susceptible of cultivation into vineyards and orchards, producing fine
grapes and peaches that excel any others grown in the west.
It is in the Mule Mountains that the greatest mineral resources of
Cochise County have been developed. From the Warren Mining Dis-
trict there are being shipped daily for reduction 6,000 tons of ore by
three companies, the Copper Queen, the Calumet and Arizona, and
the Shattuck Arizona Companies, the former having been an active
producer since the early eighties of the last century. In this district
there are hundreds of miles of underground workings and yet the
extent of the ore deposits remain undetermined beyond the fact that
they still contain vastly more metal than has been extracted within the
past thirty years and that even then the end is not in sight.
For many years copper was the only metal to receive attention in
the Warren District but recently important deposits of rich lead-
silver ore have been developed and are now being mined and shipped
for reduction. The importance of these mines as well as the porphyry
deposits is now manifest and these w r ill from now on receive deserved
attention. In addition to this there is a large placer area at the
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southerly end of the district which contains 60 cents in gold to the
cubic yard and this requires only the solution of a cheap method of ex-
traction to become an added source of available w r ealth.
Although there are but three actively producing mining companies
in the district there are many mining claims on which development
work has progressed sufficiently to indicate valuable deposits and to
warrant assertion that further development is all that is necessary to
bring them to production.
The Johnson-Dragoon District is another important mineralized
section of Cochise County situated in the same general mountain sys-
tem but in the northwesterly corner of the county. Here there are
WHO'S WHO IN ARIZONA 55
now half a dozen producing properties with more than a dozen others
in well advanced stages of development and scores of claims that have
undergone only preliminary exploration and work.
Pearce, Courtland and Gleeson are located in the central moun-
tain system, and are all producers. At the first mentioned is located
the Commonwealth, which has given up $38,000,000 in silver and is
being further developed with every indication that millions remain to
be extracted. Courtland and Gleeson both have their producing
mines, making large shipments to the smelters. Courtland is a copper
camp and Gleeson produces silver as well.
In the Chiricahuas and the Swisshelms, the easterly system of moun-
tains, are producing and partially developed mining properties as well.
There are numbers of these in the vicinity of Paradise especially. Dos
Cabezas promises to become prominent in copper production in the
Bisbee, the largest and most important city of Cochise County, has
a population of 13,000 and with its suburbs, all connected with it by
electric street railroads, the population is more than 18,000. This
city with its unincorporated suburbs forms the Warren District and
pays one-third of the taxes of the county. It is essentially a mining
community but at the same time affords the facilities, improvements
and advantages of the modern city. It is the most populous area of
the same size in Arizona as well as the most wealthy. Its monthly
payroll amounts to $750,000 and its business and trade importance is
commensurate. Here the underground worker's lowest wage is $3.75
per day and other labor, as well as clerical work, is proportionately re-
warded. No Mexican labor is employed underground and American
labor predominates throughout the district. The chief foreign ele-
ment to be found in the district is Slavonian and this labor is as well
paid as is the American for the same class of work.
In its early days Bisbee was known as Mule Gulch and first at-
tained notice about thirty years ago when it was merely a prospectors'
camp of a few shacks and tents. Here, up among the rugged moun-
tains the Copper Queen company developed a mine, and others fol-
lowed until there grew up a great mining center. On the only level
streets business houses were built, warehouses constructed, office build-
ings erected, while the residential districts spread up the hills and
climbed to points along the mountain sides, reached sometimes by
roads, more often by trails and at other times by flights of steps. The
result is a city that in appearance is unique. Shacks gave place to
handsome buildings of brick and stone, charming homes replaced the
miners' cabins, dives and rookeries made way for churches, libraries,
lodge buildings, Y. M. C. A. buildings, a Y. W. C. A., school houses
and other public improvements. Water was piped and pumped from
Naco, nine miles away, instead of being packed in skins on burro back.
