unites it to Upper Styria. The northern part of Upper Styria is
occupied by the heights of the IfdrdHchen Kalkalpen. The eastern
part of the Noric Alps, the Bachern together with the Posruck,
now belongs to the Southern Slav State.
Population. The pop. of the Styria of to-day was, in 1910,
952.59; in I9 2 it had decreased to about 946,720 (151 per sq.m.).
It is almost purely German. The proportion of males to females in
1910 was as 1,000 to 983; in 1920 as 1,000 to 1,053. While Styria
lost some 75,000 Germans, among whom were 9,000 belonging to
the exclusively German-speaking districts, she has now only about
5,000 Slovene inhabitants. In 1910 the pop. of'the present-day
Styria was as to 97-4% Roman Catholic and 2-1 % Evangelical.
For administrative purposes, Styria is divided into 16 districts
and the autonomous city of Graz, the capital (pop. 157,032 in 1920).
Other important places are: (pop. figures are taken from the census
of 1920) in the Traun and Enns district of Upper Styria Bad
Aussee (pop. 1,370); Eisenerz (pop. 6,337); Manazell, the famous
resort of pilgrims (pop. 1,881); in the Upper Mur district Juden-
burg (pop. 5,668); Fohnsdorf (pop. 7,199); Zeltweg (pop. 3,682);
Knittelfeld (pop. 10,672); Leoben (pop. 11,231); Donawitz (pop.
15.087); Vordernberg (pop. 2,352); Bruck an der Mur (pop. 8,490);
in Miirz-Thal Kappenberg (pop. 12,576); Miirzzuschlag (pop.
6,483) ; in Middle Styria Konach (pop. 2,655) ; Voitsberg (pop.
3,283); Eggenberg bei Graz (pop. 15,554): Weiz (pop. 3,620);
Furstenfeld (pop. 5,649) and the Gleichenberg Spa, Kurort Gleichen-
berg (pop. 872).
Education. Styria has three higher educational establishments,
namely the university and the technical college of Graz and the
Montanist College in Leoben.
Notwithstanding the great unevenness of the surface, only 8-0 %
of the present Styria could be reckoned as unproductive in 1900.
Of the productive parts, 19-1% was arable; 0-9% gardens; 0-5%
SUBMARINE CABLE TELEGRAPHY
vineyards; 11-8% meadows; 13-3% grazing lands; 54-4% was,
however, forest. This territory is justly called " green Styria."
Cattle-raising has greatly developed and farming is actively car-
ried on on the high lands. Nevertheless, in 1918 there were only
358,108 head of cattle (of which 170,630 were milch-cows) and
344,188 swine. A good breed of horses exists in Ennsthal and con-
siderable attention is devoted to poultry-farming in Middle Styria,
where the shooting and fishing are good. The forests yield a great
variety of timber.
Minerals. Styria is so rich in iron ore that it has been called the
" land of iron " (eiserne Mark). Lignite is also abundant. Of the
total output of the mines of present-day Austria (51,000,000 kronen
in 1915) 71% (36,000,000 kronen) is attributed to Styria; its out-
put of iron (1-8 million tons in 1915) is over 94% of the Austrian
total. Iron-mining is almost exclusively confined to the Erzberg
between Eisenerz and Vordernberg. The manufacture of iron in
Austria is now almost entirely confined to Styria (538,753 tons out
of a total of 541,004 tons). The most important iron-smelting works
are in or near the above-named region and at Hieflau, Trofaiach
and especially Donawitz; in the lignite districts, in Zeltweg and
Knittelfeld, near the lignite diggings of Fohnsdorf and in Eibis-
wald; also in Murz-Thal (Kapfenberg, Miirzzuschlag). The Miirz-
Thal is also the centre of the newly created scythe-making industry.
The lignite produced, 1-8 million tons or over 74 % of the Austrian
total, is found in many places. The most important mines are at
Fohnsdorf in Upper Styria; the product of those near Leoben is
used by the great metal works of Donawitz and others and there
are smaller mines in Murz-Thal; in Western Middle Styria in the
districts of Hoflach and Voitsberg and those of Eibiswald and Wies.
Styria also produces salt; 28,000 tons, some 17% of the whole
Austrian output, was obtained near Aussee in 1915. It yields also
almost the entire Austrian output of graphite and some sulphur,
lead and zinc ores, clay and building stone. The output of mag-
nesite has become especially important; Styria alone almost sup-
plies the world, chiefly from the neighbourhood of Veitsch, Trieben,
Kraubath, in the Breitenau near Brack and elsewhere.
