" The military camps of instruction for students of educational
institutions which were held in 1913 and 1914 have been continued
this year. As there were no funds- available to meet any expenses
incident to the establishment of these camps, it was necessary to
have them at military posts where the ordinary utilities of the post
could be used, or, if at a place other than a military post, the citi-
zens had to incur the necessary expenses in constructing the camps.
. . . The reports show that the results have fully justified the estab-
lishment of these camps. In addition to camps for students, camps
have been authorized at Plattsburg, N.Y., Fort Sheridan, 111., and
San Francisco, Cal., for business men whose interest in the prepared-
ness of the country for defense prompted them to request that oppor-
tunity be given them to prepare themselves so as to perform more
efficiently their duties in case the country should unfortunately be
involved in war. . . . Aside from the military instructions given
these students and business men, I feel that the interest in prepared-
ness which leads these men not only to give their time to the Govern-
ment, but to incur the expenses of buying uniforms and paying for
transportation to the camps, is of great value to the country and
should be encouraged by the war department. These camps have
passed the experimental stage and there can hardly be any question
as to the advisability of continuing them and extending them where
the conditions of service of regular troops are such as to permit
the department to send troops and instructors to the camps. Men
with means probably do not object to paying the necessary funds to
get the military training which the Government expects to use in
case of need. This, however, does not make it right. Men who are
not so fortunately fixed financially should be permitted to show
their patriotism and interest in preparing the country for war.
If these camps are of value, which undoubtedly they are, and are
to be continued, certain necessary expenses of the men willing to
give their time should be met by the Government."
In 1916 a series of four camps, each for a month, was held at
Plattsburg, N.Y. , a camp of one month's duration for boys at Fort
Terry, N.Y., and a series of six camps of two weeks' intensive
training at Wadsworth, N.Y., for the police of New York City;
and a series of three camps, each for a month, at Oglethorpe, Ga.
When the United States entered the World War these has-
tily but intensively trained enthusiastic men were invaluable.
They furnished the nucleus of civilian officers with which to
begin the great work of developing 200,000 officers, and added a
valuable and indispensable force to the scanty number of regular
officers and national guard officers available for the training of
the men. In the spring of 1917 the Federal Government took
over the whole task and established a series of camps for the
training of officers for the war. Under authority of Section 54,
National Defense Act 1916, the Secretary of War directed the
establishment of 16 Citizens' Training Camps throughout the
United States at the following points:
Madison Barracks. N.Y.
Fort Niagara, N. Y.
Fort Myer, Va.
Fort Oglethorpe, Ga.
Fort McPherson, Ga.
Ft. Benjamin Harrison,
Ft. Benjamin Harrison,
Fort Sheridan, 111. (i)
Fort Sheridan, 111. (2)
Ft. Logan H. Roots, Ark.
Fort Snelling, Minn.
Fort Riley, Kans.
Leon Springs, Tex.
Presidio of San Francisco,
FOR CANDIDATES FROM
Long I., New York City and adja-
Long I., New York City and adja-
Balance of State of New York and
part of Pennsylvania.
Balance of Pennsylvania.
New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland,
District of Columbia and Virginia.
N.Carolina, S.Carolina and Ten-
Georgia, Alabama and Florida.
Ohio and W. Virginia.
Indiana and Kentucky.
Michigan and Wisconsin.
Arkansas, Mississippi and Louisiana.
Minnesota, Iowa, N. Dakota, S. Da-
kota and Nebraska.
Missouri, Kansas and Colorado.
Oklahoma and Texas.
