eagerly extending the hand of welcome to the settler who is looking
for ideal conditions. Mines and minerals, timber lands and great
stock ranges, sheep pastures and mountain farms all offer good open-
Agricultural Arizona is centered chiefly in and around the Salt
River Valley, which locality historians tell was once the home of an
ancient race of husbandmen that practiced irrigation and built great
canal systems and granaries. Some few evidences of these first Ameri-
cans remain at this day; the lines of the old canal systems have been
found, and ditches lined with a natural cement are laid with that
accuracy of measurement which would seem impossible without the
delicate engineering instruments of the present date. Here in the
Salt River Valley, an agricultural paradise, is a land where sunshine
saturates the fields, building energy and hope ; lifting the task of labor,
where smiling skies reflect the spirit of enthusiasm born of health and
The Salt River Valley has thousands of acres of soil, than which
there is no better in the world. Included in the area under irrigation
are two hundred and forty thousand acres of the choicest land. The
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Salt River project is the world's premier irrigation system, with the
great Roosevelt dam as the backbone. The Salt River project, it is
generally conceded, is the most perfect in existence, and has been com-
mended by engineers and irrigation authorities who have journeyed
east and west, north and south, from far off Australia, from Russia,
and from Egypt to examine and to praise.
Here nothing has been left undone to make the lot of the farmer
more pleasant or more profitable. Here is an ideal farming commun-
ity supplied with all conditions that spell success ; where soil is unex-
celled, water supply guaranteed by government works, and the climate
perfect for the production of varied, bountiful and profitable crops.
The first farmers built small diversion dams on the Salt River, only
to see them washed away by the first freshet following a storm in the
distant mountains. Plans for a storage dam and an immense reservoir
were not dreamed of for a long time, but it was eventually realized
that a system w r hich would properly care for the particular needs of
the locality must be very large and very exhaustive in its operation.
Government aid must be secured. This was accomplished by the
passage of the Reclamation Act, and the work of constructing the
Salt River project was undertaken as soon as the United States Recla-
mation Service was organized.
Many sites were examined and one about 75 miles east of Phoenix
selected. Here the Tonto Creek and the Salt River enter a great
Roosevelt Lake and Granite Reef Dam
natural basin, and then together flow through a narrow gorge which
was found to be admirably adapted to the construction of a great
dam. So Nature was found ready to cooperate in this great work,
but her cooperation did not cease after providing a location. Deposits
of shale and other materials necessary to make a fine quality of cement
were found close by the damsite, and a rock suitable for use in the
dam itself was also near at hand. The strata of the rock walls of the
canyon lie at an angle which added greater strength to the whole
structure, and the result is a monolithic mass 168 feet thick at base
and rising 287 feet from the river bed, the whole structure being set
into the walls of the canyon, and into the bed-rock of the river, a dis-
tance of 30 feet.
The dam is 168 feet through at the base and tapers to a width of
20 feet at the top ; the length of the dam on top is 680 feet, added to
which are two spillways, each 200 feet long. These spillw r ays are
spanned by splendid concrete bridges, making a total length of 1080
Some of the blocks of stone weighed 30 tons each, and each rock,
before being put into position, was washed under hydraulic pressure,
and set in cement. Back of this gigantic wall the water from the
Tonto Creek and Salt River is held in check in a lake which will
cover 25 square miles in area and contain 1,300,000 acre feet of water,
or enough to cover all the land in the valley under irrigation with
water five feet deep.
The two streams drain a great section of country, covering over
6260 square miles. This immense area is mostly Forest Reserve, and
has an elevation varying from 2000 feet to high mountain peaks, which
rise 11,500 feet above the sea level. This drainage basin insures an
unfailing water supply to fill the great reservoir, and the whole area
is under the supervision of officials and protected.
The rainfall in this area supplying the Roosevelt reservoir has been
estimated from returns made for 25 years, and approximates 19.10
inches each year.
Here in the mountains, 75 miles from Phoenix, is a huge body of
water capable of floating the combined Atlantic and Pacific fleets.
