by 227 to 93 votes, he was faced by the passive resistance of the
great majority of Croats and Slovenes, who regarded with
suspicion his " Great Serbian " and centralizing aims. It is
significant that Protic, hitherto Pasic's most intimate associate,
withdrew from the Radical party and from Parliament rather
than sanction a constitution so inimical to provincial interests:
while Trumbic, the foremost advocate of full national unity,
recorded his vote against it. In many quarters it was openly
accepted on the ground that any constitution was better than
none, and that further delays and discussions would arrest the
new State's development and discredit it abroad: but the settle-
ment could not be regarded as definitive. On June 28 (Kosovo
Day) the Prince Regent took oath to the new constitution, but
the ceremony was marred by an attempt to assassinate him and
the premier, by a bomb thrown as they drove back to the palace.
This outrage, which was traced to the Communists, provided
fresh proof that the Democratic leader Draskovic, as Minister
of the Interior, was justified in his charges of widespread terrorist
conspiracy and even in the much debated Decrees (Obznane)
by which he sought to combat them. When then on July 21
Draskovic 1 was murdered by a young Bosnian Communist,
Parliament resolved on reprisals, and 10 days later passed by
190 to 54 laws of extraordinary severity for " the Defence of the
State," terrorist agitation being made punishable by death,
prolonged penal servitude or heavy fines. The mandates of the
58 Communist deputies were annulled, and eight arrested as
privy to the attempt on the Regent. No less an authority than
the ex-premier Proti6 publicly challenged the constitutional
validity of such action.
Despite acute party dissensions and bad administration the
new State was in 1921 steadily consolidating itself. Separatism
was non-existent, for the cogent reason that there was no point
toward which a new irredenta could gravitate: the Habsburg
cause had no adherents, save a few discredited traitors who
congregated in Graz and Vienna: and communism, which was
quite alien to an agrarian and peasant -owned State, owed its
passing success to the aftermath of war and the blunders of the
middle class rather than to its own attractions. There was
general agreement on foreign policy, whose pivots were close
alliance with Czechoslovakia, the series of bilateral agreements
which made up the Little Entente (Czechoslovakia and Yugo-
slavia Aug. 14 1920: Czechoslovakia and Rumania April 23 1921:
Yugoslavia and Rumania June 7 1921), and the anti-Habsburg
agreement concluded with Italy simultaneously with the Treaty
of Rapallo (Nov. 12 1920). Yugoslavia's economic recovery had
been surprisingly rapid, and the chief problems which confronted
her in the autumn of 1921 were how best to exploit her vast
undeveloped mineral and agricultural resources, improve her
very faulty communications, and root out the illiteracy which
was a legacy of alien rule.
BIBLIOGRAPHY. V. Klai6, Povjest Hrvata (5 vols., 1901-11);
F. Sisic, Geschichte der Kroaten (to 1,102, 1917) and Hrvatska Povijest
(3 vols., 1911-4); R. W. Seton-Watson, The Southern Slav Question
(1911; much enlarged German ed., 1913); V. Zagorsky, Francois
Racki et la renaissance de la Croatie (1909) ; T. G. Masaryk, Vasi6~
Forgdch-Aehrenthal (1911) ; A. H. E. Taylor, The Future of the South-
ern Slavs (1916); M. Kossitch, Die Siidslavenfrage (1918); L. V.
Sudland, Die Siidslavische Frage und der Weltkrieg (1918, Austro-
phil); J. Duhem, La question yougoslave (1918); V. Kuhne, Ceux
dont on ignore le martyre (1917) and Les Bulgares peints par eux~
memes (1917) ; F. Barac, Croats and Slovenes Friends of the Entente
(1919, contains important original documents) ; The Southern Slav
Library (8 pamphlets published by the Yugoslav Committee 1915-8)-
On Bosnia, see A. Fournier, Wie wir zu Bosnien kamen (1909); J.
