of the disease. But it was the discovery by Wright that the
rapidity with which a specific response to the inoculation of a
vaccine occurs depends on the dose of vaccine given, and that
this response occurs very rapidly if the dose is an appropriate
one, which opened up the whole field of vaccine therapy. Wright
showed that the inoculation of too large a dose of vaccine can
lead to a state of lessened resistance to infection and that no
immunizing response follows. But this so-called negative phase
can be modified as regards severity and duration by the adjust-
ment of the dose, even to the point of its virtual disappearance,
and nevertheless a good immunizing response follows. And such
a satisfactory response occurs when vaccines are inoculated into
an already infected individual. This means that, if the gravest
generalized infections be excepted, there is not in microbic
diseases a wholesale poisoning of the tissues of the body. There
is infection of certain tissues and others remain healthy or, at all
events, capable of an immunizing response. And it is to the
power of these healthy tissues to respond that we turn in vaccine
therapy. Just as the tissues of a healthy individual inoculated
with an appropriate vaccine respond by elaborating protective
substances against the microbe or microbes contained in that
vaccine, and such response confers immunity on the individual,
so do the healthy tissues of an infected individual respond to a
vaccine containing the infecting microbe, and such a response
raises the resisting power of the individual to the infection.
Now infections by microbes can broadly be divided into two
classes: (a) generalized, and (6) localized. By a generalized
infection we mean that the microbes and their products have
ready access to the blood and lymph stream, and thus exert their
baneful influence not only locally but at a distance on various
tissues of the body. In a localized infection, on the other hand,
the microbes affect a particular region of the body only and the
remaining regions are not at all or only quite secondarily affected.
From what has been said before, it is obvious that in the first
class vaccine therapy has but a limited sphere of application; in
the second class it has a very wide one. For it is on the satisfac-
tory response of the tissues that the success of vaccine therapy
depends and this will bear definite relationship to the healthiness
of the tissues; further, the gravity of the infection must neces-
sarily enter into account, just as a small war calls for but a small
effort, whilst a great war, in which the life of a nation is at stake,
calls for a maximal and sustained effort.
When it is borne in mind that the substances elaborated in
response to the inoculation of a vaccine are largely carried to the
site of infection by the blood stream, it will be realized that the
success or failure of vaccine therapy depends largely on the blood
supply of the affected area. So long as the newly elaborated anti-
bacterial substances can come into contact with the bacteria,
success may be anticipated, but when barriers to their arrival
exist, success is limited or denied by the extent or completeness
of the barriers. Thus in acute lobar pneumonia the affected area
of the lung is occupied by an impenetrable clot of blood; little
good can therefore be expected from vaccine therapy once this
clot has formed and as long as it remains. But this does not
preclude the exploitation of vaccine therapy in pneumonia in the
earliest stages of the disease or after resorption of the clot has
begun. Fortunately, in the majority of infections there is no such
general disturbance of the blood supply to the infected area; in
such case it surely follows that a supply of blood rich in pro-
tective substances must constitute an advantage, as against a
supply of blood poorer in such substances. It will be realized
from these remarks that the utmost care is needed in the accurate
bacteriological diagnosis of each infection before vaccine therapy
is employed, and the vaccine must be prepared with care as to
sterility and specificity.
The administration of the vaccine needs the knowledge not
only of general medicine but of bacteriology and the principles
of active immunization against microbic infections.
The Vaccine. For practical purposes bacterial vaccine may be
defined as sterilized and enumerated suspensions of bacteria, the
liquid medium being either physiological salt solution or dilute
nutrient broth. The bacteria must be isolated in pure culture and
strictly identified by the usual tests. The microbes thus identified
are usually inoculated on to the surface of a solid medium (e.g.
agar-agar) and, after growth has occurred, the bacterial colonies are
floated off into sterile physiological salt solution. The suspension
thus obtained is placed in a hermetically sealed tube and thoroughly
shaken, if necessary by mechanical means, so as to break up the
colonies and obtain an even suspension. A small sample of the sus-
pension is then removed for enumeration, the tube once more
hermetically sealed and the whole placed in a water bath at 60 C. for
one hour. This temperature has been found to be sufficient to kill
most of the pathogenic bacteria without profoundly altering their
chemical composition. Sterility of the vaccine is not, however, pre-
sumed and each one is subjected to cultural control before being
The enumeration of the suspension may be carried out in various
ways. The original method of Wright is as follows:
It has been the practice for some 25 years to enumerate the cor-
puscles of the blood in a counting chamber of known depth and
ruled with squares of known size. Wright, therefore, mixes an equal
quantity of blood and the bacterial suspension. Films of the mixture
are made and appropriately stained for microscopic examination.
