and the general slump in prices. Actually, however, what did
happen was that the countries which could purchase were
inundated with the goods which, under normal conditions,
would have been spread over a broader field and the slump fol-
lowed storage of goods and lack of sales.
The reaction probably
went much too far for the home market in Britain was good
in the middle of 1921. But the Wool Council had not only to
face this surplus of wool but the new wool (1920 clip and in
prospect the 1921 dip) coming on to the market at the reopened
.sales in Australia. The adjustment of this prospective difficulty
was exemplified as shown in table 1 1 in the quantities of old and
new wools offered, sold and withdrawn in both London and
Australia in June 1921, Of these quantities, about 79,500 bales;
TABLE n. London Colonial Wool Sales (Feb. 22 to March 5 1921)1
Port Philip .
River Plate .
of which approximately 76,000 bales were colonial, were sold
44,000 bales were taken for export, including 2,000 bales -Punt.
Arenas and Falkland Islands; 8,oco bales went to America.
At the April 1921 London sales the reserve prices of the old
wool were so high that no bids were forthcoming and all of this
wool was withdrawn. Owing to the formation of the British
Australian Wool Realization Association not being completed, or
rather its policy not being decided upon, all the Australian
old wool sales for April 1921 were also cancelled.
The difficulties of adjustment, actually realized later, were
foreseen and deemed so great that when Mr. Hughes (Prime
Minister of the Commonwealth and a stalwart fighter for the
1 The U.S.A. normally holds 400,000,000 lb. of wool in stock.
development of Australian wool industries) proposed to form
an association of Australian wool growers and British Govern-
ment representatives, with the object of realizing at reasonable
values the large stocks of wool held in Australia and England,
the Wool Council accepted the proposed control. Indirectly the
Wool Council was apparently sacrificing the possibility of cheap
wool for the manufacturers of this country: but it regarded the
pocket of the whole country as coming first and the manufac-
turers' demand for cheap wool as coming second. The Austra-
lian Board was thinking chiefly of the interest of the Australian
grower. The association was registered in April 192 1 , as follows :
" British Australian Wool Realization Association, Ltd., Caxton
House, West Tothill Street, Westminster, London, S.W.I. Incor-
porated in the State of Victoria, Australia. Registered April 14,
to acquire and take over (a) one-half share of, or interest in, all
Australian wool bought by the British Government through the
Government of the Commonwealth of Australia and still undisposed
of, and in all real and personal property acquired in connexion
therewith and still undisposed of; (b) one-half share of, or interest
in, any surplus profit on resale of Australian wool so bought still
undistributed. Also to take over and assume one-half of all or any
liabilities and obligations connected with and chargeable to such
wool, property and surplus profits not yet liquidated. Nominal
capital 25,000,000 in 25,000,000 shares of l each. Names of
persons authorized to accept service; Sir Arthur Home Goldfinch,
K.B.E., 8 Rosecrpft Avenue, Hampstead, London, N.W. (Govern-
ing Director British Australian Wool Realization Association, Ltd.,
Delegate General Chilean Nitrate Producers Association) ; James
Alexander Cooper, C.B.E., F.S.A.A., Mentmore House, Uxbridge
Road, Kingston on Thames, Surrey (Assistant Governing Director,
British Australian Wool Realization Association)."
With the lack of demand for goods and consequent lack of
consumption of wool the world over, even the best merino
continued to fall in value up to May 1921, and the poorer sorts
in some cases were below 1914 values (see Chart 3). Whether
the enhanced values realized in May by both merinos and cross-
breds would be maintained was questionable. Table n, from
the Yorkshire Observer of May 16, showed a turn of the tide
if there were no set-backs. Demand from the United States in
anticipation of the new tariff might be, at least in part, the
explanation. Germany had already commenced to buy wool.
d. per Ib.
d. per Ib.
7o's super fleeces
64/67*3 good medium fleeces
6o/64's good medium fleeces
64*8 good pieces .
6o's good pieces .
6o's good pieces .
58/6o's good medium fleeces
56's fine crossbred fleeces
50/56*3 fine crossbred fleeces
46/5o's crossbred fleeces .
46's crossbred fleeces.
44 ? s crossbred fleeces .