The dam, which makes this lake possible, was built at a cost of $3,-
500,000. This is the biggest item in the cost of the Salt River Project,
which now totals about $9,000,000.
The road from Phoenix to the dam is through a wonderful suc-
cession of mountains, which presents an ever-changing array of colors
and forms. The ride is one full of magnificent surprises, impressive in
the extreme, rivalling famous roads and drives in Europe, and without
an equal in this country. This road was constructed by the Reclama-
tion Service, is traversed by automobiles with perfect safety and ease,
and is a splendid argument to further the cause of "See America first".
The water, on being released through the pow r er plants, then from
the reservoir, journeys down the river to the Granite Reef Dam,
WHO S W H O
Public Schools at Phoenix
which is a diversion dam 1100 feet long and 38 feet high. This enor-
mous weir is also built of masonry and cement, and serves to check the
flow of the water in the river, diverting the same into the main canals
on the north and south banks of the stream.
These canals are themselves like rivers. The main canal is the
"Arizona," having a width of 72 feet and a depth of eight feet. Over
640 miles of canals have been constructed to date. This system in-
cludes wherever possible the development of electrical power from
various canals, and eventually, when all of the plans and works are
completed, there will be 27,000 horse power generated, the greater
quantity of which will be for sale to outside parties. Some of it is
used for pumping water to serve lands within the irrigation project,
but the power that will be sold outside will bring a big revenue
At present the cities of Phoenix, Mesa, Glendale and Tempe are
supplied with power from the project, the revenue from the sale to
these cities going to defray part of the expense of constructing the
Lands under the project are now held in private ownership, and
the water right belongs to the land itself, and cannot be sold apart
from the land. Every land owner has a voice in the conducting of
the affairs of the Water Users' Association, which will control the
project as soon as it is turned over by the Reclamation Service. The
Salt River Valley Water Users' Association will be one of the largest
cooperative institutions in the country; not only will it control the
water service for 230,000 acres of land, and have for sale several
thousand electrical horsepower each year, but eventually it will have
water to sell to lands outside of the project, thereby adding still fur-
ther to its revenue.
The land to be irrigated lies in a compact body. The area that will
be watered will cover 230,000 acres, of which 190,000 will be watered
by gravity flow, and 40,000 by pumping. At this time about 160,000
acres are in cultivation, and the remaining 70,000 acres are rapidly
being put into crops.
The soil is of fine quality and equal to any to be found in the
famous garden spots of the world. It has in fact, but few equals, and
its superior is not to be found anywhere not even in the Valley of
the Nile, the "polders" of Holland or the famous "black lands" of
Russia. The soil material is the result of erosion from the surround-
ing mountains, together with quantities of silt brought down by rivers
and streams. It has been the task of ages, doubtless hundreds and
thousands of years required to build up the great level plain which is
now the valley floor. Out of this level the encircling ranges rise like
cliffs from out the placid surface of some great lake.
The silt or soil is easily worked, lending itself most readily to farm-
ing operations, and lies in an almost perfect plane, with just sufficient
Some of the Fine Homes in Phoenix
I N A R I Z O N A
fall to make easy the operation of gravity irrigation. This silt contains
in great measure the ingredients required for successful agriculture,
and the soil is inexhaustible. It is of four types, gravelly loam, sandy
loam, Maricopa loam and Glendale loess. The gravelly loam is the
best orange land and is closer to the hills. The sandy loam has a
little gravel, less than ten per cent, and is a rich and easily worked soil.
The Maricopa loam is a heavier quality of the same soil. The Glen-
dale loess is similar to the Mississippi valley type of soil, 40% is silt
and 25% very fine sand. This is highly decomposed material and
analysis shows much lime, potash and phosphoric acid. The latter, a
most valuable constituent, exists here in the surprising proportion of
22-100%. The depth of the soil throughout the valley is generally
very marked. Near Glendale the silt or loess type of soil is often
one hundred feet deep ; near Phoenix, borings show deposits five hun-
dred feet deep without rock, while further east 1,300 feet borings end
in clay. Here are 240,000 acres of as good land as may be found in
any one country in the world.
