The Unionist party, both in Ireland and in England, became
suspicious of the tendencies of his administration, and he was
driven to resignation. He never held office again, but he was
very active in support of the causes which he had at heart,
such as~ tariff reform, and woman suffrage; he was a keen critic
of Lord Haldane's army reforms, and threw himself vigorously
into the " die-hard " campaign of 1911.
This varied political activity was however but a portion of
his life. He was also a man of letters, possessed of fine taste
and a graceful style. Here his genius was stimulated by his
friendship with W. E. Henley, who dedicated a book to " George
Wyndham, soldier, courtier, scholar." His principal published
work was an edition of Shakespeare's Poems (1898); but he
wrote also on North's Plutarch and Ronsard. The Admirable
Crichton of his day, he was keen alike on field sports and the
arts, the friend and admirer equally of Cecil Rhodes and of
Rodin, a railway director and a yeomanry colonel. Oxford,
Edinburgh and Glasgow gave him honorary degrees; the two
Scottish universities made him lord rector.
By his father's death in 1911, Mr. Wyndham came into
possession of his beautiful house, Clouds, in Wiltshire. Two
years later, at the early age of 50, he died in Paris, of congestion
of the lungs, after only a few hours' illness. Lady Grosvenor
survived her husband. They had one son, Lt. Percy Lyulph
Wyndham, who followed his father in the Coldstream Guards,
was married in 1913, a few weeks before his father's death, and
was killed in action in France on Sept. 15 1914, leaving no child.
WYOMING (see 28.873). The pop. of the state in 1920 was
194,402 as compared with 145,965 in 1910, an increase of 48,437
r 33-2%, as against an increase of 57.7% in the preceding
decade. The density of pop. was two per sq. m. in 1920. The
urban pop. (in places having 2,500 inhabitants or more) in 1910
was 43,221, or 29.6% of the whole; in 1920, 57,348, or 29.5%.
The rural pop. was 102,744 in 1910, 137,054 in 1920. The
cities in Wyoming having a pop. in 1920 of over 5,000 and their
percentage of increase were:
Casper . ...
The increase of pop. has been chiefly elsewhere than in the
southern parts of the state, which had been the first to be settled.
Agriculture. The number of farms was 6,095 m 1900, 10,987 in
191, 15.748 in 1920. The acreage of all crops was estimated for
1920 as 1,826,000. The number of sheep in 1919 was 4,000,000
valued at $49,200,000. In 1920 the number was 3,200,000 valued at
$32,640,000, being one-fifteenth in numbers and value of the total
sheep in the United States. The estimated product of wool in 1919
was 33,415,000 lb., the average weight per fleece 8-5 Ib. The total
number of neat cattle in 1919 was 1,180,000 valued at $75, 580,000;
in 1920 there were 869,000 valued at $47;37o,ooo. Other figures are
correspondingly higher for 1919. In 1920 there were 258,000 horses
valued at $11,925,000; mules 4,000, valued at $360,000; and swine
63,000, valued at $1,159,000. Other agricultural products of Wyo-
ming and their value in 1920 were as follows:
Hay, wild, salt and
The irrigated area was 1,133,302 ac. in 1909, 1,209,527 in 1919.
In 1920 the acreage capable of irrigation was 1,799,361. There
were, in 1918, 978,681 ac. of land used for dry farming.
Mining. The annual gross value of Wyoming's mineral products
at the places of production was estimated at $68,250,000 for 1920.
In 1917 the state ranked ninth in the output of bituminous coal with
8,575,000 tons valued at $16,593,619; in 1918 it was 9,300,000 tons;
in 1919 7,145,000 tons (the decrease being attributed to labour
shortage). The largest product comes from Sweetwater, Lincoln and
Sheridan counties. The total production of coal to the end of 1917'
was 148,000,000 short tons. Copper mining has decreased, the an-
nual production averaging in value about $200,000. The gypsum
production in 1917 was 55,804 short tons valued at $197,867. The
average output of iron ore was about 500,000 tons, worth $1,500,000
at the mines. A deposit of carnotite (uranium, radium), accidentally
discovered near Lusk in Niobrara county, produced in 1919 71-86
tons valued at $382 per ton. Most important in the state's mining
development is the petroleum industry. In 1918 the output was
12,596,287 bar., in 1919 13,580,000 bar., and the estimate for 1920
16,000,000 bar. of crude oil, valued at over $45,000,000 at the wells.
