given to various shipbuilders. In
these ships special methods were adopted to reduce risk of sub-
marine attack, such as improved sub-division, making both ends
alike, with bridge, poop and forecastle ends rounded, funnels and
masts symmetrical in profile elevation with regard to a vertical line
amidships, but not on the fore and aft centre line so as to increase
difficulty of detecting speed and course of vessel. Very greatly
improved accommodation for ship's company was also provided.
The best method of expediting the building of merchant ships
occupied many minds, and proposals were made by Sir Eustace
d'Eyncourt in 1917 to simplify the construction of war-time vessels
by making all frame-lines straight, and the plating so far as practi-
cable of developable surfaces. A successful design was proposed on
this basis, and adopted by the Controller of Merchant Shipbuilding
for use in the fabricated ships about to be built at the National Ship-
yards on the Severn. The first fabricated " straight line ship," the
S.S. " War Climax," was completed at Wallsend by Swan, Hunter&
Co., on Sept. 28 1918, 31 weeks from laying keel.
In Great Britain large numbers of vessels of standard designs were
built by various shipbuilders according to their usual routine. The
" fabricated " ship followed later. In the United States, however,
the standard ships were mostly fabricated ships also. The first
series were produced by the Submarine Boat Corporation in new
premises at Newark Bay. The most wonderful of all the American
shipyards was, however, at Hog's I., Philadelphia, which in less than
12 months passed from open 50 ft. ground to the greatest shipyard
in the world, with full equipment and deep water jetties. The con-
tract was signed on Sept. 13 1917, and work started Sept. 20. The
first keel (S.S. " Quistconck ") was laid Feb. 12 1918, launched
Aug. 5 1918, and by Jan. 8 1919, 16 vessels had been launched and
7 completed, 50 slips had been built and 7 jetties, 1,000 ft. long and
too ft. wide for fitting out afloat. By April 17 1920, 102 ships of
800,000 tons d.w. had been launched and 84 of 657,000 tons com-
pleted. The fabricated parts were prepared in 90 engineering works
from 10 to 1,500 m. away.
Ferro-Concrcte Ships. For many years small vessels had been
built of reinforced concrete in localities where steel and the special
labour required for steel shipbuilding was not available. Such ves-
sels had been built in Italy, Norway and France. Between 1887
and 1917 some 200 craft had been built, but in the latter year the
subject was more seriously considered, and craft of increasing size
were built, and greater numbers of them fitted with propelling
machinery. In England 1,000 ton barges, tugs of 750 h.p,, and cargo
steamers of 1,150 tons d.w. were built. The first steamship,
" Armistice," was built at Barrow, and was reported to run well and
cost very much less than a steel ship for upkeep. In Great Britain
most of the concrete vessels were tow barges, but in a number of
cases steam or oil engines were fitted. Cargo boats 1,150 tons d.w.
205 ft. x 32 ft. with engines of 350 I. H.P. for 7^ knots, and tugs
125 ft. x 27 ft. 6 in. with engines of 750 I. H.P. were built. In the
United States very much larger vessels were built as experience was
gained. The S.S. "Faith" was 320 ft. x 44-5 ft. x 30 ft. d.w.
3>95 tons on 22 ft. 6 in. draught, triple expansion engine of 1, 600
I.H.P. were fitted giving loj knots speed. Others were built of
3,000, 3,500 and 7,500 tons d.w. as well as eight oil tankers of
7,500 d.w. The Emergency Fleet Corporation ordered 56 ships
of an aggregate d.w. of 300,000 tons, besides 34 barges and lighters.
Welded Ships. The Oxy-Acetylene process, for cutting out dam-
aged portions of ships and machinery, and for welding in portions in
the course of repair, has been of great service, particularly for the
repairs of large forgings, castings and boilers. To a less extent the
"Thermit " process has been used for welding purposes, but its
application has been of a comparatively limited character. During
recent years very considerable progress has been made in develop-
ing systems of electric welding, which were used to carry out repair
work of considerable magnitude during the war. It has also been
proposed that the complete ship should be welded, thus avoiding
a great portion of the labour and expense of riveting. Several sys-
tems have been developed which can be operated in the ordinary
shipyard^ and considerable progress has been made in Sweden,
England, the United States and France. In 1915 a small vessel
was built by Geary at Ashtabula Harbour, Ohio. This vessel was
42 ft. long, II ft. beam and 6 ft. 6 in. draught, and the welding was
carried out with bare metallic electrodes. Two vessels of 52 to 62 ft.
