breech. The cradle is centre-trunnioned and the trunnions rest in
seatings in a top-carriage of the usual form. The left trunnion car-
ties an elevating arc actuated by a worm-shaft and handwheel on
This trunnion also carries a panoramic sight (not
shown in the illustration), mounted so as to slide on an arc which
renders its position independent of the gun elevation. The base-
plate, which is of steel, has longitudinal and transverse spades
or flanges to enable the mounting firmly to be bedded on the ground.
In the forepart, the baseplate has a vertical pivot and in the rear
part an arc, which enables the top carriage to be traversed 12}
either way from the centre line by means of the handwheel seen in
the illustration. As in all German rifled trench-mortars care is taken
to house in gearing and mechanism so as to keep out mud and dirt.
The weight of the whole system in action is 1 ,064 Ib. and the maxi-
mum range, with a log-lb. shell (burster 241 Ib.), is 980 yards. For
transport, wooden wheels are fitted to axles on the bedplate and a
handspike with a socket formed at the back of the same. The
"new" model of medium minenwerfer is slightly longer (3-8 cali-
bres rifled length), weighs 1,232 Ib. in action, and ranges to 1,250
yd. with the same shell.
The heavy minenwerfer, new model, shown in fig. II, is similar in al
essentials of design to the above, but like other new models longei
than the original model of its class. The details, such as the sighi
and the traversing gear seen in the illustration, and the elevating
gear, etc., seen in fig. 10, are common to old and new models of medi
um and heavy. The new model heavy has a calibre of 245 nun
in.) and has a rifled length of 4-54 calibres. It weighs in action 1,69^
Ib. and with a 2lo-lb. shell (lO3-lb. burster) ranges to 990 yards
The old model has a rifled length of 3-1 calibres and weighs ii
action 1,362 Ib. ; with the above shell it ranges to 612 yd. only.
In the light minenwerfer, 7-6-cm. (2-9-in.) calibre, of which th<
" new " model is shown in fig. 12 and the direct-fire carriage in tig
13, the piece, buffer and recuperator system and bedplate are similai
in general to those of the medium and heavy types. But the top -
' carriage design is entirely different. The ring-cradle (which carrir;
the buffer system as in the other types) is continued on each side
to form arms which at their extremities are traversed by an axh ,
or through trunnion-bar, a few inches above the baseplate level.
This bar rests in seatings in a very small intermediate carriage
which traverses (through a circle) round a pivot in the bedplate.
In the forepart of this intermediate carriage is another cross-axle'
which at its middle is formed as a socket, taking the foot of a stout,
elevating screw. This elevating screw (which is cased in leather to,
protect it from dirt) is clearly seen in fig. 13. It supports the weight
of the cradle and piece, to which it is jointed, and elevation is
by screwing up or down.
The weight in action of this model is 312 Ib., the rifled length of
bore 5-2 calibres, and the high-explosive shell weighs only 9 Ib.,
and, comparing these proportions to those of the heavy and medium!
shell, it is not surprising to find that it ranges to 1 ,422 yards. The
" old " model was somewhat shorter and lighter, and ranged to|
1,150 yd. with the g-lb. shell.
The light minenwerfer, which is also known as the " Ehrhanh.
was a very successful weapon, and every German infantry bad
had by 1917 a " light minenwerfer section," consisting of 4 ol " i '
pieces and a number of the " granatwerfer " described under BOMI;
In 1918, in preparation for the expected resumption of " open "
warfare, the Germans on the western front adapted the light tninrn-
werfer for service as a direct-fire short-range gun of accompaniment
for use against undisclosed machine-gun nests and other defem
that might be met with in the course of a deep advance. For this
purpose the bedplate, already provided with axles, was fitted with
higher (29-in.) wheels, and a trail with trail spade was bolted to tl:<
small intermediate carriage described above. This trail is pecu-
liarly arranged in the forepart. The cross-axle, or through trunnion-
bar, which, in the trench-service mounting, connects the ends of the
cradle arms to the intermediate carriage, is, in the direct-fire mount-
ing, connected to a framework in the trail which can be raised or
lowered, thus enabling the cradle and mortar, always supported
in front by the elevating screw, to assume either the horizontal or
slightly elevated position with trunnion-bar high, or the quasi-vertical
loading position (shown by dotted lines) with the trunnion-bar low.
The motion of the framework in question is about a transverse
axis contained in the trail and is controlled by a shifting level.