Cvijic, L'Annexion de Bosnie (1909); F. Schmidt, Bosnien-IIerze-
govina (1914). On Banat, see Radonifi, Histoire des Serbes de Hon-
grie (1919, with documents). On Dalmatia, see G. Prezzolini, La
Dalmazia (1915); Lujo Vojnovic, Dalmatia (1920); Dalmaticus, La
question de la Dalmatic (1918). On Adriatic questions, see C. Ma-
ranelli and G. Salvemini, La Questione dell' Adnatice (2nd ed., 1919);
Angelo Vivanti, L ' Irredentisme adriatique (1917, Italian original
published 1912); F. Sisic, History of Fiume (1919); L. Hautecoeur,
L'ltalie sous Orlando (1919); two collections of documents, viz. F.
Sisic, Jadransko Pitanje (1920) and Adriaticus, La question adriatique
(1920). On the new constitution, see published text and also S,
Proti6, Nacrt Ustava (1920); J. Smodlaka, Nacrt Jugoslovenskog
Ustava (1920). (R- W. S.-W.) .
YUKON TERRITORY (see 28.945 and 15.847). Although at
one time the pop. of the Canadian province reached 30,000 to
35,000 the decline of the mining industry had reduced it to about
5,000 in 1921. Since the establishment of government in Yukon
the administration of justice has been in the hands of the North-
West Mounted Police, whose services in preserving law and
order have been invaluable.
In the northern portion of the territory the ground below the
surface remains frozen throughout the year, but from June to
Oct. the climate is warm and sunny and vegetation grows freely
in the valleys. Wild fruits such as bilberry, bearberry, crow-
berry, bog apple, currant, raspberry, foxberry and high-bush
cranberry occur, besides numerous species of phanerogams. The
Yukon is not an agricultural country, but oats, barley, rye, flax,
potatoes, turnips and other garden vegetables are successfully
raised. Parts of the territory are wooded with fair sized timber.
White and black spruce are the most important trees, reaching
2,400 ft. above sea level: specimens having 2i-in. stumps have
been noted but the average diameter ranges from 12 to 16 inches.
The timber cut is for home consumption. Poplar (two varieties)
and canoe birch are found, also willows, alder, juniper and other
shrubs, which form thickets and dense undergrowth.
Moose, caribou and sheep are plentiful in most localities, and
black, brown and grizzly bears are numerous. Wolverines,
marten, lynx, ermine, rabbits and fox are the chief fur-bearing
animals. The commonest birds are the Alaska jay, Swainson
hawk, northern varied thrush, fox sparrow, grey checked thrush,
and there are Hutchin geese, partridge, ptarmigan and ducks of
many varieties. The waters of the Yukon are well stocked with
fish, especially salmon, whitefish, trout, pickerel and pike.
The old primitive methods of extracting gold have been re-
placed by dredging and modern hydraulic methods. In 1920 the
production of gold from the Yukon territory was 72,140 oz.,
against 90,705 oz. in 1919. This was obtained almost wholly
from the alluvial sands and from the gold ores of the Conrad dis-
trict. There has been a gradual falling off in production since
1913, when about 283,000 oz. worth $6,000,000 were mined. It
was estimated in 1920 that the total output of gold had been over
$150,000,000. Coal, copper, silver and other ores are mined and
discoveries of silver ores at Kerro Hill have been reported.
The mountain system of the Yukon is the most remarkable in
Canada, not only in regard to height and extent of glaciers, but
also in scenic grandeur, majesty and imposing nature. It con-
tains Mt. St. Elias, just within Canadian territory as delimited
by the joint commission of boundary surveyors (17,978 ft.), and
Mt. Logan within 20 m. of it (19,539 ft.). These, along with Mt.
McKinley in Alaska, are the highest peaks on the North American
continent. (W. L. G.*)
ZAGLUL, SAAD (c. 1860- ), Egyptian pasha, was the
son of a notable in the district of Ibian, Gharbia Prov-
ince. .He was educated at the village school and after-
wards at the university of El Azhar, in Cairo. When
he had completed his prescribed course of studies, he was, in
1880, appointed editor of the Official Journal. Later he was
nominated a Moawin under the Ministry of the Interior and
eventually became Chief of the Contencieux for the province of
Giza. Involved in the Arabi revolt, he was one of the many
notables detained on the occupation of Egypt by British troops
in 1882. On his release he ceased to hold office and in 1884,
when the native tribunals were instituted, he began to practise
at the bar. In 1892 he was appointed counsellor of the native
court of appeal. Having become proficient in the French lan-
guage and in the science of law, he obtained his diploma in law.