With this splendid soil and a complete system of irrigation it is not
surprising that there are to be found in the valley of the Salt River
conditions which are present in many countries at widely separated
points throughout the world. The dates of Arabia and the Soudan
are thriving and bearing luscious fruit; the orange, lemon and grape-
fruit rival their relatives from Florida; cotton thrives and gives prom-
ise of a crop that will be without a peer; sugar beets yield nineteen
per cent of saccharine matter; the Rocky Ford type of cantaloupe has
developed until a special variety is produced in great quantities with
splendid success; corn, milo maize, kaffir corn, all yield with more
energy than in their native lands; the broad fields of alfalfa return
several crops each year; the fig, peach, pear, plum, and in fact, all
varieties of fruit trees blossom and bear with big returns. Here the
ostrich is as much at home as on the South African farm. The live
stock industry can be operated with great success. It requires no pro-
tection further than a little shade, as cattle and horses are allowed
to run in green fields the year round. They require no shelter in
winter, barns are unnecessary, and the farmer is not required to store
up feed for the winter. Sheep graze throughout the surrounding
country, and are brought in large numbers to the Salt River Valley
for shearing and fattening. Conditions for dairying are ideal.
The valley lies under a half tropical sun, insures a long growing
season and a wide range of products. Here a man does not grow
what he must, but what he chooses what is in line with his tastes,
his experience, or his judgment. As has been shown, some things
which can not be grown elsewhere on the continent can be grown
here, and some things can be grown better here than elsewhere, as
regards both quality and quantity.
The mistake of the farmer for generations has been to think more
of land than of climate, but today we are in an era of new agricul-
W H O S WHO
Phoenix Drive. Maricopa County Road Sc
[ N A R I Z O N A 29
ture. We see the wisdom of intensive farming. Fewer acres and
better tillage, or a farm of moderate size under skies that clothe the
fields with emerald in January and provide something for the market
nearly every month in the year is the aim. Here are to be seen young
beets in the fields the last of January, the mowers cutting alfalfa in
the middle of February, the cattle feeding in December on fields of
barley, the rank growth of which must be kept back. The natural
conditions make life comfortable and the earning of one's bread easy.
Favorable as the climatic conditions are for agriculture, they are
also ideal for health. The dry, clear atmosphere encourages out-of-
door occupations. People live more in the open owing to the con-
genial conditions prevailing most of the year, and all of this counts
for health, vigor and active life.
The average temperature for the spring season is 67.3 degrees; for
the summer 87.3 degrees; for the autumn 70.1 degrees, and for the
winter 52.1 degrees, or an average for the entire year of 69.4 degrees.
Clear, sunshiny days are usual. During a period of forty years the
average number of clear days each year has reached 232, partly cloudy
days 96, cloudy days 37, and the same number of rainy days. Of
foggy days there were only two each year. During the same period of
years the average annual rainfall was 8.08 inches.
In the heart of the great Salt River Valley, centrally situated in
the area irrigated from the Roosevelt Dam, lies the city of Phoenix,
the capitol city of Arizona, and the busy business city of the new State.
A census of the population in Phoenix will show over 18,000 people,
with an additional 5,000 in the suburbs immediately adjacent. There
are 20,000 people who are supplied with mail from the Phoenix post-
office, and by the five rural routes which are supplied from the city.
The growth and future prosperity of the city are assured by the
immense possibilities of this body of 230,000 acres of agricultural land.
Markets for the produce of the valley are found in the mining camps
in the State, and much is shipped throughout the country.
Entering the valley there are two railroad systems, with branches
radiating to the Southern Pacific main line at Maricopa ; to the Santa
Fe main line at Ash Fork, to Los Angeles by way of Parker, into the
Gila valley mining section to the eastward, and into the Buckeye
valley westward. This Gila Valley-Buckeye stretch of the Southern
Pacific will soon be connected up at Yuma and San Carlos into a
main line for the road through Arizona with the lowest gradients of
any transcontinental line. The El Paso and Southwestern railroad
system has surveyed a line to Phoenix from Benson through Tucson,
and will start work this year, bringing also the traffic of the Port
Lobos road, a Santa Fe line, to tidewater on the Gulf of California.