Traversing is still about the piyot in the bedplate, and is managed
by moving the point of the trail (by means of a small lever) along
the broad arc-shaped spade member. The limits of this traverse,
viz. with spade bedded, are 11-8 either way from the middle-line.
The maximum range with the 9-lb. shell in the direct-fire position
high-trunnioned (elevation 38) is 995 yd., but all angles between 34
and 75 may be obtained by transferring the trunnion-bar to the
Rear sieht leaf
Shifting lever Loading position
Large traversing Small traversing
low position and proceeding as its high-angle platform fire. Both
platform-fire and fire from wheels is possible in the high and low
positions alike. In movement, the system is either man-drawn or
limbered up to a two-wheeled cart drawn by one horse.
IV. Direct- Fire Trench Ordnance
In spite of the great defensive powers revealed by the machine-
gun in trench warfare, certain local-defence needs made themselves
felt in that type of warfare which the machine-gun of rifle calibre
could not satisfy. In consequence, a variety of trench-guns were
designed or adapted for emplacing as "forward" guns, or " infan-
try " guns. It cannot be said that this class of trench ordnance
possesses any generic characters. A few were specially designed
but the majority were field or small naval guns cut down and
mounted on low carriages. Captured guns were frequently adapted
for this service, when a large enough supply of ammunition and
pieces was available, and also hooded quick-firing guns of the 57-mm.
class taken from fortress armaments, in which formerly they had
figured largely as a standard close-defence armament. Later on,
these forward guns were sometimes made mobile again for use as
guns of accompaniment. None of these converted types, however,
need be dealt with here, and it will suffice to mention more particu-
larly the 37-mm. gun (of French origin, but used also by other
armies), not so much because it is representative of a class which
is too miscellaneous for any member of it to be regarded as such
as because it was used on a large scale in the war. It is a direct-fire
quick-firing weapon, short in barrel length, mounted on a low-
wheeled carriage and provided, as is a field gun, with a shield.
It was laid over open sights and fired small, high-explosive shells
with percussion fuzes similar to those of the " pompom," which
were effective against machine-guns, etc., under light cover. The
dimensions and weights of the Russian model of the 37-mm. (which
is provided with the recoil-absorbing rubber discs commonly found
in Russian designs) are as follows: calibre 37 mm.; weight of the
system in action 396 Ib. ; of the gun, breech and lock alone 86 j Ib. ;
and of the pointed shell with base-fuze and burster i-l Ib. ; m.v.
1,450 f.s. ; max. range on the sights 3,500 yards.
In their later evolution, many of these miscellaneous trench-guns
became anti-tank guns. (C. F. A.)
TREVELYAN, SIR GEORGE OTTO, 2ND BART. (1838- ),
English author and statesman (see 27.255), who received Ihe
O.M. in 1911, published in 1912 the first volume of his work
George III, and Charles Fox, and the second in 1914.
His eldest son, CHARLES PHILIPS TREVELYAN (b. 1870), re-
signed his post at the Board of Education in 1914 as a protest
against the policy which involved Great Britain in the war.
He lost his seat in Parliament at the general election of 1918.
His third son, GEORGE MACAULAY TREVELYAN (b. 1876),
was during the World War commandant of the first British
ambulance unit on the Italian front, and received in 1915 the
Italian silver medal for valour. He published Garibaldi and the
Making of Italy (1911); Life of John Bright (1913); Clio, a Muse,
and other Essays (1913); Scenes from Italy's War (1919). He
married in 1904 Janet Penrose, elder daughter of Mrs. Hum-
phry Ward. She published in 1920 A Short History of the
TRIPOLI (see 27.288). As the result of the war of 1911-2
between Italy and Turkey, the vilayet of Tripoli, together with
that of Bengazi (Cyrenaica), passed from Ottoman to Italian
rule. The newly acquired territories were jointly styled Libya
Italiana, but Tripolitania and Cyrenaica were organized as dis-
tinct entities with separate administrations and governors.
History. The war of 1911-2 (see ITALO-TURKISH WAR) ended
without any formal acknowledgment of Italian sovereignty by
the Porte. At an early period of the conflict, on Nov. n 1911,
when the Italians held little more than the town of Tripoli, a
royal decree declared that both vilayets were placed " under the
full and complete sovereignty of the kingdom of Italy." This
was a political move, confirmed (in Feb. 1912) by the Italian
Parliament, taken to make plain Italy's intentions to Germany
and Austria, her partners in the Triple Alliance (see AFRICA:
History). When, in view of the situation in the Balkans, the
Turkish Government opened peace negotiations neither Tripoli
nor Cyrenaica had been conquered, and the negotiators came to
an unsatisfactory " face-saving " arrangement. By an agree-
ment signed at Lausanne on Oct. 15 the Ottoman Government
bound itself to issue, within three days, a firman renouncing
Turkish sovereignty; the form used made the Sultan declare " I
concede to you (the inhabitants of Tripoli and Cyrenaica) full
and complete autonomy." But at the same time the Sultan was
to nominate not only an official to protect Ottoman interests
but a religious chief, while the Sultan's name, as Caliph, was to
continue to be pronounced in public prayer by the Moslems.