in length have also been built, one in France in 1919 and one in 1920
in Sweden " Esab IV." In each case the welding was carried out by
the Kjellberg process, and each of these craft is propelled by semi-
Diesel crude oil engines, which can also be used to provide electric
power for welding, and compressed air for use in carrying out the
repairs of ships by this process as they float in harbour. In this
process the arc is also used, but a fireproof sleeve of non-conducting
material projects over the arc so as to shield the molten metal from
oxidization. A boiler 15 ft. 6 in. in diameter, known as the Haw-
thprn-Wyber boiler, has been successfully constructed by means of
this process. The process of the General Electric Co. is quite differ-
ent; in this case metallic contact takes place, the welding material is
raised to the necessary temperature by resistance to the passage of
the current, and it is at the same time pressed into place by hydraulic
pressure. A 46-ft. section of a 9,600 ton vessel being built in New Jer-
sey has been used to test the practicability of this, and other methods,
and it is reported that these experiments show a saving of 60 % on
labour and 15% on material, as compared with riveted work.
During the war a steel barge, 120 ft. by 16 ft. and 275 tons dis 1 -
placement, was built at Richborough, Kent, in order to test to what
extent labour could be saved. Here the Quasi-Arc process was used
and the vessel was satisfactorily completed. On this system the
steel electrode has a sheath of blue asbestos, which melts and flows
down over the molten metal, thereby extinguishing the arc. This
asbestos also forms a floating covering over the molten metal and
protects it from oxidization. In order to give further protection, an
aluminium wire is carried down by the side of the steel electrode, so
that the molten aluminium may take up any oxygen which gets
beneath the flux. Messrs. Laird built a small sea-going vessel, the
S.S. " Fullagar," in 1920, using the Quasi-Arc process. If welding
can be adopted as the general practice, a very large saving should
arise in the cost of labour, and an appreciable saving in the case of
weight and material.
Isherwood System. For many years warships have been built on
the longitudinal system of framing, i.e. the principal structural
members of the framing run fore and aft in continuous girders, the
transverse framing being of a secondary character (apart from bulk-
heads), and fitted between the longitudinal girders as necessary for
local support. This system of framing has not found general accept-
ance for merchant ships, because of the theory long held by ship-
owners that a merchant ship must have such strong transverse
frames that she may ground in an ordinary berth with a cargo on
board and without damage. With the improved wharf accommoda-
tion now available for important vessels this idea is being gradually
relinquished. The most important movement in this connexion
was inaugurated by Mr. (later Sir) Joseph Isherwood, who devised
a plan for utilizing the whole of the framing of the bottom of the
ship and of the decks so that it might be incorporated as part of the
structural girder strength of the ship. In 1908, six ships were built
of 31,000 tons; for the next six years, 40 or 50 ships were built per
annum; but in 1915, under war conditions, the number very greatly
increased, and in 1918, 250 ships of nearly 2,500,000 tons dead-
weight capacity were built. Clearer holds, greater strength and a
saving of about 10% of weight of structure are obtained, as well as
decreased cost of building. By June 1921 1,400 ships, aggregating
12,000,000 dead-weight, had been built on this system.
The combination of a longitudinal system in the double bottom,
and a transverse system above the bottom, has been adopted by
Mr. W. Millar of Greenock, and several vessels have been built on
the Millar system. Other systems in which a longitudinal construe-
tion is adopted are associated with various names Mr. Foster
King, Dr, Montgomery, and Sir Westcott Abell.
The " Unsinkable " Ship. A so-called " unsinkable " ship has
been designed by M. La Parmentier. It consists of two cylinders,
22 ft. in diameter and about 300 ft. in length, each divided into
7 holds, connected so as to form a vessel 320 ft. in length and about
48 ft. extreme breadth, estimated to carry 4,250 tons d.w. on a
draught of 16 ft. fitted with twin screws, and engines of 700 H.P.
for eight knots. In 1921 several such vessels were being built in
the United States.
Cruiser Sterns. Several of the new liners have a rounded stern,
with the profile sloping forward in a curved line as it rises from the
water upwards. This is called a " cruiser stern," and is being very
generally adopted. It gives somewhat increased capacity, and with
the same total length of ship provides a longer water-line, thus
facilitating propulsion. In the case of a 55O-ft. ship, for 18 knots
this meant a decrease of 2,000 H.P., which resulted in a saving of
225 tons of machinery, as well as 220 tons of fuel per trip, giving a
saving of over qoo tons available for extra cargo. In 1921 over 160
vessels were built with sterns formed in this way.
