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been located at the Ajo mines in Yuma County, and to have been
operated about 1852. In the early days of the industry silver was
first mined and gold was found in paying quantities in many districts,
but of late years attention has been directed mainly to copper mining.
Much of the copper mined today has a paying percentage of gold and
silver. There are certain of the great copper mines of Ari-
zona with which nearly every one is familiar through frequent ref-
erences to them in the newspapers of the United States, as well as in
the financial and mining journals, whose owTiers reap almost fabu-
lous rewards. Notable among these are the Copper Queen, Shattuck-
Arizona and the Calumet & Arizona mines at Bisbee ; the Old Domin-
ion, Inspiration and Miami mines in the Globe-Miami District ; the
United Verde at Jerome; the Detroit Copper Mining Company of
Arizona, the Arizona Copper Company, Ltd., and the Shan-
non Copper Company in the Clifton-Morenci district, and the Ray
Consolidated Mine at Ray. These are the great ore producers
of Arizona, and number their monthly production by the million
pounds. They employ thousands of men in their mines, con-
centrators and smelters. Their pay rolls run into millions of
dollars annually, and they furnish the basis for large commercial
and industrial enterprises. These mines pay a heavy share of the
State's taxes, are one of its greatest sources of wealth, and a huge
factor in its progress. Producing, in addition, such precious stones
as garnet, opal, sapphire and turquoise, a high grade of marble and
exquisite onyx, which are found in the mountains; great stores of
granite, limestone, tufa, sandstone and other building materials,
Arizona may truly be reckoned the w r orld's greatest mineral de-
pository.

To the farmer or fruit raiser Arizona can offer conditions nearly
perfect soil, warmth and moisture; and for the latter, owing to
the provisions made by irrigation, he is not compelled to trust to the
clouds, but can truly reduce his \vork to a science. The value of
Nature's gifts a mild and extremely healthful climate, a soil of
exceeding fertility lying in broad valleys, almost ready for the plow,
and a ready market for all ranch and orchard products has been
greatly enhanced by the development of the water supply, for many
years one of the most absorbing problems with which the people of
Arizona had to deal. Water is being developed for irrigation pur-



IN ARIZONA



poses through both private and government enterprises, and thou-
sands of acres of land are being reclaimed from the desert and
rendered incomparably productive. After years of doubt and pro-
crastination the national lawmakers have recognized Arizona's possi-
bilities and requirements; have realized that the cultivation of the
soil is practicable everywhere, dependent upon the securing of water,
and, stimulated by an appreciation of this fact, the Reclamation Ser-
vice has given much attention to its arid districts and constructed
mighty dams for the conserving and utilizing of the water resources
of the State.

On the Salt River, above Phoenix, the Roosevelt Dam, a marvel
of modern engineering, is part of the vast work of the Reclamation
Service. It is one of the world's greatest reservoirs and holds in
storage the water with which over two hundred thousand acres of
land can be irrigated, most of it by gravity and the remaining por-
tion by pumping. On the Colorado River, above Yuma, is Laguna
Dam, an Indian weir dam identical in type with that on the River
Nile at Assouan, and a diversion, rather than a storage dam, which
controls the flood waters of the Colorado River. As it was found
practicable to have the main canal on the California side, an im-
mense siphon has been built of steel and concrete beneath the bed
of the river, to carry the water from the main canal to the lands
of the Yuma Valley. The Colorado, thus diverted, furnishes water
for approximately 90,000 acres in its valley, most of which can be
irrigated by gravity. The Gila River empties into the Colorado
from the east just above Yuma, and on the triangle formed by the
junction of the two, about 20,000 acres are watered by a flow diverted
to ditches from the Arizona end of the Laguna Dam. Then, too,
excellent opportunities are offered by the Santa Cruz, San Pedro,
Verde and Agua Fria Rivers for storage and irrigation projects.
The water supply from all sources for irrigating purposes in the
State is estimated at about 5,000,000 acre feet, or sufficient to in-
tensively cultivate 1,000,000 acres of land. In addition to this, ar-
tesian water has been discovered in abundance at various places, in
the Gila and Verde Valleys, and at St. David and Sulphur Springs;
more will be sought and found and the number of acres now yielding
marvelous crops will be increased ten-fold.