36/4O's crossbred fleeces .
io/12 months' combing Capes.
'6/7 months' good clothing
60/64*8 good carbonizing pieces
, 2 3
6o/64's carbonizing pieces and
64*3 average locks
64's average lambs
IV. PROSPECTS IN 1921
Wool Manufacturing. Australian combed tops were on the
Bradford market, on the American market, and were also being
worked up in Japan in 1921. Did this presage a re-distribution
of the world's wool manufacturing industry, and if so what was
the line of distribution likely to be followed?
The astounding prosperity of the British wool-manufacturing
industry following the Armistice attracted world-wide attention,
and it was but natural that every one with any connexion with
the industry the world over should wish to share in the prosperity.
There were two types of country in which the development of
manufacturing would undoubtedly be attempted, and in which
the attempt is undoubtedly justified, (i) the wool-producing
continents or countries, Australasia, S. Africa, and S. America,
and (2) new wool-consuming countries such as India, Japan,
Brazil. In Australia some few mills were developing before the
war, and after the war, under private enterprise, stimulated by
the energy of Mr. Hughes and others, and, in some cases, further
encouraged by the mother-country financiers. Australia made
strenuous endeavours to develop a huge wool-manufacturing
industry. Her ideal was to manufacture one-tenth of her wool
production per annum say, 50 to 60,000,000 Ib., and in 1921
nearly 40 wool manufacturing mills were already in existence.
Similarly South Africa, stimulated by Gen. Enslin, was also
making a bid for wool manufacturing.
In the case of Australia no forethought or skill was being
spared. The mills were being equipped with the finest machinery
French-made combs, for example, had so far been given pre-
ference over the speedier but less exact British (Noble) combs
and the best skilled workers were engaged in many of the mills.
Excellently combed Australian tops were already on the Brad-
So long as profits remained high and high rates of wages were
maintained, the appeal to the financial instincts of the worker,
even in the case of Australia, might be expected to hold him in
the mill. But if the conditions of 1914 came round again and the
skill and temperament of the newly developed Australian
industry were pitted against the skill and temperament of the
older industrial countries, which would win out? Broadly
speaking, in anything beyond combing it would be the older
countries' fault if they did not dominate. Again, with the need
for harder conditions in the factories which must almost inevit-
ably follow severe competition, it was a question which opera-
tives would best stand the strain. Australia, and possibly S.
Africa and S. America, might develop quite considerable wool
manufacturing industries, but it would seem inevitable that the
old manufacturing countries would almost entirely retain their
hold on the bulk of the world trade in manufactured wool goods.
In the case of India, Brazil and more particularly Japan, it
was probable that the growing demand for wool goods would be
only partly met by local production, and for some years to
come the outside demand of these countries for manufactured
goods seemed more likely to develop than to contract.
So far as the British wool manufacturing industry is con-
cerned everything depended upon (i) the introduction of scien-
tific method into the works; (2) efficiency in manipulative skill,
and (3) efficiency in organization. With reference to the first
and second points the introduction of automatic machinery
was day by day placing an enhanced value on careful, thought-
ful workmanship. The Englishman likes to get a job done, he
prefers " driving force " to thoughtfulness. The continental
controllers and workers are too often years ahead of the British
managers and workers; in thoughtful outlook the American
managers and workers are up to the British in bulk production
and threaten to pass them even in excellency of output.
With reference to the third point, organization depends upon
both directors and workers. An unsympathetic attitude on the
part of either will lead to trouble and disaster. The scale of
organization had probably been set by the United States.
There the Arlington mills each day treat the fleeces of about
35,000 sheep say, 200,000 Ib. of wool: and this is said by no
means to be the largest wool manufacturing company in the
United States. Along with this enormous organization goes
an efficiency in organization and cleanliness in installation
which puts most European mills to shame. The American
manufacturer has no time to develop that " secrecy " which is
far too much in evidence in European concerns; he relies upon
To sum up, it would seem that while wool-growing countries
may develop quite considerable wool-manufacturing industries,
these will not be to the exclusion of the older manufacturing
countries. On the other hand, American enterprise (and possi-
WOOLDRIDGE, H. E.
bly Japanese enterprise) will severely test the resources of the
older industrial countries, and success will rest in the future
with the country developing the most thoughtful captains and
rank and file of industry.