Water-power. The plentiful and accessible supply of water-power
has caused the installation of great electrical stations of which,
however, full advantage has not been taken. The electrical works
of Weiz are world-famed.
Manufactures. Notable Styrian manufacturing industries are
those of the iron works at the places already named, also at Pallen-
Thal (Rottenmann, Trieben) and at and near Graz. These turn out
a great variety of iron goods; small articles as well as scythes,
machinery, locomotives (Graz), bicycles (Graz) and wagons.
Graz makes carriages and automobiles and also holds an important
place in the wide-spread wood industries (including furniture).
The manufactures of lignite and cellulose, pasteboard, paper (Grat-
Korn, near Graz, and other places), also of beer (Graz), tiles, flour,
leather, explosives (Deutsch-Landsberg and other places) are con-
siderable. Less important are flour-milling, and the textile, glass,
tobacco and chemical industries.
Communications. The new frontier cuts through the Marburg-
Unterdrauburg line so that the connexion between Middle Styria
and Carinthia goes a long way round, causing considerable incon-
venience. Mariazell is now connected by rail with Vienna.
SUBMARINE CABLE TELEGRAPHY (see 26.527). In 1921
there were over 298,000 nautical miles of telegraph cable in opera-
tion at the sea bottom, made up of some 3,000 separate lengths,
of which about 2,540 were administered by the various govern-
ments concerned, whilst the remainder were the property of
private (mainly British) companies. Of the world's cables, over
130,000 n.m. are owned by British companies, 71,000 by Ameri-
can companies, and 24,000 by companies of other countries. How
much the Allied countries especially Britain were indebted to
submarine telegraphy in connexion with the World War will
probably never be fully realized. Had British communication
with the Dominions been cut off at the outset by the enemy,
months would have elapsed before arrangements could have been
completed for the despatch of the overseas contingents which
rushed to British aid. On the other hand, within four hours of
the declaration of war, Germany was entirely deprived of direct
telegraphic communication with the United States. A British
cruiser effected the required interruption in the English Channel
by cutting both the cables running between Emden and New
York via the Azores, one being taken in to Penzance ( Cornwall).
Then in March 1917 they were both cut at points 643 and 610
n.m. respectively from New York, one of them being diverted by
a British P.O. telegraph ship into Halifax, Nova Scotia. Since
July 1917 this has been at any rate temporarily turned to account
as a connecting link with the All-British Pacific Cable system.
The other line was handed over to France and taken in to
Brest. 1 Altogether 20,000 n.m. of ex-German cables were cap-
tured during the war, covering practically every one of those
passing through the English Channel.
Remarkable indeed were the achievements of submarine tele-
graph cable- laying and repairing authorities during the war. I
Despite the active German submarine warfare, a vast number
stand to the credit of British ships, largely to meet immediate
strategic requirements. Whilst some of these were effected by
cruisers of the Royal Navy provided with the necessary apparatus
and the required length of cable, they were in the most part
carried out by specially designed telegraph ships, though accom-
panied as often as possible (where especially desirable) by a
man-of-war as escort. In addition to manufacturing 20,000 m.
of trench telephone cable, the Telegraph Construction and Main-
tenance Co. made 19,000 m. of submarine cable, and its ships
were actively engaged on highly dangerous work in the way of
laying, repairing and diverting cables. The " Telconia " per-
haps the most efficiently designed telegraph ship in existence
made 75 cable repairs and laid 24 new lines around the English
and Irish coasts whilst in commission for H.M. Post Office.
The first entirely new cable to be laid during the war was that
by the Telegraph Construction Co.'s T.S. " Colonia " between
Montevideo and the Falkland Is. in 1915, under the auspices of
the British Admiralty. In the same year, this company also laid,
under Post Office supervision, a direct Anglo-Russian cable from
Peterhead (Aberdeenshire) to Alexandrovsk (about the nearest
Arctic Ocean coast point to Petrograd). In both instances this
was the earliest occasion on which a cable had been brought to
the farther point. The first line had purely strategic objects in
view, but the second was more especially to meet the fact that
communication between Britain and Russia had previously been
only effected across countries that were now to a great extent en-
emy countries; indeed, the Indo-European Telegraph Co.'s land
line system had become practically inoperative ever since the
out break of the war. This work was a truly remarkable feat. The
cable was laid in the winter and was landed on Russian territory
at the time of year when the sun does not rise above the horizon
in those northern latitudes. In fact, the entire undertaking had
to be carried out in darkness, as well as in seas infested with enemy
submarines. It was conducted with every possible secrecy, it
being arranged for the " Colonia," in order to mislead the enemy,
to go on a preliminary cruise in an entirely different direction.