An adequate number, about 500 usually suffices, of red blood cor-
puscles are counted in a series of fields of the microscope and at the
same time the number of bacteria seen is noted. The number of red
blood corpuscles per cub. mm. has previously been determined in a
counting chamber, so that all that remains to be done is to work out
the proportion of bacteria to red cells and so to arrive at the number
of bacteria per cub. mm. or cm. of the suspension. , There a're tech-
nical difficulties in the way of enumerating certain bacteria, e.g. the
tubercle bacilli ; in these cases the bacterial growth is weighed, and
the dosage, instead of being expressed in millions of microbes per
cub. cm., is given in milligrammes or their fractions, e.g. a usual dose
of a staphylococcus vaccine will be 250,000,000 cocci, whilst that of a
tubercle vaccine would be o-oooi milligrammes.
A vaccine made from cultures obtained directly from the patient
to be treated is said to be an autogenous vaccine. A vaccine made
not directly from cultures obtained from the patient but from
cultures of the same species of microbe as that which is infecting him
is termed a stock vaccine. In general it may be affirmed that
autogenous vaccines are nearly invariably to be preferred to stock
vaccines, whilst in the case of certain microbes they are indis-
pensable. Stock vaccines, however, are usually effective, save time
and expense and have very wide application. Latterly attempts
have been made to reduce the toxic action of the bacterial sus-
pensions and so-called sensitized and detoxicated vaccines have been
recommended, but it is doubtful whether these procedures con-
stitute a useful advance.
The accompanying table gives a summary of the microbes from
which vaccines are commonly prepared, together with the minimal
and maximal effective doses in which they are administered.
Vaccines are administered by hypodermic injection and the
inoculations are painless.
Where the minimal effective dose is employed the inoculation is
not followed by any local or constitutional disturbance. If there is
any sensible constitutional change, that change is in the direction of
increased well-being. When a medium dose is irioculated there may
In some cases
In most cases
Influenza bac. .
B. of Friedlander
M. catarrhalis .
B. paratyphosus A .
B. paratyphosus B .
be a small amount of local tenderness and a transient aggravation
of the patient's symptoms, or slight constitutional disturbance,
malaise, headache and possibly a slight rise in temperature. But!
none of these negative phase effects are at all marked except where i
an excessive dose has been employed.
It is outside the sphere of this article to enumerate the various
diseases in which vaccine therapy finds application, but a few in
which vaccines have proved of exceptional value may be mentioned.
Boils, carbuncles and other staphylococcal infections usually yield
readily to treatment by staphylococcus vaccine. Erysipelas, puer-
peral septicaemia, acute surgical septicaemia and septic wounds are
conditions benefited by treatment with a streptococcus vaccine.,
Certain forms of rheumatism, arthritis and fibrositis are relieved!
and the progress of the disease is arrested by treatment with an
appropriate vaccine, and the same may be said in the case of certain
'cases of bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis and recurrent colds.
The distressing symptoms of inflammation of the bladder due to
infection by the bacillus coli are relieved and may entirely disappear
under treatment with an autogenous vaccine.
Tuberculous disease of the glands, skin and joints is amenable toj
treatment with a tubercle vaccine, and in rigidly selected cases the I
same holds good for tuberculosis of the lung.
It may be confidently asserted that, with increasing knowledge,!
vaccine therapy will find wider application and will become recog-i
nized as a valuable weapon in the combating of microbic diseases.
(A. C. I.)