There were 17 fields in the state where oil was produced for market.
About one-half the state's output was from Salt Creek field in
Natrona county. Converse county came next in 1919 with 3,267,302
bar., Hot Springs followed with 2,151,867 bar., and Park with
Manufactures and Railways. Wyoming's manufactures continue
to be of little relative importance, aside from the petroleum refin-
ing industry to which this great increase of 1919 is due. The fol-
lowing figures are from the census report :
Number of establishments.
Persons engaged ....
Value of products ....
Value added by manufacture .
Of the 8,095 persons engaged 3,057 were wage-earners in the
steam railway construction and repair shops. Railway mileage in
1917 was 1,924 m. as compared with 1,623 in 1909.
Education. The educational system was reorganized in 1919 by
Act of the Legislature providing for an elective state superintendent
of public instruction, a state Board of Education appointed by the
state superintendent with the approval of the governor, and a
commissioner of education appointed by the state Board with the
approval of the governor.
History. Wyoming in 1921 was still governed under its
first constitution. The six amendments which had been adopted
gave additional powers to the Legislature notably for work-
men's compensation measures, highway construction and pro-
tection of live stock from disease. An eight-hour day for under-
ground work in mines was established in 1909. A direct primary
law was passed in 1911, and a Mother's Pension Act in 1915,
the latter to be administered by the county commissioners.
A Public Service Commission was established in 1915, composed
of members of the state Board of Equalization, with power to
supervise and regulate any public utility doing business in the
state. In 1919 a " blue sky " law was passed. In the same year
the Executive Budget system was adopted. In 1921 a system of
rural credits, to be managed by a Farm Loan Board, was pro-
vided for, and art Act passed allowing towns of 1,000 inhabitants
or more to adopt the commission-manager form of government.
By an Act of 1919 the commissioner of taxation was replaced by
a state Board of Equalization with power to increase or decrease
the assessed value of any class of property in any county. The
law of 1909 limiting county taxes was replaced by the Act of
1911 grading the tax limit according to the assessed valuation
of the county. A beginning was made in 1921 in the revision of
the taxation system by- provision for an effective inheritance
tax. The bonded debt was reduced from $140,000 in 1910 to
$99,000 in 1918, but in 1920 it was increased to $1,935,000,
due to the issue of bonds for the construction of roads.
Wyoming has been normally a Republican state in politics,
but Republican control was seriously threatened for some years,
beginning with the Insurgent Republican movement of 1910.
Joseph M. Carey headed that movement, and a combination of
Insurgent Republicans and Democrats resulted in the election
in 1910 of Carey as governor, and of a majority of Democratic
state officials. But the Republicans retained their control of
the state Legislature throughout the decade 1910-20, and con-
trolled the judiciary until the Act of 1918 providing for election
of judges on a non-partisan ticket. Frank W. Mondell (Rep.)
was reflected as the state's one representative in Congress in
1910 and in every succeeding election of the decade. Clarence
D. Clark (Rep.) was reflected to the U.S. Senate in 1910 and
Francis E. Warren (Rep.) in 1912 and again in 1918. In 1914
John B. Kendrick (Dem.) was elected governor by a vote of
22,387 to 19,174 for his Republican competitor; in 1916 he was
elected to the U.S. Senate over Clark (Rep.) by a vote of 26,324
to 23,258. In 1918, however, the Republicans won the elections
by substantial majorities, and in 1920 they swept the state for
both state and national tickets. The presidential vote in 1912
was 15,310 for Wilson, 14,560 for Taft, and 9,232 for Roosevelt;
in 1916 it was 28,316 for Wilson and 21,698 for Hughes; in 1920
it was 35,091 for Harding and 17,429 for Cox.
During the World War Wyoming supplied to the U.S. army
11,393 men, to the navy 638, and to the marine corps in. The
subscriptions to the war loans, in each case exceeding the state's
quota, were as follows: First Liberty Loan, $1,568,900; Second,
$5,132,650; Third, $6,737,000; Fourth, $10,183,150; Victory
The recent governors have been: Joseph M. Carey (Prog.),
1911-5; John B. Kendrick (Dem.), 1915-7^. L. Houx (acting,
Dem.), 1917-9; Robert D. Carey (Rep.), 1919- . (L. A. W.*)
YACHTING: see SPORTS AND GAMES.
