To this college the natives and the missionary societies, Presbyterian,
Anglican and Wesleyan, contributed; the Union Government gives
an annual grant. The college aims at providing education of uni-
versity standard and is open to coloured and Indian students.
The system of higher education was reorganized in 1918, after
much heated controversy (see below History). Under the new
scheme the university of S. Africa, with headquarters at Pretoria,
which replaced the university of the Cape of Good Hope, is an ex-
amjning body, having the following constituent colleges: Grey
University College, Bloemfontein, Huguenot College (for women),
Wellington, Natal University College, Pietermaritzburg, Rhodes
University College, Grahamstown, South African School of Mines,
Johannesburg, and Transvaal University College, Pretoria. The
new university of Cape Town provides for the residence as well as
the teaching of students ^men and women). A special feature of the
new Stellenbosch University is its agricultural faculty (the Transvaal
University College has also an agricultural faculty). The number
of university students in the Union increased from 1,171 in 1910 to
2,069 in 1918. In the last-named year the expenditure on higher
education in the Union was 240,000.
Finance. The unitary system of government adopted in 1910 was
strongly marked in the financial provisions made. All public
revenues were payable to the Union Government, and the funds
needed to carry on the administration of the provinces were provided
by grants from the Union Exchequer. By the Financial Relations
Act which came into force in April 1913 the Union Parliament
assigned the revenue derived from transfer duties, liquor licenses and
native pass fees in Transvaal labour districts to the provinces, but
gave the provinces no power of legislation in regard to such revenue.
Other sources of revenue, such as education fees, trading and pro-
fessional licenses were assigned to the provinces with power of legis-
lation in regard thereto. A subsidy from Union funds of one half
the ordinary expenditure of the provinces was also made, plus addi-
tional subsidies to Natal and the Orange Free State whose funds
were shown to be inadequate to meet the necessary expenditure.
The provinces are not allowed to borrow from any other source
than the Union Treasury.
All trust moneys, (e.g. post office savings bank moneys) are handed
over for investment to the Public Debt Commissioners. Any yearly
surplus of revenue over ordinary expenditure is paid to the Com-
missioners and by them applied to the redemption of debt.
Revenue and expenditure of the Union is divided into two distinct
iunds, the ordinary or general, and the railway and harbours.
The following table shows the ordinary revenue and expenditure,
for three typical financial years:
The chief sources of revenue for the year 1919-20, were as follows:
customs, 5,010,000; interest, 4,277,000; income, super, and
dividend taxes, 4,050,000; posts, telegraphs and telephones,
2,031,000; excise, 1,228,000, and mining revenue, 1,023,000. The
native poll and hut taxes produced altogether, 830,000. Among
the main items of expenditure for the same period were: public
debt, 6,940,000; provincial administrations, 3,520,000; justice,
3,209,000; postal, etc., services, 2,144,000; defence, 1,575,000;
pensions, 1,200,000; interior, 1,019,000; agriculture, 861,000, and
public works, 614,000.
Railway and harbour finance is controlled by a board presided over
by a cabinet minister. The management of harbours and railways is
required to be upon business principles. The following table shows
receipts and expenditure for these services in the years named :
Harbours (receipts) .
Railways (receipts) .
The war expenditure of the Union was met out of loan funds,
the total charge on such funds amounting on March 31 1920 to
29,736,000. At the same date the public debt of the Union was
THE SOUTH-WEST PROTECTORATE
After the surrender, in July 1915, of the German forces in
S.W. Africa Gen. P. S. Beves was appointed military governor of
the protectorate. 1 None of the German inhabitants was then
repatriated and while the regular troops were placed in intern-
ment camps the civilians were allowed to return to their homes
and continue their ordinary business. Mr. (afterwards Sir)
E. H. L. Gorges, Secretary of the Interior in the Union, who had
at Gen. Botha's request already drawn up a scheme for the
future administration of the protectorate was made chief civil
secretary. On Oct. 30 1915, on Gen. Beves's departure the two
offices named were abolished and the functions of both taken
over by Mr. Gorges with the title of Administrator. This post
he retained until nearly the close of the military occupation
period, which lasted till the end of 1920. Martial law remained in
force but in a mild form and the administration was on civilian
lines. At the beginning of 1917 it was found necessary to send
an expedition to Ovamboland, the northern and most populous
part of the protectorate, where German authority had been very
slight. A chief named Mandume proved recalcitrant and two
battalions, the first and the fourth of the S.A. Mounted Rifle-
men, together with a composite regiment of military constabulary
were sent against him, Col. de Jager being in command. The
expedition, despite fever, flood and dense forest, as well as the
opposition of the natives, was successful. Excellent relations
were afterwards established with the Ovambo.