He became Minister of Education in 1906, and under his "en-
lightened administration" it was said by Lord Cromer (Modern
Egypt, ivol. ii., p. 535) that "education in Egypt made rapid
strides in advance." A change of the Ministry during Lord
Kitchener's tenure of the Cairo Agency resulted in Zaglul's
ceasing to hold the portfolio for Education, but he was appointed
vice-president of the Legislative Assembly and he took a special
interest in its deliberations until the outbreak of the World War,
when the sittings of that body were temporarily suspended.
On the signing of the Armistice Zaglul, who had for long
been considered the principal spokesman of the Nationalist
party, appealed to the Residency in Cairo for the recognition
of Egyptian independence, basing his demand on President
Wilson's self-determination policy to which effect had been
given by the British Government's issue of a Proclamation
defining the status of the other countries liberated from Tftrkish
rule by the war. When his proposal that he and some repre-
sentative Nationalists should visit London to press their views
was refused by the Government, he became discontented, and
his attitude was so hostile that he and three others were arrested
and deported to Malta. This was the signal for a murderous
outbreak in Egypt in which British officers and others were
killed, and the country became much disturbed. Zaglul and
his friends were later released, and freedom of travel, which war
measures had hitherto restricted, was permitted to all. A
special Mission under the chairmanship of Visct. Milner was
sent to Egypt in Nov. 1919 to enquire into matters and make
representations. Zaglul eventually came to London and dis-
cussions between him, Adly Pasha and Lord Milner took place,
the results of which were published in the " Milner Report."
Zaglul returned to Egypt early in 1921, where he represented
the extreme Nationalist party in opposition to the more moder-
ate ministry under the presidency of Adly Pasha. At the end of
the year, when trouble again broke out in Egypt, Zaglul was
arrested once more and deported to Ceylon.
ZANGWILL, ISRAEL (1864- ), English man of letters (see
28.956*), subsequently to 1909 published various volumes of
essays, Italian Phantasies (1910), The War for the World (1916),
The Principles of Nationalities (1918) and The Voice of Jeru-
salem (1920); and a novel, Jinny the Carrier (1919). In drama
he produced The War God (1911, acted at His Majesty's theatre,
London), The Next Religion (1912, London Pavilion), Plaster
Saints (1914, Comedy theatre), and Too Much Money (1918,
Ambassadors theatre). He took an active part as a speaker
on behalf of the woman suffrage movement, and also as a pacifist
during the World War. His attempts, as founder of the Jewish
Territorial Organization, in connexion with the Zionist move-
ment, to combine all the Jewish organizations in a scheme for
the acquisition of the highlands of Angola as the " Jewish
national home " had proved abortive before the outbreak of the
World War; and subsequently, when the British Government
gave its support to the setting apart of Palestine for this object,
Mr. ZangwUl and the J. T. O. declined to work with the Zionists
on this basis. The J.T.O., however, organized an Emigration
Regulation department for deflecting the stream of Jewish emi-
gration from the Ghetto of New York to the southern states
of the American Union, west of the Mississippi, a fund being
established for this purpose, to which Mr. Jacob Schiff con-
tributed 100,000, the firm of Rothschild 10,000, Baron Edmund
de Rothschild 10,000, and M. Brodsky, of Kiev, 10,000.
ZANZIBAR (see 28.958). The pop. of the protectorate wa
estimated in 1920 at 198,000; that of Zanzibar I. at 115,000 and
that of Pemba at 83,000. Zanzibar city had some 36,000
habitants. The Arab aristocracy large landowners numbered
about 10,000; there was an equal number of British Indians and
about 300 Europeans, the British colony being the largest.