Montana, Idaho, Washington, Ore-
gon, California, Nevada, Utah,
Wyoming, Arizona and New Mex-
The training camps for officers were ordered to be ready for
the reception of reserve officers about May 8, for candidates for
commission May 14, and the course of instruction was to begin
on May 15, 1917. Minimum age for attendance was 20 years
and 9 months; maximum age 44 years. In addition to the
foregoing, General Order 119, War Department 1917, established
a training camp at Fort Winfield Scott, Cal., for the training
of members of the Coast Artillery section of the Officers' Reserve
Corps residing within the territorial limits of the Western
Department, and a similar camp at Fort Monroe, Va., for the
balance of the Coast Artillery Reserve Corps officers. These
training camps began operation on Sept. 22 1917. A medical
officers' training camp was also established in 1917 at Camp
Greenleaf, Fort Oglethorpe, Ga. Other camps for officers were
established at the headquarters of the various divisions, the
courses being essentially the same as those at the former officers'
camps. The period allotted for the development of an officer
at the Government training camps was three months. The
work was intensive and hard. It was an attempt, in the rush
and confusion of war, to produce officers in the minimum period
of time. The purpose was to turn out the largest possible
number of platoon leaders and a limited number of company
commanders and officers of field grade. The same general
plan was carried out at the training camps for officers in the
Quartermaster Corps, Medical Corps and other staff corps.
The courses involved much hard work and were necessarily
defective in some particulars, but they served to turn out many
tens of thousands of officers with elementary training which was
later supplemented by their work with the divisional organiza-
tions to which they were assigned.
Theodore Roosevelt gave the full support of his great prestige
and influence in the upbuilding of the camps and never lost
an opportunity to impress upon the public their importance and
to push forward their development. Men too numerous to
mention, men who are leaders in every walk of life, cooperated
to the limit of their ability in the upbuilding of these camps and
in waking the country to an appreciation of the gravity of the
situation and the need of preparation. The camps were al
great force in firing the public conscience and rousing the people
to a realization of their obligation to prepare the country for
defence and to do their part in the great struggle then threaten-
ing the world. (L. Wo.)
TRANSJORDANIA, EMIRATE OF, sometimes called Kerak, a
dominion extending some 200 m. S. from the Yarmuk and from
the Jordan eastwards to the desert. It comprises Gilead,
Amman, Moab and part of Edom of the Old Testament, and
El Belqa, the southern portion of the former Turkish vilayet of
Damascus. After forming the independent kingdom of Ghassan
under a succession of Arab dynasties from A.D. 165 onwards
it was conquered by the Moslems during the joint reigns of
Amr IV. and Jabala V. and VI. in 637, and under the name of
Kerak became one of the six kingdoms into which Syria was
divided under the khalifs of Bagdad and the Seljuk Turks.
As the Emirate of Kerak it was a separate State during the
Middle Ages and again became an independent principality in
1920 with its capital at Amman (pop. 2,300). The other
principal towns are Kerak (pop. 2,500), Madeba (pop. 2,000),
Es Salt (pop. 8,000), Ma'an (pop. 3,000), Jerash (pop. 1,500).
Its inhabitants possibly number 180,000, varying according
to- the season and the movements of the nomads; they are
partly settled Arabs many of whom are Christians with
some colonies of Circassian Moslems and a number of nomads.
It contains many interesting classical and mediaeval ruins.
The physical features, flora and fauna are similar to those of
During the Crusades Kerak (see 15.753) was the capital of
the great fief of the Oultrejourdain and, of its Christian lords,
the most notable were Philip de Milly (1161-8), formerly lord
of Nablus (1142-61), who surrendered the fief in order to join
the Templars, subsequently becoming their Grand Master, and
Reginald de Chatillon (1177-87), a former Prince of Antioch
(1153-60), who was beheaded by Saladin after the battle of
Hattin (1187). Saladin's brother El Adil (" saphadin ")
took Kerak in 1188 and was its emir until he became Sultan
of Egypt (1200). His grandson En Nasr Da'ud, after being
deposed from the throne of Damascus (1229), reigned in Kerak
for 20 years and recaptured Jerusalem from the Christians in
1239. When the Ayyubid dynasty was overthrown in Egypt,
his nephew El Mugith, a prisoner of the new Sultan Aibek, was
released by his gaolers in Shobek and placed on the throne of
Kerak (1250). He was deposed in 1262 (and later strangled)
by Sultan Baibars of Egypt whose own son was glad to find a
throne at Kerak after losing that of Egypt (1279). Berekeh's
brother Ma'sud, who succeeded him in Kerak, was in turn
deposed (1286) and another fugitive Sultan of Egypt, En Nasr,
reigned in Kerak (1294-9) until his restoration to power in
Cairo, only to return to Kerak (1308-10) after a fresh deposition
while awaiting a second and final restoration. For many years
Kerak, which was the treasure-city of the Mameluke sultans
in 1355, slipped out of history, and during much of the Ottoman
period (1517-1918) enjoyed an uneasy if obscure independence,
only coming under direct Turkish civil administration after the
construction of the Hejaz railway.