VACHELL, HORACE ANNESLEY (1861- ), English novel-!
ist and playwright, was born at Sydenham, Kent, Oct. 30 1861.1
Educated at Harrow and the Royal Military College, Sandhurst,;
he received a. commission in the Rifle Brigade in 1883. In 1894!
he published his first novel, and in 1897 the first to make its
mark, viz. A Drama in Sunshine. Subsequent novels included
John Charily (1900); Brothers (1904) and The Hill (1905), both
Harrow school stories; The Waters of Jordan (1908) and The
Fourth Dimension (1920). He is the author of many plays, some,
such as Searchlights (1915) and The Case of Lady Camber (1915)1
original; others, such as Her Son (1907) and Quinncy's (1915),!
dramatizations of his own novels, or like Fishpingle (1916),;
afterwards issued as novels; whilst others again, e.g. Who is He?,
(1915) and The House of Peril (1919), were dramatized versions;
of novels by other authors.
VAIL, THEODORE NEWTON (1845-1920), American capitalist,
was born on a farm in Carroll county, O., July 16 1845. When a
child, he moved with his parents to New Jersey, studied at the!
Morristown Academy, and for two years studied medicine with :
an uncle. Meanwhile he had become interested in telegraphy.
In 1866 he went with his parents to a farm in Iowa, but two years
later became station agent and telegraph operator on the Union
Pacific at Pine Bluffs, Wyo. Then he was appointed clerk in the
railway mail service and his efficiency led to his being called to
Washington, D.C., in 1873, where he was made assistant-super-l
intendent of railway mail service, rising in 1875 to general super-
intendent. In 1878 he was made general manager of the Amer-l.
ican Bell Telephone Co., and for the next seven years was actively
engaged in the development of the telephone business, for which
he foresaw a great future. In 1885 he resigned from the Bell
Co., and was elected president of the newly organized American
VAMBERY VAN DYKE
Telephone and Telegraph Co., which in 1900 acquired the
American Bell Telephone Co. In 1887 because of ill health Vail
retired and spent the next nine years in travel and on his farm
at Lyndonville, Vt. During a visit to S. America he became
interested in traction problems and in 1896 installed an electric
railway system in Buenos Ayres, and later introduced telephone
systems in many S. American cities, enlisting British capital for
these enterprises. In 1904 he retired to his farm but in 1907 was
again induced to accept the presidency of the American Telephone
and Telegraph Co. When this company in 1910 bought control
of the Western Union Telegraph Co., Vail was made president of
the latter also, and introduced many changes, including " night
letters " at reduced rates. When in 1914, as the result of a
threatened suit by the Government, the Western Union was
again segregated, Vail remained president of his old company.
After the taking over of the wires in Aug. 1918 by the Government
as a war measure, fye was appointed adviser by the Postmaster-
General and urged unified control of all cables, telegraphs and
telephones. When the wires were returned in 1919 to private
ownership he was elected chairman of the board of directors of
the American Telephone and Telegraph Co. In 1920 the gross
earningsof the company were $io3,946,988,netearnings$7o,686,-
904, number of miles of wire owned 23,377,404. Vail died in
Baltimore April 16 1920. The value of his estate was estimated
at about $2,000,000. He left $100,000 each to Princeton and
Dartmouth, and $200,000 to be divided equally among Phillips
Exeter Academy, Middlebury College, Harvard, and the Massa-
chusetts Institute of Technology. To the last named he left also
his large collection of books on electricity.
See A. B. Paine, In One Man's Life (1921).
VAMBERY, ARMINIUS (1832-1913), Hungarian Orientalist
and traveller (see 27.876*), died at Budapest Sept. 4 1913.
VANBRUGH, IRENE (1872- ), and VIOLET (1867- ),
English actresses, youngest and eldest daughters respectively
of the Rev. R. N. Barnes, Prebendary of Exeter cathedral.
VIOLET VANBRUGH was born at Exeter June n 1867, and mar-
ried Mr. Arthur Bourchier, the actor, in 1894, their marriage being
dissolved in 1918. She first appeared in London at the Criterion
theatre in 1886, and later toured with Toole. In 1889 she was
with the Kendals both in London and in America, and in 1892
played Anne Boleyn at the Lyceum in HenryTrving's production
of Henry VIII. After her marriage she played leading parts in
many of her husband's productions, both in Shakespearean and
modern drama. Amongst her roles may be mentioned Queen
Katherine, Portia, Lady Macbeth (which she also played in 1911
at His Majesty's theatre), Yanetta in The Arm of the Law. and
the heroines of many modern comedies by Sutro, Henry Arthur
Jones and others.
