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Travelers say this atmosphere of Southern Arizona has the same
bracing and exhilarating qualities as the air of the Sahara, and that
it is drier than any part of the valley of the Nile north of the

Water for the city comes from wells located in the valley four
miles distant. The capacity of the present water works has been
outgrown, and is now being enlarged, a bond issue providing $125,000
to cover the cost. In a small way windmills are made use of for ir-
rigation, but power pumps are most relied on, water being obtained at
from 10 to 150 feet.

The economic aspect of pumping for irrigation has been well
threshed out, the conclusion being that while not so cheap or con-
venient as ditch supplies from rivers, the productivity of the land in
this climate and the increased market value of the products, make the
slightly increased cost of pumping economical, while there are some
important advantages over ditch irrigation. Well supplies are con-
tinuous and fairly uniform throughout the year, and water is avail-
able when it is most needed.

The Tucson Gas, Electric Light and Power Company supplies
power for manufacturing as well as gas and electricity for domestic
use. Several miles of line have also been thrown out into the sur-
rounding country to supply pumping plants for irrigation.

Tucson is essentially a city of homes. The residential streets and
districts attract attention for their beauty and adaptation of the archi-
tecture to the climate, and because of the gardens and trees.

On the social and religious side Tucson is the equal of any Eastern
city of the same size. There are twelve churches: two Methodist,
two Baptist and two Presbyterian, as well as Catholic, Episcopal,
Congregational, Christian, Christian Science, Lutheran and Jewish.

Practically all the fraternal organizations are represented, and
there are several clubs, four of which occupy buildings of their own.
The Old Pueblo Club building was recently completed at a cost of
$60,000, and the Eagles have just finished splendid clubrooms in their
own building. There are organizations for women also, including
the Woman's Club, the Collegiate Club and the Music Club.




[ N A R I Z O N A 39

Santa Cruz County

Allen T. Bird, Editor Nogales Oasis

SANTA CRUZ COUNTY, politically one of the smallest in the State,
is one of the southermost and adjoins Mexico on its northern bound-
ary. Its county seat, Nogales, is known as "The Line City." The
region embraced within this county consists of lofty mountain ranges
teeming with undeveloped mineral wealth, and enclosing rich and
fertile valleys susceptible of a high state of cultivation. The moun-
tains offer splendid opportunities for successful investments in mining
operations with manifold returns, and the valleys injure to the capable
tiller of the soil not only a competence, but independence and wealth;
while the rolling hills between afford ground for the breeding and
rearing of cattle that may be fattened for the markets near at hand
upon the succulent and juicy forage plants raised upon neighboring
farms. Seldom can there be found anywhere so great a variety of
natural resources awaiting development as here, where the field, the
farm and the mine closely supplement each other and support a large
and industrious population.

According to the assessment roll of 1912 the taxable value of prop-
erty within Santa Cruz County was $2,815,133.54, showing an in-
crease of $330,429.58 over that of the previous year.

It is stated upon good authority that in the San Rafael and Rain
Valleys alone there are between four and five hundred quarter sections
of good land capable of producing excellent crops, that two years ago
were open to homestead location. Within the past 18 months 150
such locations have been made in these valleys, and about 200 other
entries are now being made. It is anticipated that during the current
year every available location will be taken. Most of those who have
taken up this land are people of means, who have gone to work in the
right way, and whose coming and the application of whose capital and
labor will make the eastern part of Santa Cruz County one of the
most populous and wealthy regions in the State.