Kerak was captured by the Emir Faisal on April 7 1918.
General Allenby's troops operated in Transjordania in the
spring of 1918 and the retreating Turkish garrison of Ma'an,
forming part of the IV. Army, surrendered to Gen. Chaytor
with the Australian Light Horse at Qastal on Sept. 29 1918
which marked the end of the Ottoman period. Transjordania
formed part of the Emir Faisal's dominions, even after he lost
Damascus, until the spring of 1921, when it was transferred to
his brother the Emir 'Abdalla. (H. P.-G.)
TRANSPORT. Among new economic conceptions resulting
from 20th-century progress, the rise of a definite " science and
; art " of Transport is of outstanding interest.
The Function of Transport. The function of transport may be
described as the transference of persons and things, as and when
required by mankind, from one part of the earth to another in
a minimum of time and at a minimum of cost, these two factors
being closely connected with each other. The axiom of political
economy that exchange enables wealth which would otherwise
remain unutilized to be used to the best advantage implies
, displacement. Such displacement or transportation is an essen-
tial characteristic of that form of exchange which we recognize
under the name of commerce, and hence the history of commerce
is to a great extent the history of the development of transport.
The transport problem is an ever-recurring one which can never
, be finally disposed of. Only in recent years have its complexities
been systematically studied, although the problem must have
arisen when the first man had any belongings to move.
The factors governing the development of transport are
intrinsic and extrinsic, the former including the nature and
quantity of matter to be conveyed, the distance and character
of the earth's surface between the two points of carriage, and
the apparatus available for bringing the movement into effect.
These intrinsic factors are governed and often impeded by cer-
tain extrinsic factors, which are mainly political, economic,
strategic, and, lastly, the ever-existing element of human nature.
During recent years the importance of efficient transport to
, civilization has been more and more realized by the leading
men in the world of commerce and politics; various schemes have
been formulated and put into operation with a view to removing
obstructions, and in order that a more comprehensive grasp of
the whole subject might be obtained. These include the forma-
tion of schools of economics at the universities and elsewhere,
which treat the subject as a branch deserving accurate study and
scientific inquiry. A definite advance has also been signalized
by the formation in the United Kingdom of a Ministry of Trans-
port and of an Institute of Transport; also by the publication of
various journals which deal exclusively with the subject.
Those who are intimately connected with the present-day
efforts towards a solution of the problem are forced to realize
:he all-embracing scope of the subject and the difficulties attend-
ing its every phase. On the latter aspect of the problem it is
nteresting to note that as transport becomes more completely
>rganized, it more surely provokes increasing controversy.
Many obstacles have already to a great extent been overcome,
md those dealing with the nature of the commodities carried may
>e instanced as an example. The difficulties attending upon
.he bulk, fragility, delicacy, and the preservation of certain
:ommodities which in early times formed an unsurmountable
ibstacle to their carriage, have been solved, and as a result,
in increasing traffic in these commodities has taken place. This
n turn increased the demand for these commodities, the wants
if man having become less elemental and more artificial as the
rorld has become more civilized. Of the extrinsic factors
.fleeting the development of transportation we may instance
he colonizers of the Early and Middle Ages, the growth of over-
seas trade dating from the I2th century, the wonderful impulse
given by the " Industrial Revolution " of .modern times, and,
lastly, military exigencies in war-time.
Generally speaking, the development of transport brings
about a tendency to a surplus of wealth. Unless a country pro-
duces a surplus of wealth it is unable to reduce poverty to a
minimum or to insure that all its inhabitants have a sufficiency
of food, clothing and warmth, without which contentment is an
impossibility. The cheapening of transport reduces the cost of
the necessities of life and thus enables a person to live at a higher
standard than would be possible if the whole of his earnings
were taken up in obtaining the bare necessities of life. The
prosperity of most modern countries has directly followed the
improvement of their transport system. Instances of this may
be quoted in the case of Great Britain, with its internal system
of railways and its vast organized overseas communication of
shipping; of America, France and Germany, with their railways
and internal waterways. On the other hand, China may be
quoted as a country with vast resources and possibilities, but
which for the want of transport facilities is not yet developed
in proportion to her territory or population. It would not be
too much to say that the development of the wealth of any
country in the world has been brought about from time im-
memorial chiefly by the improvement in its transport system.