IRENE VANBRUGH was born at Exeter Dec. 2 1872 and married
Mr. Dion Boucicault (b. 1859), the actor, in 1901. She first
appeared in London at the Globe theatre in Alice in Wonderland.
Like her sister she played with Toole, remaining with him for
four years and touring with him in Australia. Subsequently she
acted with George Alexander at the St. James's theatre, with
Arthur Bourchier at the Royalty and with Charles Wyndham at
the Criterion in Jones's play The Liars. Her first notable suc-
cesses were as Sophy Fullgarney in Pinero's The Gay Lord Quex
(1899), Letty Shell in his Letty (1904) and Nina Jesson in His
House in Order (1906). She also appeared with distinction in
various short plays by Barrie, especially Rosalind and The
Twelve Pound Look, and in other modern dramas.
VANCOUVER (see 27.883), in British Columbia, the chief
Pacific port of the Dominion of Canada, was estimated to have a
population of nearly 200,000 (the suburbs of North Vancouver,
South Vancouver and Point Grey included) at the end of 1920.
Vancouver proper had a population of 100,400 in 1911. As the
natural western outlet for the Prairie Provinces, Vancouver had
expected to gain materially by the opening of the Panama Canal.
Not until the spring of 1921 was the first cargo of wheat carried
to England by sea direct from Vancouver, but the success of that
experiment made probable a speedy development of a new trade
for the British Columbian port.
With one of the finest natural harbours in the world Vancouver
has grown in importance as a port during recent years. Already
the terminal point for British, Australasian and Asiatic terminal
lines, Vancouver was the prospective terminal in 1921 for a new
Pacific line to be inaugurated by the Canadian National Rail-
ways. Government contracts had then been let for further
improvements on Burrard Inlet (the chief of Vancouver's three
harbours) for greater dockage and for a system of car ferries
crossing the Inlet to carry freight from the city to North Van-
couver without transfer. In 1920-1 the Canadian Pacific rail-
way built a pier of concrete and steel, equipped with all modern
freight-handling devices, at a cost of $1,500,000.
The Dominion Government in recent years has erected a grain
elevator with a capacity of 1,250,000 bushels. Shipbuilding became
a prominent industry during the years of the World War and as
many as 5,000 men were at one time employed in the shipbuilding
yards. In 1920 Vancouver had approximately 543 industries em-
ploying 28,800 people. They included lumber and shingle mills,
pulp and paper mills, salmon, halibut and herring fisheries, foundries
and structural steel works, sugar refineries, shipyards, etc. The out-
put in 1917 was $57,172,309. Clearing-house returns for Vancouver
in 1919 were $577,670,063. In that year 108,111,090 ft. of lumber
were exported by sea. The customs revenue in 1920 amounted to
$9,202,940. Exports in that year were $39,535,283, and imports
$49,256,913. Shipping passing through the port in 1919 was approxi-
mately 23,000 vessels of 10,691,411 tons register. Building was
quiescent for several years preceding 1919. In that year the building
permits amounted to $2,271,411. Shaughnessy Heights is a wealthy
suburb developed since 1911 by the Canadian Pacific railway.
The foundation of the university of British Columbia brought
about a closing down of the British Columbia branch of McGill
University and a transfer of the staff, equipment, etc., of the latter
to the new college. The newly founded university made use at first
of temporary buildings in the city, but just before the war secured
extensive grounds for a campus and buildings at Port Grey. Con-
struction was delayed by the war but was begun in 1921.
Granville I., a large block of reclaimed land near the retail business
district, has of late years been providing excellent sites for industries,
such sites being served with trackage, wharfage, electric power, etc.
VANDERLIP, FRANK ARTHUR (1864- ), American bank-
er, was born at Aurora, 111., Nov. 17 1864. After leaving the
public schools he studied for a time at the university of Illinois
and at the old university of Chicago. In 1889 he became a
reporter on the Chicago Tribune and in 1890 was made its
financial editor, but resigned in 1894 to accept the associate
editorship of the Economist, a paper published weekly in Chicago.