The formal treaty of peace signed at Lausanne three days later
(Oct. 18 1912) made no mention of the Italian annexation, but
provided for the evacuation of the vilayets by Turkey. France
was the first Power formally to recognize the new position created ;
by a declaration signed at Paris on Oct. 28 the two Governments
agreed not to put any obstacles in the way of measures which
they should judge opportune in Libya and Morocco respectively.
This was in fulfilment of a Franco-Italian agreement reached in
1902, an agreement in which Great Britain acquiesced.
In Tripolitania the article of the Treaty of Lausanne requiring
the immediate recall of the Turkish troops was carried out.
Neshat Pasha and his force of 2,500 regulars embarked for
Constantinople, while the garrisons in the interior, largely com-
posed of natives (Arabs and Berbers), disbanded, or joined the
Turks and Senussites in Cyrenaica. The Italians then took in
hand the pacification of the interior. The tribes of the Jefera
(coast zone) submitted with little difficulty, but there was stout
opposition from the Berbers of the adjacent hill region. Suleiman
'el Baruni, the powerful Berber chief of the Jebel Nefusa, was the
principal opponent of the Italians. He had represented Tripoli
in the Turkish Parliament, had been created a pasha, was an
ardent supporter of the Pan-Islamic movement, and now set up
a kingdom in the hills. After having maintained his independ-
ence for the greater part of 1913 Suleiman was beaten. He fled
to Europe to reappear at a more convenient season. The
occupation of the rest of the province by the Italians presented
little difficulty. Murzuk, the capital of Fezzan, was entered
unopposed on March 3 1914 by a column under Col. Miani.
With the occupation of the oasis and town of Ghat by Col.
Giannini on Aug. 12 following, every place of importance in the
province was garrisoned by the Italians. In these operations,
besides battalions from Italy, troops from Eritrea and native
partisans (Arab and Berber) were employed.
Meanwhile, as soon as the coast region had been pacified, the
Italians set to work with great energy to improve harbours,
make roads, build railways, found schools, open hospitals,
organize sanitary and police services and encourage agriculture
and trade. By the middle of 1915, when the work had to be
abandoned temporarily, a good deal had been accomplished.
National feeling had been highly gratified by the acquisition of
what was looked upon as the " natural heritage " of Italy, and
money and men were forthcoming for the task of regeneration.
Many Italians were anxious to settle in the country as agri-
culturists but this movement the administration wisely dis-
couraged. Towards the Arabs and Berbers a policy of trust and
confidence was adopted, a policy which might have succeeded
but for the situation in Cyrenaica. In that province the Treaty of
Lausanne had not brought about peace, and Turkish troops aided
the Senussites to continue the conflict (see SENUSSI). At the
beginning of 1914 the Italians held in Cyrenaica only a strip
along the coast. The Senussites were masters in the interior,
and thus in a position powerfully to influence the tribes of Tri-
politania. Many of the Fezzani were of the Senussi fraternity.
Such was the position when in Aug. 1914 the World War
began, Italy however at that time remaining neutral. Towards
the end of the next month (Sept. 1914) the Fezzani instigated
by emissaries from the Senussi Sheikh suddenly rose in revolt
and attacked several small garrisons between Murzuk and the
coast. By the end of Nov. the rising had assumed large propor-
tion. The Italian Government then ordered that Fezzan should
be evacuated, and Col. Miani and his troops fought their way
back to the coast. As soon as the Italians had left Murzuk
Mahommed el 'Abid, a brother of the Senussi Sheikh, took over
control there and declared himself governor of Fezzan. Miani's
withdrawal from Fezzan left the Italian garrison at Ghat 600 m.