With land lines at each end and special repeaters, direct tele-
graphic communication was thus established between the Central
Telegraph Office in London and the corresponding building in
Petrograd. Moreover, many telegrams from countries S. of Rus-
sia Greece, for instance passed over this cable in making their
circuitous journey from the Levant to various quarters of the
globe. This was the first piece of ocean cable work that the Brit-
ish Post Office had ever had to do with. Thus, for its purpose,
Post Office engineers and clerks were initiated, at short notice, in
the art of deep-sea cable-laying and long distance cable-working
at the hands of the contractors, as well as by a staff of the Eastern
Telegraph Co. provided for working the cable. 2
The other more especially important piece of British cable
work was the putting through of one of the Emden-New York
cables as the first Imperial Atlantic cable to link up with the
All-British Pacific line. The path taken by what now constitutes
a completed "All Red " route to Australasia is London, Penzance,
Fayal Isle, Azores (mid- Atlantic), Halifax, Bamfield (Van-
couver), Fanning I. (a small, mid-Pacific, coral formation),
Suva (Fiji Is.), Norfolk I., from whence there are two branches,
one to Southport, Queensland (Australia) and the other to
Auckland (New Zealand).
The Atlantic section of this " All Red " cable system was being
worked in 1921 by the Post Office. Thus it has come to pass that
a Government department, that, conjointly with the great cable
companies, had opposed in turn the scheme for an All-British
1 Owing to the enemy's submarine activities, the late German
Atlantic cables could not be attended to for some 14 months.
2 The Post Office Engineering Department's previous experience
of cable work was closely confined to short Channel lines, etc.
SUBMARINE CABLE TELEGRAPHY
Pacific Cable and then later that for an All-British Atlantic Cable,
has been called upon itself to put into practice the latter, and now
appears as an exponent of " All Red " cables generally. The
department in question did much fine work during the war. At
the very outset on the eve of Aug. 4 1914, indeed its principal
telegraph ship, the " Monarch," set forth for the N., where many
emergency cables were forthwith laid. It was not long, however,
before she met her glorious end, and her "shattered bones" are
now lying on the bed of the English Channel the scene of most
of her work. She was one of the very first vessels to be especially
designed for cable-laying and repairing.
Another telegraph ship that met her end over the war was the
" Dacia," owned by the Silvertown Company. This vessel had
accomplished a great deal in her time, and during July 1915-
Feb. 1916 she effected cable communications between Brest
(France) and Casablanca (Morocco), by cutting in at suitable
positions and picking up and relaying part of the Borkum-Tener-
iffe cable belonging to Germany. Nearly 450 n.m. of cable were
picked up and relaid on this occasion, part of it in a depth of 2,000
to 2,500 fathoms. She then proceeded to establish communica-
tion between Casablanca (Morocco) and Dakar (W. Africa),
by cutting in, picking up and relaying portions of the Teneriffe-
Monrovia cable belonging to Germany. Eight hundred n.m. of
deep-sea cable were on this occasion recovered and relaid in an
average depth of over 2,000 fathoms. We have here a " record "
in cable work. It was undertaken for the French Administration,
and Casablanca had not up to that time been connected to Europe
by submarine cable. The cable facilitated the sending of troops
to France by Morocco and Senegal when greatly needed.
Messrs. Siemens Brothers' unique and highly efficient tele-
graph ship " Faraday " originally designed by the late Sir
William Siemens, F.R.S. also achieved much during the course
of the war on behalf of the British Post Office, which had at one
time in commission practically every telegraph ship available,
including the largest (T. S. " Colonia ").
Even though observing constant vigilance, a telegraph ship,
when effecting a repair, being deprived of manceuvring powers
by attachment to the cable, is peculiarly vulnerable to anything
like a torpedo attack. It is, therefore, something to be able to
say that the Post Office kept Britain and the European conti-
nent in continuous electrical communication. During the early
part of the war telegraph ships went about their business alone
and unattended, but with the development of intense submarine
warfare naval escorts had to be provided by the Admiralty.