On this system the flat plate rudder is replaced by two curved
plate rudders (" Kitchen rudders "), forming an almost cylindrical
casing round the propeller. By revolving these curved rudders as
desired the stream of water is directed as necessary by reaction to
steer the ship. For going astern the rudders are brought together
abaft the propeller.
Safety at Sea. During the war many other points were developed
for increase of safety in navigation, such as use of range-finders,
directional wireless, gyro-compasses, reflex sound apparatus, " clear
view " weather screens, submarine sound signalling, and " Leader "
cables laid along the bed of the channel.
Following the loss of the " Titanic " on April 16 1912, rigorous
enquiries were conducted, in New York under Senator W. A. Smith
of Michigan, and in London under Lord Mersey. In both cases
recommendations were made that liners should have boats for all,
regular boat drill, more efficient W.T. arrangements, and improved
sub-division in construction. The British Board of Trade appointed
two committees. Sir Archibald Denny presided over the first com-
mittee (Bulkheads and Sub-Division) and Sir John Biles over the
second committee (Boats and Davits). As a result the Board of
Trade laid draft rules before Parliament (Paper Cd. 6402 1912) and
took immediate action to improve the supply of boats, while ship-
owners proceeded to improve the sub-division of their ships. An
International Convention was called with a view to similar treat-
ment of these questions by all maritime powers. This Convention
was signed on Jan. 20 1914 and rules embodying the agreement as
to life-saving appliances were immediately put into force in Great
Britain (Parliamentary Paper 219 Merchant Shipping Life-Saving
Appliances dated May 8 1914). The whole Convention was dis-
cussed in Parliament, and an Act was passed (Aug. 10 1914) author-
izing its adoption, but the Board of Trade was left with the power to
decide the date on which the Act was to be put into operation. On
account of the war, action was postponed, but discussions were pro-
ceeding in 1921 between the principal maritime powers with a view
to the holding of another Convention.
During the war a great demand arose for improved life-saving
appliances. The most successful of all these was the Carley Life
Raft, made in the United States. It is made in various sizes. A large
copper pipe is bent into the form of an O, brazed up to be airtight,
surrounded by cork and canvas, provided with a strong rope netting
to form a floor within the O, and fitted with hand ropes, etc.. This
type was the means of saving very many lives ; for instance, a float
9 ft. by 14 ft. will support more than 60 people.
Research and Experiment. Increasing attention is being given to
the study of naval architecture and marine engineering, and of
research, in America as well as in Europe. Chiefly owing to the
advocacy of Sir W. H. White, and the generosity of Sir A. F. Yar-
row, a national experimental tank has, in England, been provided
at the National Physical Laboratory at Teddington. The experi-
ment tank is intended for the service of any shipbuilding or ship-
owning firm. Primarily intended for the experimental investigation
of any problems connected with ship resistance and propulsion, it
has -successfully dealt with such different problems as the manoeu-
vring of ships, torques on rudder heads, skin friction, resistance due
to rough seas, rolling and pitching of ships, stability of ships and
hydroplanes in motion on the water, and the form of flying-boat
hulls for efficient and stable action in getting on and off the water.
During the war it dealt with many problems, including the detec-
tion of submarines, mine-sweeping, torpedo firing, design of anchored
mines, protection against torpedoes, and the design of standard ships.
(E. T. D'E.)
SHIPPING (see 24.983). In the decade following 1910, the
influence of the World War had a profound effect on the shipping
industry. Nor can it be limited to the period between the be-
ginning of Aug. 1914 and Nov. 1918, when the Armistice was
signed. For many months after the cessation of hostilities, a
great strain was imposed on the British mercantile marine in the
repatriation of millions of men. Goods which could not be trans-
ported during the war were waiting in vast accumulations to be
carried, and in 1921 the effects on shipping were still being shown.
In fact, so far-reaching were the effects that they were certain to
be felt for many years.
(i) UNITED KINGDOM
The year 1910 was, judged by the ideas then ruling, a compara-
tively satisfactory one for British shipping, although the industry
did not entirely escape the consequences of a strike of coal-
miners caused by difficulties traceable to the operation of the
Eight Hours Act. In 1911 there were a number of industrial
disturbances, notably in the collieries, on the railways, at the
docks, among seamen and in the cotton-mills. Yet rates of
freight were on a higher basis than for some years previously.