It is a beautiful valley, resplendent under the unhindered sun, with
great fields and orchards, set in a frame of friendly mountains, red,
brown, purple and parti-colored in their coverings.
Irigation: Head Gate and Canals
I N A R I Z O N A
Tucson and Pima County
By John F. Myers, Secretary of the Tucson Chamber of Commerce
The story of the development and growth of Tucson from an old
desert pueblo to what has been very aptly termed "The livest-big-
little city in the Southwest," is a story worthy of a master's telling.
From the establishment of the San Xavier Del Bac Mission in 1687
to the coming of the Southern Pacific Railroad in 1878, it was a
typical frontier town. Unprotected from the ravages of the Apaches
and other tribes until the establishment of Fort Lowell in 1866, it
offered but small inducements to the settler, but upon the completion
of the railroad came first the miner and prospector, then the shop-
keeper, and finally, hearing in some way of the wonderful healing
qualities of the climate, the health seeker and tourist. The miner
discovered an immense resource, and capital built great smelters, until
Tucson became the center of the world's richest copper mining sec-
tion. The tourist and health-seeker came to be the resident, built
homes, hotels and business blocks, and today we have a modern- up-
to-date city of more than 20,000; a city of homes and schools and
churches, a city of business houses, progressive and growing.
These forces have given the city a splendid foundation, and made
possible its wonderful growth into the city of today from a town of
little more than 1,000 in 1900. But 1912 has seen the development
of another great resource, sufficient water to irrigate thousands of
acres of arable land tributary to the city, and the birth of a new era.
Tucson will soon have an agricultural back country capable of sup-
porting a great population and making it a power in the development
of the Southwest. And all because one man dreamed of such a possi-
bility, believed in his dream and fought for it. To his belief and work
is due the coming of the Tucson Farms Company, and its develop-
ment work the clearing, irrigating and placing under cultivation of
more than 6,000 acres in the Santa Cruz Valley. This is but the
beginning of an extensive agricultural development, for other com-
panies are now in the field doing a similar work.
Commercially, Tucson is located on the main trunk line of the
Southern Pacific, at the end of a division, and is the present western
terminus of the El Paso & Southwestern System. It is also the
northern terminus of the great railway system now pushing down
the West Coast of Mexico under the direction of the Southern Pa-
cific, connecting Tucson with the Mexican seaports of Guaymas and
Mazatlan, and destined to reach Guadalajara, and thence by the
National line to the City of Mexico.
Politically, it is the official seat of Pima County, a county rich in
mines and in grazing and agricultural lands, the area of which is
equal to that of Massachusetts and Rhode Island combined.
WHO S W H O
The strength of the city is in the network of railroads reaching east
and west and south. Here is the division headquarters of the South-
ern Pacific's Sunset Route and its repair shops and army of employes,
and also the general offices of the Arizona Eastern Railway and of the
Southern Pacific's Mexican West Coast Lines.
The short, direct line from Tucson to Nogales places Tucson in a
strategic position, making it the gateway to that vast fertile region
lying along the West Coast of Mexico, which is now being opened
to settlement by Americans by the construction of the Southern Pa-
cific's road down through Sonora and across the broad valleys of the
Yaqui and Mayo Rivers.
In addition to this the El Paso & Southwestern has now built into
Tucson from Benson, connecting Tucson with the mining towns of
Bisbee and Douglas and the prosperous commercial city of El Paso,
Texas. It is headed westward, and will connect Phoenix and Yuma
with Tucson, while it has projected a spur to the rich mineral fields
in the Santa Catalina Mountains north of the city, and a road from
Sasco west of Tucson, to Port Lobos on the Gulf of California. This
would make a fertile country in the extreme southwest tributary to
this city and add another and shorter route to the Mexican Coast, the
one actually in operation being the Southern Pacific line to Guaymas
Mining assets include not only the mines of Pima and Santa Cruz
Counties, but largely of Pinal and Cochise counties and of part of
New Mexico and the Mexican state of Sonora. This district is per-
haps the richest copper mining district in the world. The opening of
the plant of the Pioneer Smelting Company early in 1912 has
caused a resumption of operations in the Helvetia, Mineral Hill and
Twin Buttes districts and the development of other properties, and
has brought $40,000 per month net into Pima County and Tucson.