With this increase in the area of irrigable lands has come a pro-
portionate growth in the knowledge of possibilities. Fruit raisers
and farmers are beginning to truly appreciate the possibilities of their
land, and to direct their efforts in accordance with this new under-
standing. With a climate and soil adapted to the growing of every
variety of citrus and deciduous fruit known to the temperate and
semi-tropical zones, Arizona would appear to offer all the opportunity
a progressive horticulturist might desire for success and the acquire-
ment of wealth, but when one realizes that in Southern Arizona fruits



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ripen from two to eight weeks earlier than elsewhere in the Union,
the possibilities of this avenue of industry appear in their true light,
and Arizona to much greater advantage. The same may be truly said
of almost every variety of vegetable, many of which are available
every day in the year.

During the past year at the International Dry Farming Congress
held at Lethbridge, Canada, fifty-one premiums were taken by this
State in a competition in which were entered fourteen States and
seventeen foreign countries, and this despite the fact that a great part
of the material shipped for entry was unfit for exhibition upon arrival
because it had been packed before properly matured. The entire ex-
hibit was from dry farms in Yavapai, Navajo and Cochise Counties,
Yavapai having taken a majority of the prizes secured. At the First
State Fair held at Phoenix in the fall of 1912, Yavapai County had
a display of more than two hundred varieties of the finest apples,
pears, peaches, quinces, grapes and plums ever shown in the South-
west.

The supreme advantage of the Arizona farmer is his home market,
for the number of thriving towns and mining camps where agricul-
ture is not carried on, all of which are easily accessible, create a de-
mand for farm and orchard products, thereby enabling the farmer
to dispose of his stock to advantage without the necessity of sharing
his profits with the middleman. Experimental stations established
and conducted by the University of Arizona and the United States
Department of Agriculture are demonstrating constantly the possi-
bilities of this irrigated soil by the production of wondrous crops,
w r hich, maturing earlier than in other sections, and possessing a su-
perior flavor, prove highly remunerative.

The live stock industry in Arizona is exceeded in importance only
by mining and agriculture. Cattle growing ranks first and sheep
growing next, and some of the ablest, keenest and wealthiest of
her citizens are men who have attained to their present position from
humble beginnings in these pursuits.

In transportation facilities Arizona is well to the front, having
within its limits more than two thousand miles of railroad, consist-
ing of great trunk lines, branch lines connecting all the important
cities and mining camps, and intimate connection with Mexican
business. The first railroad to build through the State was the
Southern Pacific, which entered from the west at Yuma in 1878, and
extends across the southern portion. The Atlantic & Pacific, now a
portion of the Santa Fe, was built five years later. Next in impor-
tance is the El Paso & Southwestern, with lines now reaching many
of the important cities, one into Tucson recently opened, and others
building.

Usually in new countries the building of a railroad is preceded by



12 \v no's \v H o

the building of towns which make necessary some regular means of
transportation for freight and passengers, hut here the reverse was the
order, and the railroads were built simply in a desire to connect the
States to the east with those to the west, before the public had
awakened to the fact that Arizona had before it a great commercial
future and that as a result of the development of its extraordinary
resources the territory would one day be dotted with thriving cities.
Now practically every producing center is off the main lines of trans-
portation, which lead through the least desirable sections of the State,
and so a score or more of small, independent roads have been built
connecting some of the important centers of industry and population
with the transcontinental lines. The one general disadvantage of
this condition is the inaccuracy of public opinion regarding the
State's industries and attractions, for not even a favorable idea of its
diversity of resources and aggregate of wealth could possibly be
formed by the man whose knowledge of the State is gained through
observation from a passing train. Commonly, the summing up of the
passerby is the superficial impression he receives of glaring, hot sun-
shine, desert and cactus, rather than of thriving cities, grazing herds
and productive fields or mines. Much, therefore, must be done in
the way of publicity to eradicate this erroneous impression regarding
Arizona, which is all too prevalent among the disinterested, with
whom an impression thus received is lasting if dependent upon any
effort of their own for its removal. Much has already been done
in a direct way by charmed newcomers for a temporary stay, whether
business, health-seeking or pleasure, who, meeting with conditions as
they really are, feel only too glad to be able to herald the news of
their good fortune to their friends, but this form of publicity, while
very effective, is not very far reaching. Much is being done in a gen-
eral way by alert and businesslike Chambers of Commerce and Com-
mercial Clubs of the various sections by means of specially prepared
advertising matter, yet, this being one instance where distance does
not lend enchantment to the view, their efforts in that respect when
read two or three thousand miles away, will doubtless meet with
some depreciation from their home value, which is one result of the
unfavorable impression previously formed regarding Arizona's un-
inviting aspect. And so the matter of publicity of the State's actual
advantages, material and otherwise, necessitates eternal vigilance,
lest an opportunity for enlightenment be allowed to slip by without
leaving its footprints in the sands.