In the rest of the protectorate S.A. rule was from the first
welcomed by the natives, and the Germans gave no serious
trouble. Until nearly the close of the World War they believed
that the British occupation was temporary, being confident in
the ultimate victory of Germany. This was evidenced by the
fact that the German banks and traders maintained a rate of
exchange of 24 marks to the sterling until Nov. 1918 the
month of the Armistice. Instances were known of farmers selling
their stock for sterling and converting it into paper marks. Where
the artificial rate of exchange broke down serious losses followed.
The Germans, however, continued to entertain false hopes, and
after the Armistice they wrote to President Wilson asking his
help on " self-determination " lines. They desired, they said,
to become an autonomous republic leagued to the German re-
public, and this solution, they gratuitously added, would, they
believed, meet the wishes of the natives. In 1919 the German
1 For earlier events see GERMAN SOUTH-WEST AFRICA.
soldiers about 5,800 in all together with some 600 " un-
desirables" were repatriated. This still left, according to official
figures, over 9,000 Germans in the protectorate. These Ger-
man settlers continued hostile to Union rule, and obnoxious
to authority. Lord Buxton, then governor-general of the Union,
who visited Windhuk, the capital, in Oct. 1919, took occasion to
inform them that the severance from Germany was irrevocable,
and that the protectorate would in future form an integral part of
the Union. Gen. Smuts when on an official visit to the territory
in Sept. 1920 used similar language. The Germans had informed
him that the country should be administered as " an independent
province," and that the German civil code should continue,
arguing that the introduction of the Roman-Dutch law would be
" a retrogression of centuries." They also asked for the recogni-
tion of German as an official language, and the maintenance by
the State of the German schools, but were refused.
By the treaty of Versailles Germany had renounced sovereignty
over the protectorate, and in accordance with its provisions the
Supreme Council in May 1919 assigned the mandate for the
territory to the Union of S. Africa. An Act was passed by the
Union Parliament in Sept. 1919 to give effect to the mandatory
powers; finally the mandate was confirmed by the Council of the
League of Nations on Dec. 17 1920. On Jan. 3 1921, martial law
was withdrawn and Mr. Gysbert Hofmeyer, who had succeeded
Sir Howard Gorges as Administrator in Oct. 1920, was given a
nominated advisory council of six members. This council met
for the first time on Feb. 2 1921.
Settlers and Industries. In general the laws in force in, and the
economic policy of, the Union was applied to the protectorate from
the early days of Sir Howard Gorges's rule. Walfish Bay, the only
good harbour on the S.W. coast, had languished. It had formed a
small British enclave in what was German territory, and without
hinterland, served only the purpose from which it got its name a
whaling station. Swakopmund was an artificial and poor port. The
Union authorities built a line (22 m. long) from Walfish Bay to
Swakopmund, and thus gave the protectorate its natural sea outlet.
The whole length of the line from Walfish Bay to Windhuk was
relaid on the standard S.A. gauge of 3 ft. 6 inches. In 1921 the
Railways and Harbour Board undertook the construction of a line
(132 m. long) eastward from Windhuk to Gobabis.
While no crown lands were alienated up to 1921 temporary licenses
were granted and many members of the army of occupation on
demobilization settled in the country with their families. A fairly
large British-Dutch population soon grew up, evidenced sufficiently
by the fact that in 1920 there were 975 children attending Govern-
ment schools. 2 The new settlers were chiefly engaged in stock raising
and farming; the copper, tin, and diamond mines were already in
beneficial occupation, largely with British capital. The Otavi mines
in the years 1916-8 produced 100,000 tons of copper ore, valued at
600,000. The expectation that the Liideritzbucht (Luderitz Bay)
diamond fields would be thrown open to all comers was not realized.