The agricultural possibilities of Santa Cruz County have been
realized but recently, and even at this time are not thoroughly com-
prehended by the majority. For many years there has been a limited
cultivation in the river bottoms along the Santa Cruz and Sonoita
Rivers, from which some water for irrigation has been obtained, and
there have been a few isolated places in the mountains where good
crops have been raised ; but recently general attention has been attract-
ed to the valleys referred to above and there have been recorded phe-
nomenal growths of milo maize, corn, and apples, while nearly all
deciduous fruits thrive well in the vicinity. A hydrographic map of
the United States, published by the Smithsonian Institute, shows the















annual precipitation to exceed twenty inches of water and classifies this
region with the western parts of Kansas, Nebraska and the Dakotas.
The area included in this classification extends in a northwesterly di-
rection from the vicinity of Cananea, Mexico, to Prescott, and is about
sixty miles in width, and within Santa Cruz County the rainfall is
shown to be much heavier than in the regions on either side. The sur-
face water is tapped by wells that vary in depth from a few feet to
sixty or more, and in places in the vicinity of Elgin wells of a depth of
sixty to ninety feet have struck flows of water which raised in the
wells twenty or thirty feet, and produced an apparently inexhaustible
supply. Settlers of experience in various artesian belts express a firm
belief that wells bored to a depth of six or seven hundred feet will tap
water strata that will send to the surface strong and abundant flows.

Dairy Scene in Santa Cruz

In many of the mountain ranges mining operations of considerable
importance have been conducted for a number of years, but the work
has not been carried to any great depth. However, geologists and
mining experts who have visited the region insist that the indications
all point to the possibilities of successful and profitable deep mining;
and where depth has been attained, notably at Duquesne, in the Pata-
gonia Mountains, and at the World's Fair mine, in the same vicinity,
the results have borne out these assertions. Within the past year re-
markable developments have been made in properties in widely sepa-
rated districts, in the Patagonia and the Santa Rita Mountains and
the Oro Blanco country, all of which show that deep mining in Santa
Cruz County is in its infancy only, and some of the heaviest mining
operators and corporations in the United States have bought proper-
ties and commenced development work. Among these are the Phelps-
Dodge Company, one of the greatest copper mining syndicates in the
world, who have recently bought the World's Fair mine; W. A.















Clarke, owner of the United Verde, said to be the greatest copper
mine in the world, has bought the Trench mine in the same locality;
and N. L. Amster, President of the Shannon Copper Company, at
Clifton, has bought and is developing the R. R. R. group. This, in
itself, spealrs volumes for the latent mineral resources of Santa Cruz

A fine grade of chalcedony, equal to the far famed Mexican onyx,
used largely in ornamentation and finish of construction work, in ar-
chitecture, is found in large quantities on the north side of the Santa
Rita Mountains.

The cattle industry has been an important interest from the early
settlements here, and in the mountains and hills are extensive ranges
unfitted for any purpose other than grazing. The grasses grow rank
and abundant, and except in seasons of the most severe and protracted
drought, there is seldom a scarcity of water. Development of water
will help out in such seasons. The cattle growers in the hills and
mountains find right at home a market for their feeders, and instead
of sending out to market cattle that must be fed before making good
beef, there will be turned off annually thousands of head of finished

Nogales in Early Days

bullocks fit for the block. During many years the cattle growers of
Santa Cruz County have turned their attention to high bred stock and
their herds are now well graded up. The industry is on a good, sub-
stantial basis, and will continue to be an important factor in the ad-
vancement of this great region.

The population of the county, according lo the census of 1910, was
less than 7,000, but is now r estimated to be close to 9,000. About
3,500 of this number w r ere residents of the county seat, Nogales, and


\V 110 S WHO

the remainder of the outlying precincts. It is conservatively estimated
that at the end of another year it will number about 10,000.

In addition to Nogales, the principal towns of the county are Pata-
gonia, Harshaw, Tubac and Oro Blanco. Harshaw is one of the old-
est mining camps in that part of Arizona, and Tubac a town that goes
back in history to the time of the early Spanish occupation, and was a
place of some importance at the time of the American occupation.

The county is served by two branches of the Southern Pacific R. R.
and trains run through to both Benson and Tucson, there to connect
with main line trains in either direction, and at The Line Citv with

Santa Cruz County Products

trains to and from all points on the West Coast reached by the lines
of the Southern Pacific of Mexico.