(b) Wool Production. During the high prices period of 1918
to 1921 the demand for wool was so great, and future prospects
for the wool-grower seemed so rosy, that likely and unlikely
fields for the development of sheep-breeding were considered.
With the slump in prices the future prospects of the wool-
grower suffered an apparent eclipse. No doubt in 1920 prospects
were considered too rosy, but equally in 1921 prospects were
regarded in altogether too sombre a light. A few broad glances
at the situation will clear the way.
If we take the United States as practically a self-contained
country, and allow the approximately ten million negro population
(wearing little or no wool) to balance the extra wool required
for garments in the northern states, where cold winters have to be
faced, we get this interesting result: Wool consumed, 600,000,-
ooo lb.; population, 100,000,000; or 6 Ib. of wool per head per
annum. Even if we allow for a considerable quantity of re-man-
ufactured material and also for the negro population, this can
only be regarded as a " miserable statement," for the 6 lb. is
greasy wool yielding about 3 lb. of clean wool, or hah" a suit or
half a dress length per annum for each male and female in the
United States. In this allowance are included the imports of
wool materials (other than raw wool) amounting to an average
of over 30,000,000 lb. per annum. Neither Great Britain,
France nor Germany shows any advance on this.
The world's wool statistics and population only serve to em-
phasize the lack of supplies; for taking the pre-war figure (given
in Table i) of 2,728,461,630 lb., and allowing an average yield of
60% clean wool, this leaves about 1,400,000,000 lb. of clean
wool to serve for a world's population of 1,606,542,000 or -9 lb.
of wool per male or female. To make this discrepancy even
clearer, however, take only the population of Britain, Canada,
Australia, the United States, France, Germany, Austria, Euro-
pean Russia and the Netherlands these total up to approxi-
mately 282,000,000 souls, consuming hardly 6 lb. per head per
annum. The problem of the future would seem to be: How
to develop such conditions of livelihood the world over that
the greatest possible number become substantial purchasing (or
What possibilities of increased supplies are there? These
may be grouped under two heads: (i) an increased yield from
the present flocks, and (2) the opening up of new tracts of
sheep-rearing land. The first point is admirably illustrated by
particulars taken from Table i, the weights of fleeces for the
several continents working out as follows:
Europe |9M | 5 lb. per fleece.
Oceania 645 I .....
S. America 4826 "1 4 " " "
N. and Central America 3042 1 . 6 " " "
Asia 2731 1 . . . 3 '
Africa 2199 \ 3 " " "
In some cases the sheep-lands are too poor to be expected to
do better, but it will probably be found that this is very rarely
the case. It is stated, for example, that Herdwick sheep, living
on Cumberland hills which will hardly support rabbits, will
produce fleeces from 5 lb. to 10 lb. weight. But what may be
effected through careful selection is best illustrated by the fol-
lowing record of New South Wales flocks:
3 lb. 9 oz.
6 lb. 3 oz.
8 lb. 7 oz.
Thus with 25 million fewer sheep in 1916 as against 1890 some
80,000,000 lb. more wool was produced. Great Britain has
seriously taken these figures to heart, and under the auspices of
the Research Association for the Woollen and Worsted Industries
strenuous endeavours are being made, (a) to increase the quality
and yield of the well-established breeds of sheep, and (b) to
improve the quality of the wool in certain mountain types by
crossing with better quality sheep, especially Down sheep.
With reference to the second point, although nothing like the
development of a second Australia is to be expected, it is already
obvious that marked developments of sheep-growing tracts of
land may be expected. In the spring of 1921, for example, Col.
Robert Stordy, on behalf of the Peruvian Government, sailed
from Britain with cargoes of Southdown, Suffolk Down, Shrop-
shire, Rambouillet (merino) and Soay rams, with the object of
developing wool growing in Peru. Wool analysis of the Peru-
vian wools grown in 1921 on the degenerate sheep of the country,
as analyzed by the university of Leeds, revealed remarkable
qualities specially acceptable to the hosiery manufacturer.
The development of Peru as a wool-growing country is one of the
most fascinating possibilities.