Yet this campaign of publicity persistently employed will succeed,
and a constant growth of population by immigration from the East
will ensue, now that the State's greatest lack, a dearth of water to
insure vegetation, has been magnificently overcome by irrigation, and
her greatest foe, the dreaded Apache, has been subdued. Of the
Apache, the following, written nearly forty years ago by one of



\V H S VV H O



Arizona's ardent admirers, has proven prophetic, and Arizona has
been "found to he the very treasure house of this great Republic":
"Indeed, experience seems to have demonstrated that the
Apaches can neither be Christianized nor civilized. They are
the one tribe who refused to receive the cross from good old
Father Kino in 1670, nor have they accepted it since that time,
and I am confident their history will warrant the assertion that
until they are completely exterminated the fertile valleys of
Arizona will never wave with golden grain, her beautiful up-
lands be covered with lowing cattle, her vast alkali plains be
utilized, her lofty mountain peaks echo the hoarse whistle of the
silver smelting furnace, or the smoke ascend from the hearth-
stones of a happy and prosperous people. Never, until then, will
the great mineral wealth of the territory be properly developed,
her rocky fastnesses thoroughly explored, her rich gold placers
worked, and the precious stones that now lie unsought among
the rough pebbles of her mountain streams be brought to yield
their lustrous beauty for the adornment of her fair daughters.
When this has been accomplished, I have no doubt but Arizona
will be found to be the very treasure house of this great Re-
public."

And for the benefit of those upon whom Arizona's real significance
has not yet been impressed, to w r hom the word implies nothing more
than a wide stretch of arid waste, or at best, of semi-civilization
and they are more numerous throughout the East than most of us
realize let us say that the traveler here will find everywhere as
high a state of civilization and intelligence even culture and as
well developed a system of society as any State in the Union can
boast of, and in which education, religion and government are making
constant and exceptional strides. With a splendid and rapidly
growing State University at Tucson, having a School of Mines; thor-
oughly equipped and well conducted Normal Schools at Tempe and
Flagstaff; excellent public schools throughout, even in districts hav-
ing but a few children ; and high schools in all the important towns,
one can not doubt that the facilities for education are ample. And
it can be truthfully said that there are few better systems, thanks
to the sincere and successful efforts of the pioneer educators and to
the highly efficient corps engaged in educational work at present.
The University offers at a minimum cost all the leading branches of
study to be found in any up-to-date curriculum, while its mining
and industrial courses are most practical and thorough. That Ari-
zona in an educational way reaches the standard of other States is
shown by statistics, which prove that among the English speaking
population the proportion of illiterates is very low.