The transshipment of goods to and from the mainland of E. Africa
and the growing of cloves are the chief sources of wealth. In 1919
it was estimated that some 60,000 ac. were under cloves, with about
5,500,000 trees in bearing. The average output 1910-20 was about
14,000,000 Ib. Next to cloves comes the cultivation of the coco-nut
palm for copra, there being in 1919 about 2,500,000 trees in th
islands. In 191 1 the clove crop was worth 436,000, in 1913 412,0
and in 1918 595,000. Copra exports in 1911 were valued at 203,-
ooo, in 1913 at 216,000, and in 1918 at 151,000 (having been wo
299,000 in 1917).
Apart from cloves and copra most of the exports figure also ;
imports, being goods in transit. Zanzibar, however, suffered to
considerable extent by the extension of direct steamship communica-
tion between Europe and India and the mainland of E. Africa, goods
formerly transshipped at Zanzibar being taken direct to or fro
Mombasa, Tanga and Dar es Salaam. But if Zanzibar ceased
serve as a gigantic go-down or storehouse for the whole coast,
retained its position as the chief city of E. Africa and remained th
headquarters of the principal Indian merchants trading with T
Africa. It also retained the dhow traffic, being visited yearly L
hundreds of boats from the coast of Arabia and the Persian Gull
The construction of a concrete wharf 1,300 ft. long, with a minimur
of 30 ft. alongside, in progress in 1920-1, and other harbour iir
provements made Zanzibar port more accessible to shipping. Th
gross tonnage of shipping clearing the port in 1910 was 1,087,0
it rose to 1,502,000 in 1913, but fell, largely owing to war conditions
to 547,000 in 1916 and to 378,000 in 1918. It had risen to 582,00'
tons in 1919. Imports (including bullion and specie) were valued i
993,000 in 1910, at 1,103,000 in 1913, at 2,366,000 in 1918 an
at 1,934,000 in 1919. Exports in 1910 were valued at 1,033,001 .
in 1913 at 1,048,000, in 1918 at 2,133,000 and in 1919 at 2,444,-
ooo. The bulk of the trade is with India, England and E. Africa.
Revenue rose from 204,000 in 1910 to 407,000 in 1919; in th
same period expenditure increased from 189,000 to 323,000. Mori
than half the revenue is derived from customs. There was a publii
debt at the end of 1919 of 100,000.
History. Sayyid AH bin Hamud, the Sultan, a young man wh
had been educated at Harrow, who kept his court on Europea
models and was fond of travel, abdicated in 1911 while on a visit
to Europe. He died in Paris in Dec. 1918. Ali was succeeded by
his brother-in-law Sayyid Khalifa ben Harud, a great nephew i
Sultan Bargash. Khalifa, born at Muscat, Aug. 27 1879, ha
attended the coronation of George V. and was proclaimed Sulta
on his return from London, Dec. 1 9 1 1 . He proved whole-heartedly
loyal to the British, and his moderating influence did much to
steady Moslem opinion in E. Central Africa during the war.
In July 1913 the control of the protectorate was transferre
from the Foreign to the Colonial Office. Mr. Edward Clarke
the British Agent since 1909, had died at Zanzibar in
previous Feb. Under the Colonial Office the governor of Britisl
E. Africa (Kenya Colony) was appointed High Commissione
of Zanzibar, the local administration being in the hands of i
British Resident, to which office Maj. F. B. Pearce was appointed
in 1914. The Resident also took over the functions of first
minister, a post which had been filled by Capt. F. R. Barton
The Sultan became president of the Protectorate Council,
which three Arab notables sat as unofficial members. T
council has advisory powers only, but decrees of the Sultan ar
binding when countersigned by the British Resident.
During the war Zanzibar served as a base for the Britisl
naval squadron. On Sept. 20 1914, while the ancient
* These figures indicate the volume and page number of the previous article.
" Pegasus " was at anchor in the roadstead, undergoing repairs,
it was sunk by the German cruiser " Konigsberg," losing 25
killed and 80 wounded out of a crew of 240. The " Konigsberg "
also sank the guard ships " Cupid " and " Khalifa "thus
destroying the Zanzibar navy. About 5,000 Zanzibar! served
as carriers in the E. African campaign and the inhabitants
contributed 70,000 to war funds.