from the coast isolated, while the garrison of Ghadames, farther
N., was also in danger. Both places adjoined the French frontier,
and at the invitation of the French Government the garrison of
Ghat marched across the desert to Fort Flattere (a distance of
200 m.), while that of Ghadames withdrew into the Tunisian
Sahara. General Tassoni, then governor of Tripoli, whose forces
were increased by 6,500 fresh troops, directed the reoccupation of
both oases. After hard fighting Col. Giannini retook Ghat on
Feb. 18 1915, and shortly afterwards Ghadames was also re-
garrisoned. But on the eastern side of Tripoli fortune went
against the Italians. In an engagement with the rebels between
Sokna and the coast on April 29, the Libyan auxiliaries of the
Italians went over to the enemy on the field of battle, and the
Italian and Eritrean troops were only saved from complete dis-
aster by a skilful retreat to the coast. Turkish, German and
Senussi propaganda was very active throughout Tripolitania,
and the Italian declaration of war upon Austria (May 23 1913)
was the signal for a general rising. In these circumstances the
Italians decided to abandon the interior. The withdrawal of the
garrisons was not effected without serious losses. In June the
troops at 'Aziziya, 40 m. S. of Tripoli city, closely besieged and
having exhausted their food, broke out and attempted to reach
the coast. Nearly all were killed. The last place evacuated was
Ghadames, the garrison on July 19 again crossing into Tunisia.
The only places retained by the Italians were the seaports of
Tripoli and Horns (Khoms). In this month (on July 15) Gen.
Ameglio, governor of Cyrenaica, was also named governor of
Tripoli, for the better conduct of the defensive operations. The
hostile forces which gathered in the neighbourhood of Tripoli
city in the summer of 1915 were beaten back.
The success of the revolt induced the Turkish and German
agents in the country, of whom there were a considerable number,
to endeavour to bring about revolts in Tunisia and Algeria also.
In Algeria they failed, but in the Tunisian Sahara some tribes,
aided by forces from Fezzan led by Turkish officers, attacked the
French outposts. Sharp fighting in Sept. and Oct. 1915 ended in
the reestablishment of order along the frontier by the French
forces. At this time, however, the chief effort of the Turks was
in Cyrenaica, where Sidi Ahmad, the Senussi Sheikh, was induced
to invade Egypt. The only development of note in Tripolitania
until after the defeat of Sidi Ahmad by the British was the
reoccupation of the seaport of Zuara by the Italians in Aug. 1916.
In Sept. 1916 Suleiman el Baruni reappeared. He landed at
Misurata on the 251)1 of that month accompanied by German and
Turkish officers and in possession of a firman from the Sultan,
appointing him governor-general of the vilayets of Tripoli, Tunis
and Algiers. 1 He was joined at Misurata by Ramadhan el Shtewi,
the most powerful local chieftain, an ambitious man who
proved a doubtful ally and whose real aim was independence of
all other parties. He now, however, helped El Baruni, as did
also Nuri Bey. Together they organized a fighting force of 6,000
to 7,000 men, with which all through 1917 El Baruni harassed
the Italians, whom he boasted he would drive into the sea.
1 To soothe his wounded feelings Sidi Ahmad was in Nov. 1916
given by the Turks the title of " Viceroy of Africa."
Though he was defeated in four separate engagements the Italian;
could not follow up their successes. While this fighting was going
on Sidi Ahmad's expulsion from Egypt weakened Senussi pres-
tige in Tripoli, and in the summer of 1917 the pro-Turkish part}
in Fezzan expelled Sidi Ahmad's brother Mahommed el 'Abid
Nothwithstanding the failure of El Baruni's efforts against
Tripoli city, the close of 1917 saw the supporters of Turkish
designs apparently masters of the country. In reality, the Arab
and Berber chiefs were split into factions. El Shtewi had estab-
lished a so-called republic of Tripoli and ruled at Misurata; the
Senussi were divided among themselves, and one party of them,
under Sidi Idris, had, as early as April 1917, come to terms with
the Italians and British. The impossibility of getting the tribes
to act together caused Nuri Bey to leave Tripolitania early in
1918. He was succeeded by Ishaq Pasha, who proved a harsh
and unpopular commander. The Turkish Government, however;
still believed that it would be possible to expel the Italians from
Tripoli, and they sent thither Prince Osman Fuad (a grandson)
of Sultan Murad V.). The prince, who arrived at Misurata by
submarine in April 1918, tried to compose the quarrels among
the tribes, but did not succeed. The tribes were as jealous one of
another as were the Highland clans in the " 45," and powerful
chiefs exercised independent authority, El Baruni and El Shtewi
being the most important. They combined on occasion, and on'
occasion quarrelled. Such was the position when the World War
ended in Nov. 1918.