YALE UNIVERSITY (see 28.899*). In 1919 President
A. T. Hadley announced his decision to resign the presi-
dency of Yale at the close of the university year; and
on June 22 1921 his successor, James Rowland Angell, was
inaugurated. Developments in 1910-20 were marked in many
respects. The university's endowment increased from $11,967,-
166.29 to $24,048,730.45. The university began to be the bene-
ficiary under the will of the late John W. Sterling of New York
City, a graduate of Yale College, of about $20,000,000, held
by trustees for the university under his bequest. The money
was to be used for memorial buildings and devoted " to some
extent to the foundation of Scholarships, Fellowships or Lecture-
ships, the endowment of new Professorships and the establish-
ment of special funds for prizes." At the same time the univer-
sity's property holdings were augmented, and several important
buildings constructed, including the Osborn Memorial Labor-
atories, the Sloane Physics Laboratory, the Dunham Laboratory
of Electrical Engineering, the Mason Laboratory of Mechanical
Engineering, Sprague Memorial Hall (Music), the Brady Memo-
rial Laboratory (Pathology), Artillery Hall and the Artillery
Armoury, and the magnificent Memorial Quadrangle, the gift
of Mrs. Stephen V. Harkness, of New York City. This quad-
rangle includes seven courtyards in collegiate Gothic, designed
by James Gamble Rogers of New York City, and erected at a
cost of several million dollars. It is recognized as one of the
most perfect groups of modern Gothic buildings in the world.
The number of students in 1920 who were candidates for a
degree was 3,214, practically the same as ten years earlier. Edu-
cationally the university underwent a thorough reorganization
in its administrative and educational system to meet modern
conditions. The medical school was allied to the New Haven
hospital and placed on full-time basis; the law school introduced
the requirement of a college degree for entrance, except for
Academic Seniors; the undergraduates' courses in the Sheffield
Scientific School were placed on a four-year basis; and the higher
engineering degrees were transferred from the scientific school to
the graduate school. Several new university officers were ap-
pointed, including a Provost, who represented the Faculties
before the Corporation and assisted the President in the educa-
tional administration of the university; the Dean of Students,
who was primarily concerned with student moral; and a Dean of
Freshmen, who had under his jurisdiction all undergraduate
freshmen. These were formed into what is called the Freshmen
Year, at the close of which undergraduates pursued three years of
study in the Sheffield Scientific School leading to the degree of
Bachelor of Science, or three years of study in the college leading
to the degree of Bachelor of Arts, or in the case of students
without Latin, Bachelor of Philosophy. The admission of all
students was centralized in a Board of Admissions, under a
chairman appointed by the Yale Corporation.
In connexion with the literary activities of the university the
Yale University Press was started in 1908, by Mr. George
Parmly Day, the treasurer of the university, under an agreement
with the university by which all books published and bearing
the Yale name must receive approval in advance by the Yale
University Council's Committee on Publications. The Press
was affiliated with the Oxford University Press, and became an
important publishing agency in America for works of a literary
and scholarly character. The number of books published in 1919
was seventy-eight. The number of books sold was 184,145. The
Yale Review was transformed in 1911 into a quarterly review
under the editorship of Wilbur L. Cross, Dean of the Yale Gradu-
ate School, and it is recognized as one of the most representative
organs of sober thought in America.
Eight thousand Yale men, including graduates, former stu-
dents and students, entered the military and naval services of the
United States during the World War. The university had the
most important artillery school in the country outside of Fort
Sill and Camp Zachary Taylor. It also had one of the largest
naval training units, and was the centre of the scientific work of
the chemical warfare service. It was also the seat of the leading
army laboratory school. Two hundred and twenty-five Yale
men lost their lives in the service of their country. A memorial
has been dedicated in their honour. (A. P. S.)
YAMAGATA, ARITOMO, PRINCE (1838-1922), Japanese field-
marshal (see 28.902), died in Odawara, Japan, Feb. i 1922.