In 1917 Sayyid Khalid, who for a brief period in 1896 had
usurped the throne and had then taken refuge in German E.
Africa, where he had since remained, surrendered to a British
force. He was deported to St. Helena, whence in 1921 he was
transferred to the Seychelles.
See F. B. Pearce, Zanzibar, The Island Metropolis of Eastern
Africa (1920); J. E. Craster, Pemba, The Spice Island of Zanzibar
(1913); the annual reports to the British Colonial Office.
(F. R. C.)
ZEEBRUGGE. Among the British naval operations in the
World War none created more interest than the attack on the
Germans at Zeebrugge and Ostend, on the Belgian coast, in 1918.
Ever since the German occupation of the Belgian coast,. Zeebrugge
had been a source of anxiety to the Dover Patrol. There the
German torpedo craft and German submarines lay in a safe
base only some 60 m. from the Straits, a danger to the Downs
and a constant menace to British transports and trade in the
Channel. Vice-Adml. Sir Reginald Bacon had contemplated an
attack on it with monitors, but the Admiralty had disapproved,
and it was not till the appointment of Rear-Adml. Sir Roger Keyes
in Dec. 1917, that preparations were actually begun. The
main object of the enterprise was to block the harbours of
Zeebrugge and Ostend.
The actual harbour of Zeebrugge is small and is formed by
a long curved mole on the western side, whose assault was an
important part of the operation. This mole was ij m. long,
connected with the shore by a viaduct built on steel pillars.
On the outside the western wall rose 27 ft. 10 in. above high
water, with a ledge 2 ft. 9 in. wide running along it about 12 ft.
above high water. The parapet on top was some 3 ft. wide with
a drop of 4 ft. to a ledge 12 ft. wide which ran i6j ft. above
the quay. The quay on the harbour side was 2 7 ft. wide, equipped
in the usual way with cranes and three large sheds and shelters.
At the outer end was a battery of 3 5'9-in. guns, and a narrower
portion ran on to the lighthouse where 6 4-in. guns, were mounted.
The general plan of operations was simple. Three old cruisers,
" Iphigenia," " Thetis " and " Intrepid " (all built about 1891),
filled with cement, were to enter the harbour and be sunk at the
entrance to the ship canal to Bruges. The " Vindictive,"
supported by two auxiliary vessels " Iris II." and " Daffodil,"
was to assault the mole on its outer and western side and by
creating an impression that this was the main operation, divert
the enemy's fire from the blocking ships. As Bruges was acces-
sible by canal from Ostend, Ostend was to be blocked at the
same time by the old cruisers " Brilliant " and " Sirius." The
main obstacle to the enterprise lay in the powerful batteries.
On the 40 m. of coast-line there were mounted 153 guns, includ-
ing 6 is-in., 4 i2-in., 33 n-in., I 9'4-in., 23 8-2-in., 73 5'9-in.,
6 5 -in., ii 4-7-in., and 52 4-in. The coast positively bristled with
guns. Only 3 m. E. of the Zeebrugge canal stood the Kaiser
Wilhelm II. battery (known at Dover as the Knocke) armed
with 4 i2-in. with a range of 41,000 yd. One and a quarter
m. W. of Ostend was the Tirpitz battery with 4 n-in. ranging
35,000 yd., and 3 m. E. of the town was the Deutschland (old
Jacobynessen) equipped with 4 is-in. ranging 43,500 yards.
The approach to the entrance of the ship canal at Zeebrugge
was under the fire of the Goeben battery of 4 8-2-in. guns at
1,000 yd., and the chance of success depended largely on an
effective smoke screen.
The attack on the mole was to be made by the " Vindictive "
(Capt. Alfred B. Carpenter), an old cruiser of 5,750 tons, 320 ft.
long, 24 ft. draught specially fitted for the occasion, assisted
by the "Iris II." (Comm. Valentine Gibbs) and "Daffodil"
(Lt. Harold G. Campbell), two Liverpool ferry boats of large
capacity and light draught. The viaduct of the mole was to be
blown up by two submarines, Ci (Lt. Aubrey Newbold) and C$
(Lt. Richard D. Sandford). A strong body of 15 destroyers was
attached to the Zeebrugge force under Capt. Wilfred Tomkinson
("Phoebe," "North Star," "Trident," "Mansfield," "Whirl-
wind," "Myngs," "Velox," "Morris Moorsom Melpomene,"
" Tempest " and " Tetrarch " to escort the force and cover it to
seaward; "Termagant," "Truculent" and "Manly" to screen
the Zeebrugge monitors). A force of 18 coastal motor boats (55
ft. long, 3 ft. draught, 35 knots, 2 i8-in. torpedoes) under Lt.