At the end of 1915 some of the companies on the diamond field were
allowed to resume work; between Oct. 1915 and Jan. 1919 diamonds
valued at 1,900,000 were obtained. Later the whole diamond field
came under the control of one company, which entered into a work-
ing arrangement with De Beers and other diamond mining com-
panies in the Union. The depression in trade led, in 1921, to the
temporary closing of the mines. Depending upon diamonds for pros-
perity, was, declared Mr. Hofmeyer, like building on sand.
Trade and Revenue. During the war external trade was all over-
land with the Union, trade being facilitated by the line built in 1915
from Prieska to Kalkfontein to connect the two railway systems.
Customs duties were those in force in the Union, with free trade
between the Union and the protectorate. During 1918 the value of
imports was 1,031,000, about one half being S.A. produce. Of the
total imports 409,000 represented the value of food and drink, and
181,000 cotton goods. The value of exports in 1918 was 817,000.
The chief items were, diamonds 652,000, copper ore 55,000, cattle
and small stock 57,000, horns, hides and skins 35,000.
The revenue of the protectorate in the financial year 19178 was
295,000; and in 1918-9 377,000, of which 275,000 was from the
tax on diamonds. The expenditure for the two years named was
650,000 and 744,000 ; as to more than three-fourths the expendi-
ture was on the upkeep of the garrison.
Native Affairs. Nowhere else had German methods of dealing
with the natives been more ruthless than in S.W. Africa. The result
of an examination of German judicial and administrative methods
and documents was made public in 1918. It showed that not only
2 The German settlers had separate schools. Efforts were made in
1921 to induce them to abandon these schools. They were offered
" mother-tongue " instruction up to standard VI., coupled with the
compulsory learning of either English or Dutch.
during the Herero and Hottentot wars but in peace time the natives
were systematically subjected to brutalities and robberies, by the
Government as well as by the settler. One consequence was that,
apart from Ovamboland, where the Germans had little authority,
the native population had decreased from some 130,000 in 1904 to
37,000 in 1911. In 1920 it was estimated at 80,000. To reconstruct,
as far as practicable, tribal organization, Sir Howard Gorges estab-
lished native reserves (over 4,000,000 ac. in all) controlled by heredi-
tary chiefs, when such survived, or by an elected or nominated
headman. To these men small salaries were given. Rules to pro-
tect natives in the railway and other public departments and in
European private service were enforced.
THE NATIVE PROTECTORATES
No change was made in the political status of the native
protectorates Basutoland, the Bechuanaland protectorate and
Swaziland in the period 1910-21. They remained under the
control of the Colonial Office, represented by the High Com-
missioner for S.A. and were administered by resident com-
missioners. They form in whole, or in greater part, native
reserves, and the Basuto and Bechuana showed marked disin-
clination to incorporation in the Union of S. Africa. All three
Basutoland. At the 1921 census the people numbered 500,544
(of whom 1,615 were whites and 155 Asiatics) compared with
403,845 in 1911 and 348,848 in 1904; of the total pop. in 1921 males
numbered 224,435 an d females 276,109. Maseru, the capital and
largest town had (1920) approximately 900 native and 500 white
inhabitants. Outside Maseru, the white residents are nearly all
officials or missionaries. Ownership of land by whites is forbidden.
Some 20,000 male Basutos are normally employed outside the coun-
try mostly on the Rand gold mines. Agriculture and stock raising
are the chief occupation of the people.
Education is in the hands of the missionary societies, except for
four small Government schools. In 1919 there were in all 344 schools
with 28,500 scholars, most of the schools being maintained by the
French Protestant Mission (the Paris Evangelical Society). Grants
in aid are made by the administration (25,000 in 1920-1). Serious
crime is rare and the drinking habits of the people, which once
threatened their destruction, have been very largely abandoned
under missionary influence. About one-fourth of the Basutos prefers
Christianity. Trade is almost exclusively with the Cape and Free
State provinces; the Basuto export grain, cattle, wool and mohair,
and horses; and import mainly clothing, ploughs, saddlery, iron and
tin ware, and groceries. The value of imports increased from 239,000
in 1908 to 1,137,000 in 1919. In the same period the value of exports
rose from 193,000 to 1,380,000 in part due to inflated prices
obtained for wool and mohair.
Financially Basutoland is self-supporting. Revenue is obtained
from customs, licenses and, principally, from the poll tax on natives.