The railroad entered and supplanted the pack train. The smelter was
< - '' ; ' '
Farm Scenes in -the Sulphur Springs Valley, Cocihise County, Arizona
WHO J S WHO IN ARIZONA R7
moved to Douglas, 35 miles away, and smoke and sulphur fumes
were thus eliminated. Electric lights and gas supplanted candles and
smoky oil lamps, paved streets appeared, a subway system carried off
the flood waters of the rainy season and devastation which had before
been not infrequent was made impossible. After several destructive
fires one of the best fire departments in Arizona resulted from im-
provements and a city water supply for fire purposes was created.
For these municipal improvements hundreds of thousands of dollars
were expended and permanent benefits therefrom were obtained.
At an altitude of 5300 feet at the railroad station Bisbee enjoys a
cooler climate in summer than do the cities of the valleys, while the
surrounding mountains in close proximity effectually shelter it from
the cold blasts of winter as well as from dust storms. The average
mean temperature for the past twenty years has been 60.1 degrees,
the average coldest month, January, is 45.3, and the average month
of July, the warmest of the year, is 75.3, while the precipitation in
the same period has been 17.96 annually. The result is a climate of
singular health giving properties and despite the fact that accidents
in mines are at times unavoidable the death rate in the Warren Dis-
trict is lower than in any other section of the state. Despite this fact
Bisbee has been too busy with mining and with business affairs to
enter the ranks of health resorts and today it takes pride in the fact
that its pre-eminence is as a copper producing center.
In culture, education and socially the city is at the forefront. There
is a larger proportion of college bred men in its limit than can be
found outside of college cities of the same population. All churches
are represented, all lodges also, and the Elks, Masons, Moose and
Knights of Columbus all own their homes, as do the Woman's Club
and the Country Club. A fine library and reading rooms, open to all
of the public, is supported by the Copper Queen company. Both the
Copper Queen and the Calumet and Arizona companies have their
medical corps, their dispensaries and their hospitals, where the most
modern equipment is to be found. Of the lodges it is a notable fact
that the Elks built a new home on the site of the one that had been
destroyed by fire and paid off $34,000 of indebtedness in two and one-
Lowell is the nearest and the largest suburb of Bisbee, ten minutes
distant by street railway, situated to the south, and in a more open loca-
tion. Here are the two hospitals, handsome business houses, and it
has its own bank and theater. Lowell is closer to more mine shafts
than Bisbee, and through its independence avoids the payment of
Warren is the residential suburb of Bisbee. Here, on a gradually
sloping plateau, commanding a view of mountains on the one side and
valley on the other, are handsome homes, surrounded by lawns, shrub-
WHOS- WHO IN ARIZONA
ben", trees and flowers and in reach of Bisbee in twenty minutes by-
electric railway w r ith half hour service. Here are the offices of the
Calumet and Arizona company, charming Vista Park, and close by
the Country Club with its spacious home, its nine hole golf course,
tennis courts, rifle range and traps for the shotgun experts. At War-
ren water and electric light are both furnished by the mining com-
pany. It has, as has Lowell also, its own school building, all of the
district being in the Bisbee School District for which there is now be-
ing erected an $80,000 high school building.
Tombstone, replete with historic interest, picturesquely located with
a magnificent outlook, is the county seat of Cochise County. It was
discovered in 1878, before there was a Cochise County, by Edward
Scheffelin, and was long known as one of the most famous mining
camps of the country. Millions of dollars of wealth it produced until
the problem of unwatering the workings caused a shut down by the
operating company which must continue until that problem has been
Willcox is the largest town in the north of the county on the
Southern Pacific Railroad, and is the center of a growing agricultural
district as well as an important cattle shipping point. Other towns
of the north are Dos Cabezas, Cochise and Bowie ; of the south Naco,
important as being the gateway to the Cananea District in Mexico and
railroad junction for the El Paso and Southwestern Railroad and the
Cananea Railroad ; Benson on the Southern Pacific and Southwestern
Railroads and important as an agricultural and possible oil center;
and Fort Huachuca, the government military post. Up the Sulphur
Springs Valley is Courtland, important for its mines and surrounding
ranches, while numerous smaller settlements are rapidly growing up
in its eighty miles of length and twenty miles of breadth with the
spread of agriculture.
In addition to its natural w r ealth and possibilities, Cochise boasts
of its good roads and its school system. There are more miles of good
roads than can be traversed at all seasons of the year than in any other
county of the state, and these systems are being each year extended.