The development of transport acts upon, and in its turn is in-
fluenced by, the progress of mankind in the continuance and im-
provement of the civilization of the world. It affects and pro-
motes the intercourse between different peoples and continents,
and it creates opportunities for employing the forces of Nature
for the use of mankind by the advancement of science.
In general terms, modern-day transport may be classified
into human, animal, and mechanical. In its various forms the
latter is carried on by land, road, sea, river, canal, inland water,
railway, air and aerial ropeways: these in turn are actuated by
the motive powers of gravity, steam, electricity, combustion
engines, wind, and water. All these motive powers originate
in some form or another in the use and application of the stored-up
energy of the elements, and the object of mankind has always
been to use these elements to give the best results with a -min-
imum of cost. The progress of mankind has probably lain in
this direction more than in any other, and advancement has been
made during the past century which would before that period
have seemed impossible of attainment.
The History of Transport. At different periods of their
existence the various communities of the world have passed
through somewhat similar stages of transport development.
We read that canals were constructed in Egypt 3000 B.C., that
the Phoenicians crossed the inland seas in ships propelled by
oar and wind and carrying 500 men, and that King Solomon
drew a portion of his revenue from the caravans which jour-
neyed through his territory. We learn that Babylonian caravans
travelled into Phoenicia, Arabia, Syria, and Persia, and that the
Egyptians sold chariots in neighbouring countries at an equiv-
alent value of 50, while chariots are first noted in the annals
of Britain in 300 B.C. The Greeks, before 1000 B.C., were con-
structing roads, and providing their harbours with walls and
jetties, whereas roads, as such, were practically unknown in
Britain nine centuries later.
The first mode of transport undoubtedly was the carrying of
commodities on the human form. This mode is still exclusively used
among the primitive tribes and to a certain extent even among the
most civilized nations. Primitive man, however, early realized the
value of waterways as a means of transport, and at first utilized a
raft of tree trunks lashed together, a cumbersome method, both in
E reparation and in use. This raft he guided by means of a stick or
ranch, the forerunner of our punt pole. He also discovered that
skins would float, and, by supporting the skin of an ox or a horse
with a light wicker frame, he produced the coracle, a boat which he
could propel on the water and carry on his back overland. Later,
two or more skins were sewn together to form the shell of the boat,
the seams being " caulked " with a resinous substance. The coracle
is still in use on certain of the western rivers of Britain. It was an
easy stage to build up the raft into a sort of box by using planks for
the sides, the planks being sewn together. Here we have the origin
of our present-day flat-bottomed boats. Vet again, by the use of
fire, early man made a primitive boat by hollowing out the trunk of
a tree, which, being shaped as experience has taught, formed the
first point in the evolution of the ship. To harness the wind was a
further stage, and the gaining of the art of navigation furthered the
development of the sailing vessel.
On land, the animals natural to a country the horse, fhe camel,
the ass have been employed as beasts of burden from early days.
Chariots were in existence thousands of years before the Christian
era, but the absence of good roads resulted in a very slow develop-
ment of land transport.
Coming to Britain in the Middle Ages, we find water transport as
the most important means of conveying goods; what little transport
was effected on land was by means of pack-horses. Travellers and
traders combined in armed companies for protection against maraud-
ing bands, and we see long lines of laden horses slowly progressing
over tracks so narrow that the animals could seldom -pass two
abreast. The rolling of a log is supposed to have inspired the idea
of the early waggon for transporting materials, and in the 1 6th
century a heavy waggon with broad wheels on a rotating axle, and
fixed front wheels, came into use. Its sphere of action was limited to
local markets. Such organization as there was lay in the hands of
the lord of the manor, who could call upon his tenants for the
services of a specified number of waggons and waggoners. Better
roads were required. Although the Romans, with their knowledge
gained from the Etruscans, did construct many and great roads,
organized road-making was practically non-existent from their
time until the l6th century, when counties were made respon-
sible for the upkeep of bridges, and parishes were ordered to
appoint two road surveyors, who were assisted by compulsory
labour. Passenger carriages came into vogue in 1550, but, being
springless, had little pretension to comfort.