A great variety of copper ore is found in the county, and gold, silver,
zinc, tungsten, lead and galena are produced here. The trade of the
city in mining machinery and supplies of many kinds extends over a
large area on both sides of the international boundary.
The Cattle Industry is one of the large resources of the county,
and the value of range cattle shipped from Tucson in a single year
has exceeded $900,000.
The county has always been famous for the abundance and quality
of its beef cattle. This is due to the great area of grazing lands and
to the nutritious and highly flavored wild grasses of the mountain
slopes, which impart a sweetness and flavor to beef unattainable by
fattening in the stall or even upon alfalfa.
Tucson is the chief educational center of the state, ow y ing to the
location here of the University of Arizona, with its score of professors
and teachers, and of the United States Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion, with chemical laboratories and facilities for specializing in sev-
W H O S WHO
[ N A R I Z O N A 35
eral important agricultural studies. The University of Arizona is sit-
uated a mile from the heart of the city. Through its Agricultural
and Mining Departments, this institution has a most vital and inti-
mate connection with the Southwest, and particularly with Arizona.
The public schools, of which there are five, and the high school,
were built at a cost of over $300,000 and are among the best looking
structures in the city. The schools are so well distributed that
scarcely a home in the city is more than a five-minute walk from one
of them. The new high school building has fifteen recitation rooms,
with laboratories for physiography, chemistry and physics and a fine
assembly hall with a seating capacity of more than eight hundred.
The city has several private and denominational institutions.
The Methodist School for Mexican Girls, conducted by the Home
Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church, cares for 48
girls in a $16,000 home. A training school for Pima and Papago
Indians, conducted by the Worn' 's Board of Missions of the Pres-
byterian Church has an enrollmei^ of over a hundred and fifty. The
institution has a one hundred and sixty-acre farm near the city and
$50,000 has been spent on its buildings.
More than 125 pupils are instructed at the Papago Indian School,
maintained at the San Xavier Mission by the Sisters of St. Joseph.
The work in behalf of the Papagoes is supplemented by the United
States Government, which has a $10,000 school house and dormitory.
In the city itself the Catholic church is active in the educational
field, maintaining an excellent parochial school with an enrollment of
nearly 400, and St. Joseph's Orphanage, the home of 40 children. A
most important work is also done by the St. Joseph's Academy, a
boarding school for girls and young ladies. This institution has an
enrollment of 200 and offers a very thorough course of study, not
only in the elementary branches but also in high school study, music,
art, etc. Their full course prepares for regular College work.
The climate of Tucson, especially in the winter months, is ac-
knowledged to be the best on the American continent. In the past
three years there have been but ten days in which the sun did not
shine in this city. This is the great feature of the region the
amount of sunshine and it is in arid regions that the sun attains its
greatest vivifying influence. The germicidal power of sunshine is
well known, and here the chemical activity of its rays is not lost in
clouds or fogs, but exerts its full force. There is no other portion
of the United States that will compare favorably w T ith that in and
about Tucson for the relief of pulmonary affections. That is the
opinion of eminent physicians and scientific climatologists, and the
basis of this opinion is the maximum of sunshine, the clearness of the
atmosphere and the rapid radiation which brings a tonic and refresh-
ing coolness to the night. And the summer is dry. The experts of
WHO'S WHO IN ARIZONA 37
the Experiment Station say that to get the sensible summer tempera-
ture here it is necessary to subtract fifteen to thirty degrees from the
maximum. That is to say, the dryness of the air makes Tucson that
much cooler than the East under corresponding temperatures.
The average rainfall for forty-one years at Tucson is 11.66 inches.
The average for the past ten years has been 11.78, the greatest pre-
cipitation occurring during July and August, with December a good
The summer storms are short, uncertain, refreshing. The air
parts with its humidity rapidly, and the clear, tonic, dry atmosphere