YANUSHKEVICH, NIKOLAI (1868- ), Russian general,
was born in 1868 and entered the army in 1888. He passed
through the academy of the general staff, and was appointed on
the general staff. By 1909 he had reached the rank of general,
but all his service was spent in the offices of the War Ministry,
out of contact with troops. Very strict as a bureaucrat, he
earned the special favour of the War Minister, Sukhomlinov, and,
though he was quite untrained in the leading of troops in modern
warfare (at the academy of the general staff he had taken an
administrative course), he was, thanks to his even temper and
enterprise, quickly promoted to the higher posts. Just before
the World War he was appointed head of the general staff. Un-
able to introduce improvements, he limited himself merely to
formal direction, which toned in well with the regime which the
careless War Minister, Sukhomlinov, had established. With the
declaration of war Yanushkevich, as head of the general staff,
became the head of the staff of the supreme commander-in-chief.
But at the commencement of operations, feeling himself com-
pletely unprepared for leadership on active service, he withdrew
and left the work in the hands of his subordinates.
YARMOUTH (GREAT YARMOUTH), Norfolk, England (see
28.905). The pop. had increased from 55,905 in 1911 to 60,710
in 1921. A new art school was opened in July 1913, and the
esplanade was extended northward by about } m.; in 1921 a
town-planning scheme of a very comprehensive nature was in
course of preparation. Yarmouth was subjected to zeppelin and
other aircraft raids on Jan 19 1915, April 24 1916, and Jan. 14
1918, and was bombarded from the sea on two occasions (Nov. 3
1914 and Jan. 26 1915); the material damage was slight.
YEATS, WILLIAM BUTLER (1865- ), Irish author (see
28.909). In 1911, after the death of his friend J. M. Synge,
Yeats wrote the essay Synge and the Ireland of his Time. His
fervent Irish nationalism had been tried somewhat during his
encounter with a section of the Irish public at the time of the
Playboy disturbances in the Abbey theatre, and was further tried
when the Dublin corporation refused a building for Sir Hugh
Lane's collection of pictures. These affairs suggested to him
a good deal of topical verse, especially in the most important of
his later volumes, Responsibilities (Cuala Press, 1914). The
volume includes the lines, familiar now in Ireland, " Romantic
Ireland's dead and gone "; and as if to dwell a little longer in the
Ireland of his earlier years, he wrote an account of these in
Reveries over Childhood and Youth (1915). In his poetical work,
from this period, he seemed to write with Synge's ideal of the
poet in his mind, as one who " uses the whole of his personal life
as his material." T/te Wild Swans at Coole (1917) marks the
beginning of his preoccupation with the special doctrines ex-
pounded (1918) in Per Arnica Silentia Lunae, a little prose
treatise which the reader who wishes to understand Mr. Yeats'
later work must study. Some of the poems in Michael Robartes
and the Dancer (1920) are concerned with the events of 1916 in
Ireland (the volume contains a sort of palinode to " Romantic
Ireland's dead and gone "), but the author had become more and
more a poet of esoteric doctrine. In literature and on the platform
he had become a champion of belief in survival after death, a
subject which interested him chiefly because of the possibility it
offered of necromancy and " magic." " I have always," he says,
" sought to bring my mind close to the mind of Indian and
Japanese poets, old women in Connaught, mediums in Soho."
* These figures indicate the volume and page number of the previous article.
YELLOW FEVER Y.M.C.A.
He was one of the first to welcome the English poems of Rabin-
dranath Tagore, for whose Gitanjali he wrote an introduction.
Another late influence with him was represented by the Noh-
plays of Japan, and he wrote an essay on the subject which is
included in the prose collection, The Cutting of an Agate. Under
the Japanese influence he wrote his plays At the Hawk's Well
(1917), and Two Plays for Dancers (1919). He married in 1917
Georgia Hyde Lees, by whom he^had first a daughter and in
1921 a son.
An elaborate critical study of Mr. Yeats' poetry, by Forrest
Reid, appeared in 1916; also, in the series " Irishmen of To-day,"
W. B. Yeats: The Poet in Contemporary Ireland, by J. M. Hone;
there is a good account of Yeats' work in Ireland's Literary Re-
nascence, by Ernest A. Boyd (1916).
YELLOW FEVER (see 28.910). In 1918 the study of this
disease was carried a stage forward by the discovery of Noguchi
that the disease could be transmitted to guinea-pigs, and that
the blood of these, examined by dark-ground illumination, con-
tained numbers of a delicate Spirochaete which he called Lepto-
spira icteroides. This organism is closely allied to the Leptospira
icteroida morrhagicB, the organism of infective jaundice.
It was found possible to cultivate the new organism under
anaerobic conditions without excessive oxygen supply in solid
media containing blood serum. Different strains of the organism
vary greatly in virulence. Some are so virulent that o-oooi c.c
of a culture is sufficient to induce fatal symptoms in a guinea-pig.