In 1634 the Sedan chair came into use, and in the same year the
first hackney carriages were licensed. In 1650 waggons completed
the journey from London to Dover in three or four days. About the
same time, springless stagecoaches carrying passengers inside at a
charge of five m. for is., and luggage at the back, were introduced.
By reason of the condition of the roads their rate of travel was only
four to five m. an hour; they seldom travelled in winter. In 1658 a
coach made the journey from London to Edinburgh at a cost of 4
per passenger, and was more than a fortnight on the way. The
post-chaise system was now established. Wealthy people were able
to hire horses for their carriages in relays at the various inns, or
both the chaise and the horses. A journey from London to Scotland
in this manner cost at least 30.
At the beginning of the l8th century, waggons were journey-
ing with goods from London to Bristol, and we read that in 1776
waggons travelled from London to Edinburgh and back in six weeks
with a load of four tons, whereas a sailing vessel made a similar
journey in the same time, carrying some 200 tons and requiring
only four times as many men as a waggon. In 1763 a monthly coach
service between the same two towns was instituted, completing the
journey in 14 days, and about the same time services to Bath, York,
Glasgow, Exeter, and other towns were inaugurated. Coaches with
springs appear to have been in use by 1760. Particular attention
was now being paid to roads. The famous road engineers, Telford,
Macadam and Metcalfe, were at work, and in the 14 years follow-
ing 1760 some 450 Acts of Parliament authorizing road construction
and tolls were passed. The experimental mail coaches of 1784 gave
an impetus to road transport. Their speed of six m. per hour was
soon increased to 12. Outside passengers were charged about 5d. a
m., and those inside, 3d.
Canals had long existed in Holland, and were introduced into
France in the 1 7th century, but although two canals were con-
structed in Britain by the Romans, one of which, the Fosse Dyke, is
still in use, it was not until the l8th century that canal development
began in this country. The first important canal was constructed
from Worsley to Manchester, at the instance of the Duke of Bridg-
water, and was opened for traffic in 1761. It was found that the cost
of transport by canal was about one-quarter of that for carriage by
pack-horse or waggon for the same distance, and the price of coal in
Manchester was immediately reduced by 50 per cent. In 1772 pas-
senger boats, charging is. for 20 m., were established on the canal.
In 1777 the Grand Trunk Canal, between the Mersey and the
Trent, 96 m. in length, was completed, and in 70 years 3,000 m. of
canals were constructed in the British Isles by the Companies of
Proprietors. Since 1830, with the exception of the Manchester Ship
Canal, there has been but little expansion of Britain's canal system.
So far as England and Wales are concerned, practically all the
canals were constructed by private enterprise without any State
financial assistance, but this does not apply to Ireland or Scotland.
Towards the end of the l8th century, experiments with steam-
driven vessels were in progress, and in 1788 a small steam-boat
was tried in Scotland. Trains hauled by horses over parallel logs
of wood had been in use for colliery purposes in the 1 7th cen-
tury. Later, the wood was covered with metal plates, and in 1767,
cast-iron rails were brought into use.
The coming of the igth century was heralded by the authorization
by Parliament in 1801 of the first public railway from Crpydon to
the Thames. Traders paid tolls to the company for the privilege of
horse-hauling their own waggons over the line. In 1804 Trevithick's
locomotive hauled 70 passengers and 10 tons of goods near Merthyi
Tydvil, but the first use of locomotives on public railways was on th(
Stockton and Darlington line (now part of the North Eastern rail
way), which was opened in 1825. The first train carried 500 pas
sengers and made the journey of 8| m. in 65 minutes. For SOUK
years, steam traction was employed for the haulage of goods ant
mineral traffic only, passengers being conveyed in horse-drawr