His contributions to it attracted wide attention and he was fre-
quently called upon to deliver addresses. On March 4 1897 he
became private secretary to the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury,
Lyman J. Gage, and four months later was appointed by Presi-
dent McKinley assistant Secretary of the Treasury. On resigning
in 1901 he was elected vice-president of the National City Bank,
of New York City, and in 1909 president, serving in the latter
capacity for ten years. Before taking up his work in 1901 he
spent a year in Europe studying financial and industrial conditions.
When the War Savings Committee was appointed by Secretary
of the Treasury McAdoo, to promote the sale of War Savings
Certificates during the World War, he was made chairman,
serving from Sept. 1917 to Sept. 1918. He was chairman of the
board of directors of the American Industrial Corporation and
director in many organizations, including the Haskell & Barker
Car Co., the Midvale Steel & Ordnance Co., and the Union
Pacific R.R. Co. He was a trustee of the Carnegie Foundation
for the Advancement of Teaching. He was the author of The
American Commercial Invasion of Europe (1902, the result of his
studies in Europe); Business and Education (1907); Modern
Banking (1911) and What Happened to Europe (1919).
VAN DYKE, HENRY (1852- ), American writer, was born
at Germantown, Pa., Nov. 10 1852. He studied at the Brooklyn
Polytechnic Institute, and after graduating from Princeton in
1873 and from the Princeton Theological School in 1877, he
spent two years at the university of Berlin. In 1879 he was ;
ordained a Presbyterian minister, was for three years stationed
at Newport, R.I., and from 1883 to 1900 was pastor of the Brick
Presbyterian Church, New York City. In this capacity his;
preaching gave him a national reputation. From 1900 he was ;
professor of English literature at Princeton. During 1902-3
' These figures indicate the volume and page number of the previous article.
VAN HORNE VENEREAL DISEASES
he was moderator of the Presbyterian Church in the United
States. In 1908 he was appointed American lecturer at the
Sorbonne. He was a member of the American Academy of Arts
and Letters, and in 1909 was elected president of the National
Institute. In 1913 he was appointed by President Wilson minis-
ter to Holland and Luxemburg, but resigned in 1917. When
after the fall of Liege in 1914 von Jagow handed to Mr. Gerard,
the American ambassador in Berlin, the note to Belgium, offering
full reparation for damages, in case free passage to France were
granted German troops, Van Dyke flatly refused to act as inter-
mediary. From the first he championed the cause of the Allies
in the World War, and after America's entrance into the war he
served as a naval chaplain. Dr. Van Dyke was an eloquent
speaker. His books, both prose and in verse, give him a high
place in modern American literature. Among his best works are
his " outdoor essays," especially Little Rivers (1895) and Fisher-
man's Luck (1899). His publications include The Reality of
Religion (1884); The Poetry of Tennyson (1889); The Other Wise
Man (1896); Ships and Havens (1897); The Toiling of Felix, and
Other Poems (1900); The Poetry of the Psalms (1900); The Blue
Flower (1902); Days Off (1907); The House of Rimmon (1908);
Out-of-Doors in the Holy Land (1908); Collected Poems (1911);
The Bad Shepherd (1911); The Unknown Quantity (1912); The
Lost Boy (1914); Fighting for Peace (1917); The Valley of
Vision (1919); and Golden Stars (1919).
VAN HORNE, SIR WILLIAM CORNELIUS (1843-1915),
Canadian financier (see 27.894), died at Montreal Sept. u 1915.
VAN'T HOFF, JACOBUS HENDRICUS (1852-1911), Dutch
chemist and physicist (see 27.896), died at Steglitz, near Berlin,
March i 1911.
VASSAR COLLEGE (see 27.946). During the period 1910-20
the endowment of Vassar College grew from about $1,500,000
to $3,118,904.40 with 800 ac. in campus and farm. Student
enrolment is limited to 1,000, the number that may be housed on
the campus; but the pressure for admittance and the difficulty
of estimating withdrawals make it impossible to maintain this
limit with exactness, and the enrolment for 1921 was 1,106, the
faculty numbering 142. The funds available for student aid in
one form or another amounted in 1921 to $456,37^.55. Students
are admitted on passing the examinations set by the college
entrance examination board, or by an examination covering three
years of preparation in four selected subjects; this latter method
takes the place of entrance by certificate from approved schools.
The physical equipment of the college, exclusive of faculty