Escorts are not, however, a safeguard against submerged mines,
and so it was that the old " Monarch " met her fate, going down
with her flag flying. On one occasion a telegraph ship on repair-
ing work hove up a mine with the cable, but beyond damage to
machinery and breakage of crockery, no harm was done.
Apart from the disposal of four of the world's telegraph fleet, 1
there were only two instances of Germany getting the best of
things in the matter of cable communication. Within the first
year of the war, a German man-of-war landed a party on the
deserted beach of Fanning I., and this party succeeded in cutting
the All-British Pacific cable there. The other case was that of
the "Eastern" cable landed at Keeling-Cocos. Here again the
attacking party from the " Emden " succeeded in cutting the
cables, 2 but an alarm signal which had been got through led to
the " Emden's " final doom. In this case great enterprise was
shown by the " Eastern " Co.'s superintendent, and in neither
instance was the interruption very serious or lengthy. Though
there were only these two cases of enemy disturbance of the
Allies' cables, many were rendered dumb from the wear and tear
of four years, during which time it was impossible to effect re-
pairs, for lack of suitable ships and the risk of exposing slow-
moving vessels to enemy attack.
1 The total number of such vessels in 1921 was 49, of which some
half dozen were owned by contractors for the original laying of ocean
cables, the rest being smaller vessels, of the cable working companies,
for subsequent repairing operations.
2 The officials in charge had, however, prepared a ruse by utilizing
some spare cable as a dummy, and this dummy the Germans
During the latter part of the war, the American submarine
cables on the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean coasts were taken under
control of the United States Government. Inter alia there was a
feeling that considerable advantage would attach to the coordina-
tion of all the telegraph systems throughout the country. Even-
tually ( Nov. 2 1918 ) the U.S. Postmaster-General also assumed
administrative control of all cable landing on U.S. territory, after
the necessary negotiations with other countries concerned had
been carried through. Control ended on May 2 1919.
Post-war Developments. War wastage, the banning of private
codes, considerable general increase of traffic 3 (partly owing to ab-
sence of mails) and voluminous Government messages, were all
responsible for an appalling cable congestion during the war, the
result being several days' sometimes even weeks' delay in the
transit of messages on most of the more important trunk lines.
Though, after the Armistice things became somewhat easier, with
the withdrawal of the censorship and the renewal of private
codes, the ultimate delivery of cablegrams was even in 1921 a
very slow business. When the Marconi Trans-Atlantic wireless
service was re-established some measure of relief was felt. Un-
fortunately, however, it was only capable of dealing with a small
proportion of the ordinary prevailing cable traffic. The hamper-
ing of trade, during the war, by the prohibition of most private
cable codes, was very considerable. To take an example, a cer-
tain firm had been in the habit of sending every week some 40
cablegrams at an average of i each. The cost of the same mes-
sages in plain English would have been some 320.
Most of the cables requiring repairs after the war had been
attended to by 1921, but there was still considerable delay on
cablegrams, even though the lines were being worked at their
full capacity, day and night.
When it is remembered that in the year before the war (1913)
826,000 messages passed through the two Atlantic cables then
connecting the United States with Germany/ it will be realized
what it meant to American commerce alone to be deprived of
these direct cable connexions. In 1921 it was planned to lay a
new Atlantic cable between the two countries, and to extend the
German cable that had been taken into Brest by the French, as
a compromise, to central or northern Europe with a landing
en route off Denmark.
Ever since all of what were formerly British Atlantic cables
passed, in 1912, into the administrative hands of the Western
Union Telegraph Co. of America, the British Government had
been strongly urged as, indeed, for many years previously to
establish a State Atlantic Cable as a connecting link with the
All-British Pacific Cable. The war only served to accentuate
this view. Whilst the capture and diversion of the German At-
lantic Cable (taken into Penzance and Halifax) went some way
to meet requirements, this line had not only been irregular in its
performance but much congested with traffic, largely American.