It is traversed by the state highway and by two of the proposed Na-
tional Highways, these passing through Douglas, Bisbee and Tomb-
stone, and being connected up with other points.
The public schools of Cochise County, in the 65 school districts, are
supported by an annual expenditure of over $200,000, and rank with
the best in the land. There are in attendance 4500 scholars who are
instructed by 200 teachers, the average salary for men being $111.75,
and for women $83.81. As fast as occasion requires new school dis-
tricts are created, new buildings erected and more teachers engaged so
that the progress of education keeps pace with the growth of popula-
tion in all parts of the county.
\V H O ' S W H O I N A R I Z O X A 61
By Edward P. Grindell
In the southeastern corner of Arizona, on the borderline between
the United States and Mexico, is Douglas, a modern city, now but
ten years old.
Situated in the center of the greatest mineral district in the world,
and having good railroad facilities, Douglas is the natural location for
the great smelters that are now in operation and in course of con-
struction in that city. In the center of a rich, fertile valley, its loca-
tion permits of the building of a city second to none in Arizona.
Douglas is the one, large borderland city between El Paso on the east
and Los Angeles on the west. Its position commercially, politically,
and geographically, is strategic. Cochise is the most thickly populated
county in Arizona, has the most complete system of roads and rail-
ways, and the largest output of precious and commercial metals in the
new State, as well as the heaviest investment of capital, local and
Ten years ago Douglas was an uninhabited patch in the Sulphur
Springs Valley. The present population is about 12,000 happy and
industrious people. The public buildings, office blocks, banks,
schools, churches, and mercantile establishments are all substantially
built, principally of brick or stone. The schools are of the best.
Douglas is on the main line of the El Paso & Southwestern R. R.,
with branch lines running south into Mexico, eighty miles to Naco-
zari, and north through the Sulphur Springs Valley. The Southern
Pacific R. R. has had a survey into Douglas for some time to connect
with their lines from the south coast of Mexico.
Arizona leads the districts of the United States in the production
of gold, silver, copper, lead and zinc. The Douglas smelters treat
over 50% of the state's output of copper, besides receiving thousands
of tons of ore from Mexico for smelting. The combined output of
the Douglas smelters is nearing 200,000,000 Ibs. of copper bullion a
year, making Douglas one of the greatest smelter cities in the world.
Within a radius of one hundred miles of Douglas there are hundreds
of small mines that during their development ship to the Douglas
smelters thousands of tons of rich ores that in many cases pay the ex-
penses of the development of the mine. Many of these properties
lack only capital to bring them into the class of big producers. Doug-
las is headquarters for the mining men of the Southwest, both Mexico
and Arizona, and serves as a supply point for these smaller mines.
Merchandise from the Douglas stores is shipped by rail and pack
trains hundreds of miles into the wilderness of Mexico, and this Mexi-
can business is a big item in the trade of the Douglas merchant. One
mile from the city, across the Mexican line, is the interesting town of
WHO S W H O
I 1ST A R I Z O X A 63
Agua Prieta, a valuable port of entry for the Mexican Government,
which during the recent civil war was a point of much contention.
The Gadsden Hotel at Douglas is one of the finest to be found in
the west, and offers every convenience to the traveler. Splendid
street car service, automobile roads, country club and golf links fur-
nish the tourist with conveniences difficult to equal in the ordinary
western town. It is but a short distance and easy ride to the moun-
tains on either side of the valley, where can be found running streams,
immense timbers, rugged mountain peaks, and beautiful picnic and
camping grounds. The city is on the main line of the transcontinental
All secret societies have lodges in Douglas. The Elks have a well-
equipped home for the comfort of their members.
The city is located upon flat, level ground, with plenty of room to
grow in every direction. It has a magnificent view, the background in
every direction being the mountains, rich in all the w r onderful coloring
characteristic of the rugged hills of the Southwest.
Douglas is not only prosperous now, but is looking forward to
greater things, one of which is the development of the Sulphur Springs
Valley to the north. This valley is being settled as fast as settlers can
make their location, put in pumping plants and build their homes.