The Duke of Devonshire, Governor-General of Canada until
1921, was specially interested and concerned in the development
of the prairie lands of the Dominion on the four years' rotation
basis, and one of the years will mean sheep. Thus it is quite pos-
sible that in the near future Canada will produce more wool of
the Down type and possibly of the merino type: for if Russia can
raise merinos amid the snows of winter, why not Canada? The
Indians and Japanese are both making inquiries with the idea
not only of improving the breed of such sheep as they have but
also of developing large tracts of land which probably could
well carry sheep.
(c) Wool Distribution. The question as to where the wool
of the world will be distributed for manufacture and re-dis-
tributed for wear, is largely a matter of surmise, and, after the
extraordinary change from the conditions prevailing in the
early months of 1920 to the conditions prevailing in the early
months of 1921, even the most reliable authorities hesitated to
commit themselves. If the world becomes more stabilized, and
the suppressive effects of vested interests on the one hand and
of " ca'canny " on the other are brought within reasonable limits,
then it may be that conditions as rosy as 1918 to 1921 will return
with accompanying similar conditions in other industries. To
meet such conditions, should they arise, will necessitate the
employment of every possible type of automatic machine, and
a developed skill depending on the quality of " thoughtfulness "
on the part of the individual worker in using such automatic
machinery. It will thus be evident that forethought, efficiency
and skill will play a greater part than ever in deciding the
peoples to whom the bulk of the world's wool shall pass to be
manufactured. Australia will undoubtedly manufacture an
increasing quantity of wool but she may possibly grow an even
greater quantity than that demanded to balance for the manu-
facturing in her own mills. S. Africa, S. America, India and
Japan will no doubt all claim their quota for manufacturing
purposes. But the great bulk of the wool will be manufactured
elsewhere: and it is safe to say that will be where scientific
method and scientific management and a broad, humane out-
look dominate. And the manufactured material of course will
go to those peoples who have something to offer in exchange.
It is true that the immediate outlook in 1921 was dark. But
the reason why was becoming apparent. And when this was
fully realized the world would be well on the way to adjust its
economic condition to facilitate production and exchange to the
advantage of all its peoples. (A. F. B.)
WOOLDRIDGE, HARRY ELLIS (1845-1917), English musical
antiquary, was born in 1845. He studied art, and became a
student of the Royal Academy in 1865, about the same time
commencing his researches into early music. He received various
commissions for artistic works, the most important being a
reredos for St. Martin's church, Brighton, and the frescoes in St.
John's church, Hampstead. At the same time his reputation as
WOOLWORTH WORLD WAR, THE
in authority on music was steadily rising, and in 1895 he was
elected Slade professor of Fine Arts at Oxford, a post which he
held until 1904. His chief works on music are a new edition of
ChappelTs Popular Music of the Olden Time, which appeared
under the title Old English Popular Music (1893) and The
Polyphonic Period, parts I. and II. (vols. i. and ii. of the Oxford
History of Music, 1901-5). He died in London on Feb. 13 1917.
WOOLWORTH, FRANK WINFIELD (1852-1919), American
merchant, was born near Rodman, N.Y., April r3 1852. He
was reared on a farm, studied in the public schools, and graduated
from a business college at Watertown, N.Y., in 1872. He began
his career as a clerk in Watertown, and it is said that a bargain
counter in his employer's store first suggested to him the idea
that resulted in the establishment of the long chain of " five and
ten cent " stores that bear his name. Early in 1879 he opened
at Utica, N.Y., his first " five cent " store which, however,
was a failure. Later in the same year he established a similar
store at Lancaster, Pa., followed by another at Harrisburg.
The chain in 1920 was composed of about 987 " five and ten
cent " stores in the United States, 94 in Canada, and 81 in
England. When the F. W. Woolworth Co. was incorporated
in New York in Dec. 1911 he became president. In 1912 the
Woolworth building in New York City, costing $13,000,000,
was completed from the designs of Cass Gilbert. It is 760 ft.
high, has 57 storeys, and, excepting the Eiffel Tower in Paris,
is the tallest building in the world. The gross sales of the com-
pany in 1920 amounted to $140,918,981 and the net profits
$9,775,251, as compared with $r 19,496, 107 and $10,361,557
respectively in 1919. Woolworth died at Glen Cove, L.I., April
8 1919, leaving an estate appraised at $27,000,000.