The time charter rate, i.e. the monthly rate of hire per ton
dead-weight for ordinary cargo steamers, may be taken as a
good barometer of the condition of freight rates generally. As
compared with a rate of about 33. a ton, or rather more, ruling in
1910, the time charter rate rose to about 55. in 1911. There was
a further upward movement in 1912, which was regarded as
a very satisfactory year for the shipping industry. Time charter
rates ranged from about 45. 6d. a ton to 73. 6d. Employment
for shipping was good, although, as some set-off to the increased
rates, there was a general rise in working costs. In 1913 rates
declined, partly owing to the increase in shipbuilding which had
been carried out during the good years. The year 1914, destined
to be one of the most important for shipping as for all other in-
dustries, opened with freights on a downward grade, and in mid-
summer the industry was in a very depressed condition. All
freight rates for cargo steamers were low, and the liner companies
were feeling the severe competition of the German ownerships.
The two great German companies in the N. Atlantic trade the
Hamburg-Amerika and the Norddeutscher Lloyd had been for
years claiming a larger share of the passenger traffic. In the
summer of 1914 the Deutsche-Australische Gesellschaft an-
nounced its intention of inaugurating a direct service from Ham-
burg to New Zealand. Discussions were in progress with the
British shipping managers when war broke out.
Beginning of the World War. Immediately a number of liners
were requisitioned by the British Government for service as
merchant cruisers, transports, and hospital ships. Freight mar-
kets were almost staggered by the unexpected blow which had
fallen, and, at first, chartering of all sorts came to a standstill.
Happily, the Government at once put into operation a scheme
of war insurance on the lines of the recommendations of a com-
mittee which had been previously appointed and was presided
over by Mr. Huth Jackson. These recommendations provided
for the granting of war insurance on shipping by the Government
up to 80% of the values. This insurance was worked through
the mutual associations of shipowners which were in existence
for the purpose of covering such liabilities as shipowners could
not obtain under ordinary marine insurance policies. In the
preparation of this scheme Sir Norman Hill, the secretary of the
Liverpool Steamship Owners' Assn., had taken an active part.
The shipping entered in the Liverpool Steamship Owners' Assn.
represented 3, 948, 623 tons, and that in the Liverpool and London
War Risks Assn., which included the great bulk of the liner ton-
nage of the United Kingdom, 6,371,329 tons.
There were also important associations of the same kind with
headquarters in London and on the N.E. coast. The main result
of putting this scheme at once into operation was that all ships
could proceed on their voyages and others could leave without
involving disaster to their owners if the vessels were captured or
destroyed by the enemy. Had no such scheme been available, a
great many vessels, if not all, must have been detained in port.
Commerce would immediately have come to a stop. In those
days it was the possibility of capture by the enemy's surface
cruisers that was in men's minds: that was considered serious
enough. The risk of destruction by the enemy's submarines had
hardly been taken into account.
As a complement to this scheme for the insurance of hulls,
there was also established a Government office for the insurance
of cargo. The marine insurance market continued actively in
business, but underwriters had themselves realized that bad
news or heavy losses could easily have the result of forcing up
rates to levels that might be prohibitive for commerce. The
Government office was intended to exercise a steadying influence.
It was vital that essential goods should continue to be shipped,
and, if the risks were greater than insurance companies or private
underwriters could bear, it was for the nation to assume them.
The first rate quoted by the Government was 5 55. %. On
Aug. 8 the rate was reduced to 4 45., on Aug. 18 to 3 35., and
on Sept. 2 to 2 2S.
All the time underwriters in the market continued to write war
risks. Their rates of premium were frequently below those of the
Government, and there were many risks which the Government
office would not accept. For instance, the Government office
would not accept lines after a ship had left port. Merchants
sometimes found that larger quantities of goods had been shipped
than they had anticipated, or that the values were greater. Then
insurances were effected in the open market. As Germany was
no respecter of the rights of neutrals, insurances were also placed
in the market on behalf of steamship owners abroad. Some un-
derwriters of insurance companies and at Lloyd's wrote war
risks freely from the outset. They took big risks and made large
sums of money. The premium incomes of the insurance compa-
nies writing war risks were, in some cases, as much as five times
the pre-war standard. This was due not only to the demand for
insurance against war perils, but also to the great increase in
values of commodities which set in as they became scarce.
The Government office was inaugurated under the auspices
of the Board of Trade. The services of a number of leading under-
writers were enlisted. On Aug. 5 1914, the office was opened at
the Cannon Street hotel and the knowledge that there was a
market for the risks undoubtedly had a very reassuring effect.
While credit was due to several underwriters who gave their
services in the working of this scheme, much of the organization
fell upon Mr. W. E. Hargreaves, a leading member of Lloyd's,
who worked in close cooperation with the Board of Trade.
There were thus in existence from the very beginning of the