Some wonderful results in crop production have been shown in the few
years that farming has been carried on in this vicinity. The soil is
rich, the water pure, soft and unlimited in supply, while the climate
is such that the farmer can work out doors every day in the year.
This valley is fast becoming a home for the small rancher. With a
farming background and a vast mineral wealth, Douglas is fast be-
coming the garden city and ideal home town of Arizona. The city is
new, there are no old buildings to mar the beauty of the principal
streets. It is built for the future all her streets, street car lines,
public buildings, water works, sewer systems, telephone system, hotels
everything is built for permanence and for a city of many times its
present population. The banks of Douglas, with over a million and a
half of deposits, are among the solid financial institutions of the west.
Douglas is young, and offers inducements to men in many lines of
work to come there and live. It is the ideal city with which to be
associated and grow up.
\V HO S \V H O
I N A R I Z O X A 65
Malcolm Fraser, Secretary Chamber of Commerce
YAVAPAI COUNTY, "Mother of Arizona counties," formerly com-
prised nearly the whole of Northern Arizona, a territory larger than
Indiana. Its area is now 8,160 square miles, about the same as that
of the state of New T Jersey.
The principal resources of Yavapai County are mining, stock rais-
ing and agriculture. It is the second largest county in the state of
Arizona in the production of gold, third in copper, second in cattle
and sheep and first in horticulture.
The Arizona Consolidated Smelting Company, at Humboldt, and
the United Verde Copper Company, at Jerome, are the principal
smelters in Yavapai County. Mining, w r hich has been dull for sev-
eral years, owing to the drop in the price of copper, is reviving. A
recent very rich strike of copper ore in the Commercial Mining Com-
pany's property at Copper Basin, near Prescott, may give rise to the
construction of another large smelter here. To care for the produc-
tion of his great mine, ex-Senator W. A. Clark, the fortunate owner
of the United Verde Copper Company, is building a new town and
smelter at Clarkdale, near Jerome, in the Verde Valley, to which a
railroad has been constructed from Cedar Glade, on the Santa Fe,
Prescott & Phoenix line between Ash Fork and Phoenix. This new
smelter, like the one at Humboldt, will treat custom ores.
At the First Arizona State Fair, Phoenix, 1912, Yavapai County
made a clean sweep of the horticultural prizes, taking practically all
the individual and special prizes for her orchardists. The number
of blue and red ribbons taken totaled 185, being more than twice as
many as were received by all the other counties exhibiting. Yavapai
also took the silver cup for the best county exhibit and more than
$500 in cash prizes.
The advent of scientific soil culture ("dry- farming") in Yavapai
County, Arizona, was only two years ago. The first impetus re-
ceived by the farmers of this county came through experts brought
to the towns by the Prescott Chamber of Commerce and the Santa Fe
Railway. Our farmers received enough practical suggestions from
these experts to enable them, in 1912, to double their harvests, com-
pared with those of 1910. Yavapai exhibits made in the Colorado
Springs and Lethbridge Dry-Farm congresses, in 1911-1912, which
won many first prizes against the world, further enheartened our
farmers to plant additional areas.
The results of this campaign of education have been two-fold:
They have greatly improved the grasp of our local farmer and en-
hanced his confidence in his land, and they have brought to the at-
WHO S W H O
Verde Valley Fruit Display at First State Fair.
Medal Received at St. I^ouis Exposition for Yavapai Fruits.
tention of the outside world the fact that there are great areas in
Yavapai County, which can be bought cheaply or homesteaded, upon
which profitable crops yearly may be produced.
Over 2,000 more acres of corn were planted in 1912 than in 1911.
A conservative estimate of the production per acre is placed at twenty-
five bushels. While this would not look unusual to the average
farmer of the corn-belt states, it should be noted that much of the
land on which this corn was grown was broken for the first time in
the winter of 1911; also, that our farmer gets two cents a pound
for his corn and other grains.
Potatoes in Williamson, Skull and Thompson valleys yielded
splendid harvests. This crop can now be said to be out of the experi-
mental stage, so far as northern Arizona is concerned. All our pota-
toes are grown without irrigation, the average rainfall for the past
thirty years in these valleys, sixteen inches, having proved ample to
mature all the crops which can be grow T n in the temperate zone.