This tax was substituted in ion for the hut tax previously enforced.
A tax of i per annum on adult males was then put in force, but if
a Basuto had more than one wife, he paid i per annum for each
wife, up to a maximum of 3 for himself and his wives. This tax
yielded 92,000 in 1913 ana 106,000 in 1918-9. Total revenue
increased from 145,000 in 1910-1 to 199,000 in 1919-20; the corre-
sponding figures for expenditure were 134,000 and 202,000.
The system of government which under a resident commissioner
allows a measure of home rule to the Basutos continued to work
well. The pitso or national council meets yearly, 95 out of its 100
members being nominated by the chiefs and the other five by the
administration. It has advisory powers only, but its advice is often
taken. Sir H. C. Sloley who had been resident commissioner since
1901, and who earned the full confidence of the people, was in Dec.
1917 succeeded by Lt.-Col. E. C. F. Garraway. Letsie II., who had
been paramount chief since 1905, died in Jan. 1913. He was a great
grandson of Moshesh, the founder of the Basuto nation and dynasty,
and was succeeded by his brother Griffith. When the World War
began Griffith and his people offered to raise regiments for com-
batant service. The offer was declined, to the grief of the Basutos,
to whom service with the labour contingent did not appeal. How-
ever, 1,400 Basutos served with the S. A. Native Labour Contingent
in France, and many were employed in S.W. and E. Africa. The
Basuto also contributed 50,000 to war funds. In 1921 the new
High Commissioner, Prince Arthur of Connaught, visited Maseru,
and the presence of a member of the royal house was made the occa-
sion for a national tribute by the " Sons of Moshesh " as the
Basutos call themselves to their loyalty to the British throne and
their wish to remain directly under imperial control.
Bechuanaland. The Bechuanaland protectorate is a much poorer
country than Basutoland and the Bechuana are a less virile race
than the Basuto. Bathoen, paramount chief of the Bangwaketse,
died in July 1910 and Sebele, paramount chief of the Bakwena, died
in Jan. 1911. Montsioa, chief of the Baralong, died in April 1911.
All these chiefs were noted men in the early struggles between the
Boers and British for the possession of Bechuanaland, Sebele being
a son of the chief Sechele, the friend of David Livingstone. Khama,
the chief of the Bamangwato, and a Christian from his youth, still
survived in 1921 and had then ruled over his people with undisputed
authority for some 50 years.
The Bamangwato are the largest tribe, numbering about 40,000.
The people grow maize, kaffir corn and other crops but their chief
wealth is in cattle, and cattle hides and skins are the chief exports.
Firewood and timber for mining props are also exported. In 1917-8
exports to the Union included 23,600 horned cattle and 36,000 sheep
and goats. The chief markets are Kimberley, Mafeking and Johan-
nesburg. For customs purposes the protectorate is dealt with as
part of the Union and no statistics as to value of imports and exports
are kept. Revenue, 52,000 in 1910-1, first exceeded expenditure
in 1915-6, when the figures were revenue 70,000, expenditure
68,000. In 1919-20 revenue was 81,500, expenditure 91,600.
Deficits were made good by grants from the Imperial Exchequer.
The seat of the administration is Mafeking, in the Cape province.
Mr. I. C. Macgregor became resident commissioner in 1917. Khama's
headquarters are at Serowe (pop., 1920, about 25,000).
Swaziland. At the 1921 census the inhabitants numbered 113,772,
of whom 2,203 were whites. Of the total pop. 54,702 were males
and 59,070 females. The state of chaos into which Swaziland had
fallen owing to the indiscriminate grant of concessions (see 26.181)
was ended by 1914. The partition of rights between the European
concessionnaires and the Swazis was completed in IQII, and those
natives who were required to move from properties held by whites
by July 1914, did so voluntarily such as did move, for many natives
made terms with the concessionnaires and remained on their farms.
Out of a total area of 4,274,000 ac. 1,635,000 ac. were set aside as
Swazj reserves; in addition the Swazis bought 77,000 acres. The
Swazis raise maize and other crops and own large stocks of cattle
while 7,000 to 10,000 Swazis are usually at work on the Rand mines.
The whites engage in agriculture, including fruit farming and cot-
ton and tobacco growing and in mining. The gold mines, which pro-
duced 6,497 oz. in 1915-6, were closed down as unprofitable in 1917.