Nogales is the central point for several important branches of the
U. S. government service. It is the headquarters for the Customs Col-
lection district of Arizona and the Immigration Bureau has there an
important office.

Having in its favor its natural resources, climate, situation, and an
active and energetic people, Santa Cruz County seems destined to be-
come at no very distant day one of the most populous and wealthy
counties in the state, and the seat of a civilization of the very highest


Graham County

(By R. J. Young, Immigration Commissioner)

We want good people to help us open up this great valley of the
Gila, the finest garden spot in the west, tb" best climate in Arizona,
the finest soils, the most water per acre for the irrigated lands, the
best canal system, excepting the government control systems, of any
portion of the west. We have more water per acre than any other
section, and without the water you have nothing but an arid waste.
Our lands pay more money per acre than any other lands in Arizona
and are sold for less. We have no speculative value, the value of the
land, irrigated, being derived from the earning power of the money
invested, no more no less. Our valley fences are bull proof, horse
high and hog tight. Nothing can keep our crops from growing but the

We have graded schools in Solomonville, Safford, Thatcher, Cen-
tral and Pima and district schools in all the outlying districts, the
best of teachers and good accommodations for the pupil.

Thatcher has an academy equal to any in the new State, in which
are taught all the higher branches.

Our valley is about forty miles long and two to four miles in
width, with about thirty thousand acres actually under cultivtaion.

The principal crop raised for exportation is the great forage crop,
alfalfa. Last year we shipped about 40,000 tons to outside points
and consumed about 50,000 tons at home in the fattening of cattle
and raising of hogs.

We have three flour mills in the valley and are now raising a grade
of wheat which will permit our mills to compete with outside mills
in the production of flour.

Our vegetables are equal to any raised in the State and bring the
top of the market at Globe and Miami, but \ve do not raise half
enough for the consumption of the mining camps and the result is that
a portion of the perishable stuff is shipped in from California.

All our mesa land has at one time supported a vast population of
our ancient brethren. Pottery is plowed up in the field, beautiful spec-
imens of the ancients' work of art, in a perfect condition of preserva-
tion. There are acres of land where you can trace their old dwell-
ings, in perfectly symmetrical lines, showing the size of each building.
On the Bonita Creek we find many old buildings in a perfect state of
preservation, the imprint of the fingers being just as distinct as it
was the day the aborigines took the mud in their hands and plastered
the walls. The timbers in the roofs are as hard as iron and the roots
themselves absolutely perfect. The small orifices left for the family










[ X A R I Z O N A 47

to enter the dwelling are today as they were thousands of years ago.
The buildings that are in such a perfect state of preservation are
under the lee of enormous bluffs, overhanging instead of being perpen-
dicular, protecting the buildings from the action of the elements.
Their old canals are traceable in many places, showing they carried
on an extensive irrigation, and in fact in many of the old ruins cotton
cloth has been dug up, seeds of many varieties, ojas filled with the
bones and ashes of human beings, their form of burying the dead be-
ing cremation. Where once lived such a vast population there must
be some inherent quality of the soil, an atmospheric condition unknown
in other sections to warrant the old timer to dwell in such vast num-
bers in our valley. The modern people who are now invading and
making their homes in this wonderful valley realize the incomparable
beauty of our surroundings and the ideal conditions that permit the
farmer to raise such an abundance of the good things of life and the
prosperous condition of the farmer verifies the opinion that we have
the best valley, the most productive valley, the best irrigation system,
the most water per acre, the most reasonable land values of any
section of the great State of Arizona.