Yavapai County enjoys the best all-year-round climate to be found
in the Southw r est. The altitude of the county averages one mile.
Life in the open is possible for at least ten months of the year, and
blankets are necessary every night of the 365.
The principal town of Yavapai County is Prescott, population
6,000, altitude 5,347 feet, situated in quite a thickly-w T ooded pin>_
area. The temperature is pleasant at all seasons of the year. The
hottest months, July and August, are thoroughly enjoyable, w y hiie
the winter days are mild and sunny. The summer nights are de-
liciously cool, and a blanket always is requisite. The maximum sum-
mer temperature is about 95 to 98 degrees F., and the mean tempera-
ture for the months of July and August is 71.6 and 71.2 degrees, re-
spectively. The mean temperature for the coldest months, December
and January, is 37.7 and 35.1 respectively, while the maximum for
these months is about 70 degrees. Frequently the thermometer drops
nearly to zero for a day or two about the end of December. The
average annual rainfall at Prescott is 17.12 inches, falling chiefly in
short, sharp showers in the summer season. In the winter there is
occasionally a slight fall of snow, which, under the influence of the
bright sunshine soon disappears. The percentage of sunshine in
Prescott is very high. In 1909 there were 241 clear days, 74 partly
cloudy and 50 cloudy. In 1910 there were 265 clear days, 55 partly
cloudy and 45 cloudy.
One may get a clearer conception of the mountain climate of north-
ern Arizona with that of other well-known mountain resorts. Vaughn,
in the Montreal Medical Journal, says: "The climate of Prescott
challenges comparison with that of Denver and Colorado Springs.
Thirty feet higher than Denver, and 750 feet lower than Colorado
Springs, it has an annual mean temperature of 53 degrees, or some
three degrees higher than both.
\V 110 S WHO
Camping in Yavapai, near Prescott
[ N A R I Z O N A 69
By A. W. Sydnor, County Immigration Commissioner.
GILA COUNTY, with an area of 4,542 square miles, almost as great
as that of the State of Connecticut, has vast natural wealth that
with the coming of more railroads and good wagon roads will make
it one of the most favorable to the wants of the homeseeker. Its
resources, like most of the other counties of the State, are varied, and
as yet have been but meagrely developed. The northern part of
the county has five mining districts, where the wealth of the ore
deposits has been proven, and these are awaiting only more adequate
means of transportation to enable them to rank first as producers of
copper, gold and silver. Here also an immense cattle range affords
sustenance to about 50,000 head of live stock, and thousands of
acres of virgin timber, in w r hich is included large forests of pine, are
standing. This large region, commonly spoken of by the people
of the southern part as the "Payson country," contains a rain belt, in
which hundreds of acres are under cultivation without irrigation.
Many varieties of fruits and vegetables are here grown to supply
the markets of Globe, Roosevelt and Phoenix. This land is situated
just north of Payson, a town of about 200 population, located one
hundred miles northwest of Globe, and in the northern part of the
great Tonto basin. In nearly all the valleys of this basin are found
private irrigation schemes, by means of which numerous tracts of
land are made to produce fruits, vegetables and grains.
Gila County lies in east central Arizona. It was formed from
portions of Maricopa and Final counties in 1881, since when a small
strip has been added on the north from Yavapai. It is surrounded
on all sides by stately and rugged mountains whose peaks are cov-
ered with snow many months of the year. On the south are the Final
Mountains whose summits are covered with pine, and on the west
the Superstitious, Four Peaks, and Mazatzal Mountains form the
Gila County is rich in the wonders of nature, the most noted is the
Natural Bridge on Pine Creek, in the northern portion rivalling in
beauty the Natural Bridge of Virginia. It spans Pine Creek at a
height of 200 feet, and the walls of the canyon rise above it 700 feet
on each side. The bridge is of lime formation, and the inside of the
great arch, 250 feet across, is worn by water as smooth as though
chiseled by the trained hand of the artisan. The top of the arch is
nearly 400 feet wide and 1,000 feet long across the canyon, and at