Arthur E. Welman accompanied the expedition, of which 8 were
allocated for the smoke screen, 5 to support the " Vindictive,"
and 4 to attack vessels inside the harbour. With them were 33
motor launches under Capt. Ralph Collins for smoke screens,
and inshore rescue work. Out to seaward were the two monitors
" Erebus " and " Terror " for bombarding the batteries. The
Rear Admiral's flag flew in the destroyer " Warwick."
The three old cruisers " Thetis " (Comm. R. S. Sneyd),
" Intrepid " (Lt. Stuart Bonham-Carter) and " Iphigenia "
(Lt. E. W. BiUyard-Leake) were to act as blocking ships. The
two latter were of 3,600 tons displacement, 300 ft. long x 43!
ft. x i8 ft., and the " Thetis " was a little smaller (3,400 tons
and 17! ft. draught).
A similar attempt was to be made at Ostend. There the
blocking ships were to be the old cruisers " Brilliant " (Comm. '
A. E. Godsal) and " Sirius " (Lt.-Comm. H. N. Hardy) of
3,600 tons. They were to be supported by five bombarding
monitors (" Marshal Soult," " Lord Clive," " Prince Eugene,"
" General Crawford," M24 and M26) and covered by five
British destroyers (" Swift," " Faulknor," " Matchless,"
" Mastiff " and " Afridi "), with three British destroyers and six
French torpedo boats attending on the monitors (" Mentor,"
" Lightfoot," " Zubian," " Lestin," " Capitaine Mehl," " Francis
Gamier," "Roux," "Bouclier"). Eighteen British motor
launches under Comm. Hamilton Benn and four French were
attached for smoke screen, inshore and rescue work, and the
whole force was under Commodore Hubert Lynes.
The object of the attack on the mole at Zeebrugge was first
to seize the battery at the seaward end and prevent it firing at
the block ships, and then to demolish the structures on it as far
as possible. The battery was 250 yd. from the lighthouse, and to
facilitate its seizure the " Vindictive " was to berth nearly
abreast of it on the outer side of the wall. It was then to be
stormed by three companies of bluejackets A company under
Lt.-Comm. Bayan Adams ("Princess Royal"), B under Lt.
Arth. G. Chamberlain (" Neptune "),D under Lt.-Comm. G. N.
Bradford; all under Lt.-Comm. Arthur Harrison (" Lion ").
Some 150 yd. to shoreward of the battery and 400 yd. from
the lighthouse there was a " fortified zone " of barbed wire
and machine-guns. As this commanded the " Vindictive's "
berth and would form a rallying point for reinforcements from
landward, it was to be seized by four companies of Royal
Marines A (Chatham) under Maj. Chas. Eagles, B (Ports-
mouth) Capt. Ed. Bamford, C (Plymouth) Maj. Bernard
Weller, and machine-guns under Capt. Chas. B. Conybeare.
The storming parties numbered 50 officers and 980 men of
the Royal Navy, drawn chiefly from the Grand Fleet and the
Nore, and 32 officers and 718 men of the Royal Marines. The
seamen were under Capt. Henry C. Halahan-and the marines
under Lt.-Col. Bertram Elliot. Preparations began early in the
year. The force was segregated in the Swin (Thames) and
specially trained in all its various tasks. The blocking ships
were stripped of all fittings and filled with rubble and concrete.
The " Vindictive " in addition to her 10 6-in. guns was given a
special equipment of 2 7'5-in. howitzers (i ford, and i aft), i
1 1 -in. howitzer (aft), 16 Stokes mortars, flame throwers, 16