The towns of Pima and Safford have a splendid water system,
piped throughout their streets. This water is perfection itself and
comes from the lofty mountains and the precipitous canyons of the
famous Graham Mountains, just south of this great valley, rising to
a height of 10,600 feet above sea level, snow-capped most of the year
and covered with a splendid growth of pine and fir. It is just a halt
day's travel from the heat of the valley to the most perfect summer
climate in the world, where one can enjoy the cool breezes and the
perfect climatic conditions that make an ideal summer and a perfect
health resort, for rest and recuperation in the summer time. \Ve
have saw mills on this mountain and supply considerable of the lum-
ber used in the valley towns. On the west side of this famous moun-
tain we have the Aravaipa Valley, the most beautiful roads, the
finest stock and grass growing country in Arizona. The Industrial
school is located on the south slope of this great mountain, where
once stood and where now you may see the vast ruins of the once
great government post, Fort Grant, the grandest and most perfect
post the federal government ever built in the far west, the mammoth
buildings falling into decay and ruin and now another era of man is
reclaiming it and building a new school for the education of those
who have not the opportunity of most of us, wards of the State.

This is a great cattle and goat country, and thousands of dollars
each year are derived from the sale of goats' wool, mohair, and cattle.
Considerable farming is being done, most of the products being con-
sumed at home.

On the north slope of the Graham Mountains we have an artesian
belt about twenty miles in length and from four to six miles in



loading- Car of Graham County Honey

A Home in the Hill Country near Mount Graham


width. Only a portion of this belt has been reclaimed and we are
bringing in new w T ells all the time. We have some wonderful flows
of water, ascending from two to sixteen inches above the collar of the
pipe and some of the wells are flowing sufficient water for the irriga-
tion of one hundred and twenty acres of land. What more would
the settler ask than a permanent water right for $500 or $1,000. The
cost of sinking these wells is approximately $1 per foot and there is no
place in the artesian belt where they have not encountered a good flow
of water. The temperatures of this water is about 75 degrees and
permits the farmer to raise garden truck all the year and in the winter
time the mining camps pay the highest price for green vegetables.
Think what the future of this one section alone means to a live, wide-
awake farmer. The extent of this underground flow has never been

The farmers in the artesian belt have recently organized a cotton
growers' association and have signed up considerable land for the pur-
pose of raising cotton and making it one of our permanent industries.
So far the cotton grown has been in an experimental way, but has
proven beyond doubt that we can raise cotton equal to any section of
the south.

We are working hand in hand with the Ocean to Ocean Highway
and have done wonders for our road system in the last year. Through
the heart of the valley we have as good dirt roads as are found
anywhere and are continually grading and adding, just as fast as the
road fund will permit. We have graded several miles of new road
in the Fort Thomas section, have signed a contract with the Indian
agent for the completion of the road from Geronimo to San Carlos,
across the reservation, and several miles have already been completed.
This road has always been an eyesore and a terrible trial to the
autoist on account of the washes and sand. This has all been done
away with. The main washes are now bridged and a great portion
of the road graded and in perfect condition, so that the machine man
need have no fear of the reservation. Our congressman has recently
informed us that Congress has made the appropriation for the
bridges at the San Carlos and the Gila Rivers, the building of which
will entirely close the gap between the good roads and give the
traveling public an ideal highway to the Phoenix and Globe section
without having to pass over the high altitudes, muddy roads, torren-
tial streams and isolated section of the White Mountains. The
eastern traveler can now bring his machine to the warm south and
our glorious climate without incurring any undue inconvenience. This
means all the eastern travel heading toward the San Diego Pan-
American Exposition will find we have a glorious route through
Arizona and that he will travel for days in sight of agricultural
fields, farm houses, growing crops and running water and that we
in Arizona, especially on this route, have obliterated the desert, made


\V H S W H O

it into one of the garden spots of the sunny south, and the land of
perpetual sunshine and good health.

We will shortly be on the main line of the Southern Pacific Rail-
road and practically the only irrigated section from San Antonio to
the Salt River Valley. Those familiar with conditions in the West
know there is nothing will advance a community more rapidly than
co-operation with the railroad, as it displays its resources in that way
to the thousands. We need new blood and new money to bring us
to the place we would like to see attained while we of the present
day are alive, able and ready to appreciate its vast benefits.