When therefore, in 1919, the Western Union Co. brought to
an end their lease of the Direct United States Co.'s cable
system between Ballinskelligs (Ireland), Halifax (Nova Sco-
tia) and Halifax-Rye Beach (United States) on the ground of
it being so constantly out of operation the British Government
entered into negotiations, towards the end of 1920, for the pur-
chase of the line at a cost of 570,000, or scarcely more than half
the value of a new cable. When this is given effect the line
together with the Imperial Pacific Line will form a complete
and strictly "All Red" route between the Mother Country and
Australia. Though the line (originally laid in 1874) is even of
more ancient order than the ex-German cables, British Imperial
needs will, to a great extent, be met. The shortcomings will
be further met when a Canadian land line, connecting the All-
British Atlantic and Pacific Cables, is provided.
The All-British Pacific Cable, first laid in 1902, has more than
justified itself. During its first year scarcely more than 200,000
r In the case of the Eastern Co.'s system this was more than
doubled by the war. Thus, the annual gross receipts of the company
were about 2,000,000 more than previously, and much the same
applies to others in the same group.
4 In actual fact these cables accounted for 32 % of the total traffic
of the Commercial Cable Company.
SUBMARINE CABLE TELEGRAPHY
words were sent. Ten years later, the volume of traffic had been
increased ten-fold. The war brought this up to some 26,000
words per day, or about 9,500,000 words per annum. Notwith-
standing the large capital cost of this line (2,000,000) it pro-
duced a gross profit of 94,000 for the year 1920, whilst its
reserve fund stood at nearly 1,107,000. To illustrate the high
strategic value of the line, during the war, if the Allies had hap-
pened to be even temporarily deprived of naval control, the
British Mediterranean cables would undoubtedly soon have been
cut, which would have meant that British inter-imperial tele-
graphic communication could only have been secured by means
of the All-British Pacific line. It had been felt for a long time
that, since the Imperial Pacific cable was laid as far back as 1902,
steps must be taken to duplicate it in order to provide against
complete breakdown, as well as for dealing with over-congestion.
In 1921, however, owing to the necessity for economy and to the
high cost of materials, it seemed probable that this duplication
would require to be limited, for the present, to the duplication of
the long, slow working, section in very deep water, i.e. the 3,458
n.m. between Bamfield (Vancouver) and Fanning I., which runs
into a depth of 3,400 fathoms (nearly 3! n.m.), and brings
down the resultant speed on the whole line to a low figure.
Perhaps nothing contributed more in the past to the leading
commercial position of Britain than her enterprise in the matter
of telegraph cables. Fortunately, too, she also recognized that
the problem of Empire is largely a problem of communication.
Arising out of the war to some extent, there has been a general
demand for a great deal more inter-communication, not only be-
tween different branches of the British Empire, but also between
distant foreign countries. This demand must be met in the first
place by a considerable addition to the world's cable system over
and above those that were in operation previous to hostilities.
The part of the British Empire which in 1921 was more especially
badly served in the matter of telegraphic communication was the
West Indies, where, largely owing to the nature of the sea bottom,
the existing inter-insular lines (originally laid in 1870) were
constantly breaking down. 1 But for "atmospherics" in these
tropical regions, this would be an ideal case for " wireless." As it
is, it would seem that an efficient air service would do most to
improve prevailing shortcomings at any rate for mail purposes,
the steamer service being also very deficient. From a world
standpoint, however, probably the most acute need for additional
cable facilities is in the Pacific Ocean, for, while the traffic over
the N. Atlantic cables has been practically quadrupled since 19 13,
Pacific cable traffic has increased nearly nine-fold.
The war also aroused the United States to her disadvantage
in the matter of cable communication as compared with her trade
rivals. Thus, on April 26 1921, the U.S. Senate passed a bill " to
prevent unauthorized cable landings in the United States or any
of its possessions." The bill gives the President sweeping author-
ity also to issue, withhold and revoke licences as to cable landings,
as well as for obtaining concessions for the United States in other
parts of the world. Section 2 of the bill enables the President " to
withhold or revoke such licence when satisfied such action will
assist in obtaining for the landing or operation of cables in foreign
countries or in maintaining the rights or interests of the United
States." The President may grant such licence on such terms as
will assure just and reasonable rates. The licence is not to give
the licencee exclusive rights of landing or of operation, in the
United States. The policy appears to be based chiefly upon con-
siderations that shall guard against consolidation or amalgama-
tion with other cable lines, while insisting upon reciprocal accom-
modation for American corporations and companies in foreign
territory. In 1920 the U.S. authorities refused to allow a cable