Tin of a total value of 346,000 was produced in the years 1915-20.
The large coal deposits in the protectorate had not been exploited
up to 1921. No separate statistics of Swaziland trade are kept.
Revenue which in 1910-1 was 58,000 had risen to 91,800 in 1919-
20. Expenditure in the same period rose from 62,000 to 87,000.
The settlement of the concessions' questions cost 182,000.
The administration is under the charge of a resident commissioner,
with headquarters at Mbabane, a small, picturesquely situated hill
village (altitude 4,000 ft.) overlooking the middle veld. The para-
mount chief and other chiefs exercise jurisdiction in all civil cases in
which natives only are concerned. Naba Tsibeni, the " queen
regent," a well-known figure in Swazi history acted for many years
as paramount chief, until the coming of age of her grandson Sobhuza
(born about 1900). Education is mainly in the hands of missionaries;
Sobhuza was educated at a Government school established at Naba
Tsibenis Kraal. Mr. De S. M. G. Honey who had served in Swazi-
land since 1904 became in 1917 resident commissioner.
The 12 years (1910-21) following the establishment of the
Union of S.A. were marked by political, racial and industrial
crises which profoundly affected the future of the country.
The most urgent issue was raised by a powerful section of the
Dutch community, which revived a narrow Nationalism and
developed a demand for the separation of the Union from the
British Empire. Coupled with this conception went strong
opposition to action against Germany, or any share in the World
War. But this Nationalist section, whose greatest figure was
ex-President Steyn and whose mouthpiece was Gen. Hertzog,
was unable to control events. The policy of Gens. Botha and
Smuts of " building up a new State on non-racial lines " and
as an equal member of the British Commonwealth prevailed.
Besides this main issue the growth of an organized Labour
party, which found its chief stronghold on the Rand and put
forward an advanced socialistic programme, presented perplexing
problems to a community new to such manifestations. The
position of Indians in the Union, and the resolve of the white
races to prevent further immigration of Asiatics was another
problem which caused acute controversy, only partially silenced
by the ultimate assent of the Government of India to the policy
of exclusion. And behind all these questions was the ever-
present problem of the relation between the white and native
races. Signs multiplied that the Bantu peoples, gaining in
knowledge and an increasing factor in industry, had acquired a
sense of race solidarity and would not rest satisfied with their
existing economic, social and political status.
While these racial and political questions held the field they
were accompanied by a steady development of the material
resources of the country and of trade. The progress in agriculture
and in mining was marked; a beginning was made in manufac-
tures. The benefit of unification in this respect was apparent.
That benefit was even more apparent in the relations of S.A.
with the outside world; she spoke with one voice and as a power-
ful unit. The new position which S.A. had acquired, in common
with the other British Dominions, was seen when as a separate
entity she was represented at the Peace Conference in Paris and
her delegates signed the Treaty of Versailles.
Outside the Union the period under review was chiefly notice-
able for two things: the disappearance of German sovereignty
accompanied by the transfer of the administration of ex-German
S.W. Africa to the Union, and the decision to terminate the
government of Rhodesia by the Chartered Company, in response
to the demand of Rhodesians for self-government.
The Union had been brought about by the recognition by
the leaders of the Dutch and British communities that S.A.
was one country, not several, and that in every part
rs ^ ^ t ^ le ' nterests f the two race s were so intermixed
Ministry. tnat they could not be separated without harm to
both. Lord Gladstone, the first governor-general of
the Union, had called upon Gen. Botha, the Prime Minister of
the Transvaal, to form the first Ministry under the Union. 1
This Gen. Botha had done and this Ministry came into existence
on May 31 1910, the day on which the Union was proclaimed
(being the eighth anniversary of the close of the Anglo-Boer War).
General Botha's Ministry was formed from members of the
expiring Cabinets of the various colonies, but while it included
Natal ministers and strong Boer partisans it was not a coalition
ministry. The first general election, held on Sept. 15 1910, was
fought on party lines and was hotly contested. It resulted in a
majority for the " South African " party, that led by Gen. Botha,
of 13 over all other parties, though Gen. Botha himself was
defeated at Pretoria East by Sir Percy Fitzpatrick and a seat