There is not one instance here where a diligent worker had to
return his place to the original owner, not one case on record where
acreage has had to be foreclosed because of non-payment of principal.
Doesn't this mean that our values are constantly increasing and that
we are above all, prosperous and industrious?

We have a wonderful country in an archaeological as well as in
an agricultural sense, evidences of which are continually being dis-
covered, as it is continually being proven that we can raise something
a little bit better than our neighbor, some fruit, vegetable or berry,
all of which demonstrates that we are still in our infancy, and have
not yet realized what a vast opportunity is ours. Nor shall we until
we have cut up many of our larger holdings in order that we may
derive all the benefits possible from this wonderful soil and climate.

Indian Hot Springs


Cochise County

By Joseph H. Gray, Secretary of Warren District Commercial Club.

With an extent of 6147 square miles, equal to the area of Con-
necticut and Rhode Island combined ; with rugged mountain ranges
that are the storehouses of inestimable mineral wealth ; with broad
and extending valleys wherein are ranges o'er which roam thousands
of cattle, and which are dotted with an ever-increasing number of
ranches, in the southeastern corner of Arizona, lies Cochise County
which leads the state in wealth and disputes with Maricopa County
the premiership in population. In assessed valuation it contains one-
fifth of the wealth of the whole state, while its population, which in
1910 was 35,591, is now conservatively estimated to be in excess of
40,000. Its assessed valuation of $38,000,000, gives a per capita
wealth of $950 for each man, woman and child within its confines.

As Arizona leads the nation in production of copper, Cochise Coun-
ty leads Arizona, producing one-half of the total output of that metal,
while the Warren District alone produces more than one-third of the
state's output. While mining is the chief and largest industry, cattle
raising is of great importance and agriculture is making such vast
strides that it promises in the near future to rank second only to min-
ing. Settlers are rapidly taking up all of the available government
land and by the development of underground w r ater supplies and the
practice of intensive farming are developing the rich fertile lands of
the county into garden spots, building up substantial homes, and gath-
ering into agricultural communities w r hile the industry is still in its
infancy. Where formerly all was cow country now are hundreds of
ranch homes ranging from the most modest to substantial dwellings
with large outbuildings and modern farming equipment so that the
lower lands of Cochise county are in a transition period. As the hills
have been only scratched over in the search for minerals so also have
the valleys been little more than touched in proving their possibilities
for agriculture and yet the results promise as much for the one as
the other when equal development has been achieved.

Topographically Cochise County is divided from south to north by
three mountain systems which separate three great valleys. The west-
erly mountain system is composed of three ranges, the Whetstone,
Huachucas and Mules, the great Warren District being situated in the
latter range, surrounding Bisbee the metropolis of the county. Far-
ther east are the Dragoons and still farther east the Swisshelms and
the Chiricahuas. In the mountains of the county in the early days
were the strongholds of the fierce and bloodthirsty Apaches and from















W H O ' S W H O I N T A R I Z O N T A

these Geronimo and his braves waged relentless warfare upon the
pioneers until themselves hunted down by government regulars and
volunteers from among the early day settlers.

The three valleys are the San Pedro on the west, Sulphur Springs
in the center and San Simon on the east. In the San Simon, at San
Simon, and in the San Pedro at Land, artesian flows of water have
already been developed, while experiments in that direction are now
in progress in the Sulphur Springs Valley, which is settling more rap-
idly than any other section. In all of these valleys the climate is un-
surpassed, the land is most fertile and the magic touch of water is all
that is required to make them blossom and produce. The putting
down of wells, the erection of windmills and pumping plants in all
directions is bringing this about.

On the foothills are luxurious growths of nutritious grasses during
most of the months of the year and here and in the valleys roam the
herds of cattle owned by individuals, firms and corporations, bringing
in revenues mounting to millions each year. These foothills are also

Online LibraryJo ConnersWho's who in Arizona .. → online text (page 4 of 58)