The organism is killed within ten minutes at 55 C. and by
desiccation or freezing. It is an extremely delicate filament, 4-9
/LI in length by 0-2 /i in breadth. It breaks up into a number of
refractile granules, and the virus can pass through Berkefeld
filters V. & N. The organism is scanty in the blood of yellow
Those early statements were confirmed by later work, and the
chain of evidence in favour of this organism being the cause of
Yellow Fever was well-nigh complete by the middle of 1921.
Noguchi prepared a serum by infecting horses with his organism,
and this exercised marked curative effects on guinea-pigs when
administered within a short period of the time of infection. It
was further found possible to infect a guinea-pig from a culture
of the organism and then use a mosquito (Stcgomyia fasciata) to
carry the infection from this animal to another. The whole
course of the disease could thus be reproduced by means of
new organism. (R. M. Wi.)
YOSHIHITO (1879- ), i22nd Emperor of Japan, third son
of the Emperor Meiji (Mutsuhito), was born on Aug. 31 1879, at
Tokyo. The Prince was physically somewhat weak during his
early life and Marquis Tadayasu Nakayama and Marchioness
Nakayama were appointed his guardians. On the eighth anniver-
sary of his birthday the Prince was proclaimed heir apparent, the
first and second sons of the Emperor Meiji having died in infancy.
In Sept. 1887 the Prince commenced attending the Peers' school
and on Nov. 3 1889 he was declared Imperial Crown Prince. In*
1892 the Crown Prince was appointed to the rank of a first
lieutenant in the imperial army, and two years later left the
Peers' school to continue his studies at the palace under private
tutors. In 1895 he was promoted to the rank of captain and in
1897 took his seat, in accordance with prescriptive right, in the
House of Peers. In 1898 he was promoted to the rank of major
of infantry and appointed a lieutenant-commander in the im-
On May 10 1900 the Crown Prince married Sadako, fourth
daughter of the late Prince Michitaka Kujo, and on April 29
1901 a son, Hirohito, was born, followed by a second son, Prince
Yasuhito, on June 25 1902, and a third, Prince Nobuhito, on
Jan. 3 1905. In 1903 the Crown Prince was promoted colonel in
the army and captain in the navy and in 1909 lieutenant-general
and vice-admiral. On July 30 1912, at the moment of the demise
of his father, the Crown Prince ascended the throne; but, owing
to the national mourning, the formal ceremony of enthronement
did not take place until Nov. 1914. In the following year a
fourth son, Prince Takahito, was born on Dec. 2.
YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION (see 28.940). For
several years before the World War the British Y.M.C.A. had
been doing effective work in the summer camps of the Volunteers
and Territorials. When the war started it had therefore the
necessary experience, together with trained personnel and a
programme adapted to meet the needs of men on active service.
It entered the field at once, and within ten days of the outbreak
of war had opened up 250 different centres for the recreation and
welfare of the troops in all parts of the United Kingdom. The
whole organization of the Y.M.C.A. was brought to bear on the
national emergency, and the Red Triangle, unknown before the
war, soon became as familiar as the Red Cross itself. It touched
the men at every point and in almost every place. It became a
habit they found it in the training camps; the base camps over-
seas; the support trenches, and sometimes even in those in the
front line. The Y.M.C.A. meant warmth, shelter, comfort and
rest to the soldier on active service under Christian auspices.
It was a counter-attraction to the " wet " canteen, and helped
to keep the men from undesirable places in the towns and villages
adjacent to the camps. It kept them in touch with home-
more than a thousand million sheets of writing paper and en-
velopes being sent out from headquarters in London for free
distribution at home and overseas. The steadying effect of the
work on the moral of the men was universally admitted. Sports
and competitive games were organized on a large scale by the
Association at a time when the army authorities had no leisure to
devote to looking after the recreation of the troops. Education
classes and lectures were included in the programme, and the
Y.M.C.A. was appointed agent for carrying out the army
scheme of education on the lines of communication in France.
From May 1918 till the end of the following year 70,067 separate
students were enrolled in the educational classes, and over
670,000 attended the lectures on the lines of communications.
Wimborne House, London, was loaned by Lord Wimborne as
headquarters of the overseas library, and more than a million
books and magazines were sent to the front. The total cost of the