WORDSWORTH, ELIZABETH (1840- ), English education-
alist, was born at Harrow June 22 1840, the eldest daughter of
Christopher Wordsworth, afterwards Bishop of Lincoln, and
hence a great-niece of the poet. She was educated at home and
lived a home life until in 1879 Lady Margaret Hall was founded
at Oxford, largely owing to Miss Wordsworth's energy and
organizing capacity, and she became its first principal. Her
social gifts and powers of clever conversation made her a
prominent figure in Oxford life. She retired from her post at
Lady Margaret Hall in r9O9, but continued to live in Oxford
and to be an active member of its council. In Oct. 1921 the
university of Oxford conferred upon her an hon. M.A. degree.
Miss Wordsworth contributed many charming tales to Aunt
Judy's Magazine, edited by Mrs. Gatty (see 11.530), and also
published various devotional books and volumes of verse and
essays. In collaboration with J. Overton, she published in 1888
the Life of Christopher Wordsworth.
WORDSWORTH, JOHN (1843-191 1), English divine and scholar,
was born at Harrow Sept. 21 1843, the son of Christopher
Wordsworth, afterwards Bishop of Lincoln, and grand-nephew of
the poet. He was educated at Winchester and New College,
Oxford, where he had a distinguished career, and after a short
period as a master at Wellington College was elected a fellow of
Brasenose and took orders (1867). He became widely known
both as a Latin scholar and as a theologian, being elected
Bampton lecturer in 1881 and Ireland professor of exegesis in
1883. In 1883 he became a canon of Rochester and in 1885
Bishop of Salisbury. His works include Fragments and Specimens
of Early < Latin (1874); Old Latin Biblical Texts (1883 and 1886),
vol. ii.,in conjunction with Dr. Sanday and Rev. H. J. White;
The Episcopate of Charles Wordsworth (1898); Teaching of the
Church of England for Information of Eastern Christians (1900);
The Invocation of Saints and the 22nd Article (2nd ed. 1910).
He died at Salisbury Aug. 16 1911.
WORLD WAR, THE The military history of the World War
is told in these New Volumes in separate articles dealing with
campaigns and battles; and a general account of the war at sea is
given in the article NAVAL OPERATIONS (supplemented by sepa-
rate articles on the tattles of JUTLAND, DOGGER BANK, CORONEL,
HELIGOLAND BIGHT, FALKLAND ISLANDS, ZEEBRUGGE, and on
the GOEBEN AND BRESLAU affair, together with those under the
headings of SUBMARINE CAMPAIGNS, BLOCKADE, MINESWEEPING
AND MINELAYING and CONVOY) . As regards the land operations,
reference to the separate headings under which the military
history is narrated may best be made here by a brief resume of
the course of the war.
The war opened simultaneously on three fronts in Aug. 1914.
These fronts were the western, the eastern and the Serbian, and
the continuous story of the major operations on these fronts will
be found under the respective headings: WESTERN EUROPEAN
FRONT CAMPAIGNS, EASTERN EUROPEAN FRONT CAMPAIGNS and
SERBIAN CAMPAIGNS, together with SALONIKA CAMPAIGNS. In
the west the German invasion of Belgium and France was marked
by the five-fold battle of the FRONTIERS (q.v.) in Alsace,
Lorraine, Ardennes, at Charleroi and at Mons by the sieges of
LIEGE, NAMUR and MAUBEUGE (q.q.v.), and by the battle of
GUISE (q.v.). Its culmination in the battles of Sept. 4-20 is
told in detail under the heading MARNE; and the development of
the northern flanks of the opposed armies towards the sea, at
the same time as ANTWERP (q.v.) fell to the Germans, is dealt
with under the headings ARTOIS (part I.), and YPRES AND THE
YSER (part I.).
On the eastern front the Russian invasion of East Prussia,
with its battles of Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes, is dealt
with in detail under the heading MASURIA, BATTLES IN (parts
I., II.), while the main conflict between the Russian and Austrian
offensive efforts in Galicia and Poland during August and early
September is described under LEMBERG (part I.). The subse-
quent united efforts of the Austrian and German armies in Poland