The task of pacifying the country and restoring Italian
authority was more difficult in Tripoli than in Cyrenaica. Sidi
Ahmad had fled and Sidi Idris having consolidated his authority
over the Senussi fraternity, it was possible to make with him air
arrangement which bound the tribes of Cyrenaica. In Tripoli
there were a dozen or more chieftains with whom to deal, and the
Italians were not prepared to undertake extensive military opera-
tions. They extended their direct authority along the coast and
entered into negotiations with El Baruni and the chiefs of otheri
tribes. The result was seen in the issue of a royal decree in June
1919 in which natives of Tripoli were given " complete local
citizenship," and in the creation of an elective assembly to deal
with legislation and direct taxation. The immediately effective
part of the decree was that the country should be governed as
far as possible through native chiefs, to whom were attached
political officers. El Shtewi was the last chief to agree to this
arrangement; he became mutcssarif of Misurata. As token of !
reestablished amity the Italian flag was rehoisted at the ksar 1
of 'Aziziya on June 12 1919. InAug.Sig. Vittorio Menzinger was |
appointed governor of Tripoli to carry out the new policy of!
ruling through a local Parliament, but the chiefs cared little for
such an assembly, being more concerned in consolidating their
own authority. El Shtewi, particularly, gave much trouble, and in
the first half of 1920 he seized and detained for weeks the com-
mander of the troops at Horns and other Italian officers and men.
He aroused the hostility of Ahmad Murad, the chief of the
Tarhuna tribe, and in the fighting which followed the Italians
did not interfere. A new governor, Sig. Luigi Mercatelli, was
sent out in July 1920, and gradually the situation improved.
The complete accord reached in Cyrenaica with the Senussi
(Nov. 1920) had a tranquillizing effect. As marking the period of
calm which then prevailed, the young Crown Prince Humbert
in Sept. 1921 visited Tripoli and Bengazi, receiving assurances
of loyalty from many chiefs.
In Sept. 1919 an agreement was reached with France rectifying
the Tripolitan-Tunisian frontier, which was made to sweep in a
semi-circle from the coast, so as to leave to Tripoli the direct j
routes between Ghat, Ghadames and Tunis. Italy also obtained :
economic concessions in Tunisia and an agreement as to a com-
mon railway policy (see AFRICA: History).
Economic Conditions, etc. The number of inhabitants is
unknown; for Tripolitania and Cyrenaica combined it may reach
4,000,000. Tripoli city had (1920) a pop. of about 73,000, and
Bengazi 35,000. Europeans, mainly Italians and Maltese, num-
ber some 10,000. Most of the country is desert and there are no
(perennial rivers, but there are numerous fertile oases and grazing
grounds. The chief crop is barley; the date palm, the olive and
the fig tree flourish. There are large supplies of esparto grass, and
saffron and henna are grown. The people possess large numbers
of cattle, sheep and goats, and camels, and there are good possi-
bilities of developing the country's pastoral resources. Salt is the
only mineral exploited. There are valuable sponge " fisheries "
valued roughly at 50,000 yearly.
Both pastoral and agricultural development depend largely
on irrigation works. As it is, neglect of cultivation (caused by
constant tribal wars, overtaxation and the stoppage of the slave
trade) has notably enlarged the desert area; this is obviously the
case in Fezzan, where much might still be done to reclaim lands
recently fertile. There is little prospect of any great revival of
the trade between the central Sudan and Tripoli and Bengazi
ostrich feathers, ivory, and embroidered leather goods are,
however, still brought across the Sahara by camel caravans.
The value of exports (Tripoli and Cyrenaica combined) was
213,000 in 1914, sunk to 93,000 in 1916, and had risen to
300,000 in 1918. The chief exports were skins, henna, ostrich
feathers and sponges.
The figures of imports in these war years bore little relation to
1 normal trading, imports being largely for Government services.
The imports in 1914 were valued at 1,638,000, in 1918 at 3,039,000.
I Since 1912 the bulk of the trade has been with Italy. Colonial
revenue, some 600,000 in 1914, was estimated at 1,000,000 in
I 1920-1. Expenses considerably exceed revenue; in 1914 the budget
was balanced at 2,835,000, in 1920-1 at 5,080,000. Large sums
were spent on public works, still larger sums on defence, military
' expenditure in 1920-1 being put at 1,650,000. In that year 1,030
1 officers and 25,000 men were stationed in Tripoli (16,000 being
i Italians). In Cyrenaica there were 540 officers and 17,000 men
. (6,800 Italians). The non-white troops are principally Abyssinians
; from Eritrea.
In 1920 there were 157 m. of railway; the principal lines were