Since the early days of the white people here the history of most of
the churches has been one of accomplishment and progress. The



INARIZONA 15

Catholics, who were the first comers and established here the out-
posts of their religion, are the strongest, having churches in all towns
of any size, convents and schools in larger towns, and a school for
the Papago Indians. There are also creditable church edifices of
practically all denominations, and the Methodists, Presbyterians,
Baptists and Episcopalians have zealous organizations in every city
and town, and regular services in nearly all communities of consider-
able number and stability. The Presbyterians have several churches
among the Indians, and a school at Tucson erected at a cost of
$100,000. The Methodists, too, have erected a church among the
Yuma Indians. There are, in addition, various churches for the
negroes and Spanish missions at several places, all of which depict
their intense loyalty to the spirit of evangelism and represent a strong
force for good in their respective communities. In other districts,
where the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints are in the
majority, their habits of thrift, industry and thoroughness have in-
delibly impressed their mark upon the section. Especially is this true
of Thatcher, where they have an academy, in which, while a church
institution and primarily a theological school, non-members are re-
ceived for the commercial and high school courses, w T ith no regard
whatever to sectarian teaching.

But in other ways also has educational progress manifested itself;
by means of Women's Clubs, with able women at their heads; active
and progressive civic organizations, alert Commercial Clubs and
Chambers of Commerce and Boards of Trade, Y. M. C. A.'s with
departments for instruction in various lines, and through its half a
hundred newspapers, about twenty of which are dailies, is Arizona
forging ahead in matters of general and specific importance.

Arizona has not attained to its present standards from the primi-
tive conditions of early days without supreme effort on the part of
the sturdy pioneers who, made strong by adversity, and inured to
hardihood and sacrifice, came to represent in themselves a class with-
out whose daring to attempt and power to achieve the State could
never have reached its present high plane. While the early pioneers
are rapidly passing away, their spirit of bravery, persistence and iron
will is yet characteristic of the citizenship of the State, both in their
descendants and in the men who came later willing to risk the vicissi-
tudes of life in the thinly populated Territory, and who have done
their part in the molding of the forty-eighth State. There are still
prospectors, too, zealous as of old, whose ambitions and efforts have
accomplished so much ; but to the men who have made mining the
great industry it now is, to the corporations operating mines and
smelters in the most modernly scientific manner, and building about
them up-to-date cities and towns with home, educational and many of
the other advantages of eastern cities, much of Arizona's rapid de-
velopment in recent years must be attributed.



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INARIZONA 17

Possessing the best natural roads in the United States, Arizona
has also an enthusiastic Good Roads Association, through whose ef-
forts provision has been made for a system of state highways which
will bring the different portions of the State's area into the most in-
timate relation. Plans have been made for a highway extending
from north to south, running through the capital city and having
laterals reaching to every county seat and to the borders of the ad-
joining States, there to connect with the Ocean to Ocean Highway.
These roads should assuredly be a valuable adjunct in State improve-
ment, as they will encourage closer relationship in business affairs
and thereby develop trade ; prove a tempting invitation to all those
w r ho have a desire to see America's most interesting section and
thereby increase travel for pleasure; make feasible comfortable auto-
mobile tours to the various points of interest, the Grand Canyon of
the Colorado, the Painted Desert, Petrified Forest, Ice Caves, Lava
Beds, Sunset Crater, Moqui Indian Villages, Prehistoric Ruins, Cliff
Dwellings and Montezuma Wells ; and bring within easy reach of
sightseers those missions and ruins of early times which add to the
State's many other charms that of antiquity.

They w r ill also make comparatively easy of access hundreds of
camping grounds in the picturesque valleys of the Colorado, Chiquito,
Oak Creek and Verde Rivers, where excellent trout fishing is to be
found ; while the forests of the Mogollon, Santa Catalina and White
Mountains, which contain an abundance of game, will be the more
readily accessible Mecca of the huntsman. In fact, the number and
variety of interesting tours which they will make possible within the
State can hardly be equaled in any similar area.

Primarily, life in Arizona will impress the newcomer with its
liberality and lack of the artificial, and its recognition and apprecia-
tion of desirable personal qualities. Here merit has more weight
than money, and cordiality, to a greater extent than in most places,
forms the basis of the social structure. Populations are more cos-
mopolitan than ordinarily found, and composed largely of people who
have acquired, through travel and wide experience, a broad and com-
prehensive view of life, and to be accepted one must be likable, loyal
to his resident city, and have virtues as well as ancestors.

Its social life, too, has many phases. In the cities there are ever
the formal and elaborate functions quite in accordance with the
customs of older and larger places, while Country Clubs, with ample
provision for indoor and outdoor diversion whether it be dancing,
lunching, tennis or golf are the boast of the larger cities. There are
also spacious halls and theaters which provide other modes of en-
tertainment. And everywhere climate and circumstances favor out-
door recreation, which materially adds to the charm of life. To a
recent arrival one of the most novel and refreshing forms of recrea-
tion afforded by many of the localities is the possibility in midwinter,



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[ N A R I 7. O N A



19



of comfortably spending a day in riding, driving or automobiling
with none of the rigors of an eastern winter to be endured, but in
constant enjoyment of an atmosphere as pleasing to the eye as it is
invigorating to the body, a striking feature of the country, where
over all the landscape hangs a veil of soft purple haze which gives
to the scene a mysterious, subtle quality.

With the beautiful, as with the material, Nature has been not
only liberal, but lavish, to Arizona, for nowhere else on the conti-
nent are the skies more soft, the air more clear, the stars more
bright, or the moon so radiantly beautiful. And nowhere are the
sun's rays more potent for good to human and plant life, or the
sunsets afford more pleasure to even the mildly appreciative eye.

"When the God of Day sinks to rest behind some rugged
mountain, lighting up the western heavens with a blaze of gold,
and pink, and crimson, and orange, and wrapping the jagged
peaks of the bare and forbidding mountains in a soft and dreamy
haze of purple and violet ; when the banks of clouds around the
western horizon look like masses of burnished gold set in a sea
of silver, then is presented a picture to which neither pen nor
pencil can do justice. And when the last ray has disappeared
and the western sky is yet blushing with the mellow radiance of
the last golden caress, the stars begin to peep out from the clear
blue canopy and in a short time the vault of heaven's dome is lit
up by the brilliant beams from the countless creations that gem
the firmament."

Not more at variance are the methods of access to the State, from
the days of the old timer who staged it in to the present day mode
of travel in a Pullman car, than are the conditions found upon ar-
rival. In contrast with the deprivations of the desert, the probable
attack of the Indian and the other perils likely to be encountered by
the then occupant of an isolated home, the newcomer of today will
find in various sections valleys of exceedingly fertile lands, productive
in the extreme ; a number of truly modern cities such as Phoenix,
Tucson, Bisbee, Prescott, Douglas and Globe, with a number of lesser
towns and villages, and all throughout the spirit of activity that be-
tokens rapid progress and the development of a commonwealth im-
pregnated with unexcelled possibilities. With such conditions, assured
of ample reward, the progressive and energetic citizens of Arizona
are impelled to put forth their best efforts, whatever may be the
trend of their endeavors.

From February, 1863, to February, 1912, a period of forty-nine
years, Arizona remained a territory, despite years of patient but
unprofitable effort on the part of her ablest citizens, whose endeavors
were finally rewarded when on the fourteenth of February, 1912,
Arizona was admitted to statehood, and the forty-eighth star was



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WHO S WHO



added to the United States flag. February 14, known as Statehood
Day, has been made a legal holiday in the State, and its first anni-
versary and the following day, February 14 and IS, were the oc-
casion of an elaborate celebration at Phoenix. On Statehood Day
the speakers were Vice President-elect Thomas P. Marshall, Gov-
ernor Hunt and Robert Emmett Morrison of Prescott, one of the
state's leading attorneys.

At the close of the first half centurv of Arizona's existence




Apiary in Yavapai County

and the first year of its Statehood, with so much accomplished
and assuredly the most serious obstacles surmounted ; with its
attractions to the newcomer, whether in search of health, wealth,
home or pleasure, infinitely increased by its wondrous devel-
opment, and the added dignity which attaches to it because of its
admission to Statehood, one is led to wonder what the remaining half
of its first century may mean to the forty-eighth State, but who might
attempt to foretell ?



INARIZONA 21



The Salt River Valley

By Harry Welsh, Secretary of the Phoenix Board of Trade

Now is Arizona with us. A sister state rich in opportunity and



Online LibraryJo ConnersWho's who in Arizona .. → online text (page 2 of 58)