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the thinnest part not more than six feet through. Near the center
of the arch is a hole large enough to admit the body of a man, and
through this one can look down into the crystal pool below. The
climate is exceedingly mild and a wonderful variety of vegetation



Stalactite Cavern at the Natural Bridge in Arizona

[ N A R I 7 O N A 71

exists there, trees, shrubs, vines and plants, some of which are quite
rare. The vicinity abounds in fossils and shells, and wherever mois-
ture penetrates the rocks beautiful stalactites are formed. Beneath
the bridge are numerous caves which are lined with these pendant
cones resembling huge icicles.

The famous Globe-Miami mining district is located in Gila
County and here are found some of Arizona's most productive cop-
per mines. In the early days gold and silver were the chief metals
sought in Gila County, and the mining of copper did not commence
until the late seventies. Since then, however, the amount of copper
mined has been constantly increasing and today the output of this
district does much to give the State the position it holds at the
head of copper producing areas of the United States. To the
southwest of Globe the El Capitan zone has good deposits of both
silver and copper, and between the Old Dominion and Black War-
rior mines, in the Lost Gulch district, rich veins of free-milling ore
have recently been found. Recent assays of ore from the property
of the Lost Gulch United Mines Company show gold values to
almost $300 a ton. In the northern mineral belt, including the
Mazatzal, Green Valley, Gun Creek, Houdon and Ellison mining
districts, development work is being done on a small scale, and in
the former gold, silver and copper have been found. The Mogollon
Mountains extend into the northern part of the County, and are said
to contain large coal deposits.

During the past year wonderful improvements of various kinds
have been made within the borders of Gila County, and here the
Good Roads movement has received a decided impetus. The
Ocean to Ocean Highway will run by the Roosevelt Dam, and
already one of the finest highways in the country has been built
from the dam to Globe, while the towns of Hayden and Winkle-
man, both in Gila County, will soon be connected with Globe by
means of highways now being built by convict labor. With
the building of the San Carlos Dam and other improvements, either
planned or under way, the current year will mark an important
era in the physical improvement of the County. Railroads and bet-
ter highways mean much for Gila County, and the people believe
that a good road is one of the best assets a County can have, and
the Gila Supervisors are among the most wideawake boosters in
Arizona on this subject. They have been ready and willing to do
their share toward the development of the State Highways.

The county seat of Gila is Globe, which has a population of 10,000
and is one of the largest mining towns of the state. It is situated 75
miles east of Phoenix. Globe has churches of all leading denomina-
tions, three banks, two theaters, and electric, gas and water plants.
I here are two newspapers, The Republican and the Record, the latter
one having been but recently established by some of the city's repre-



Natural Bridge, Showing Ladders Used in Ascending



sentative men. Globe is one of the largest and most progressive
cities in Arizona. The next town in both size and importance is
Miami, also a very thriving mining town, which is situated on the
A. E. R. R., ten miles west of the county seat. Though having had
but a few years of existence, Miami has made wonderful progress
in every particular. Here are two weekly newspapers, The Messen-
ger and The News, and the Daily Silver Belt. The town has also
three churches, two banks and a theater. Other towns of importance
are Hayden and Winkleman, which are also dependent upon the min-
mining industry and are rapidly improving.

Between Globe and Miami there is a good railroad, a branch of
the Arizona Eastern, and excellent automobile service, and recently
a franchise has been granted for the building of an electric line be-
tween the two towns. Between Phoenix, the state capital, and
Globe is splendid automobile service, and passengers may leave
either place after breakfast and reach their destination in the early

Scene on Road Between Safford and Globe

afternoon, the route being by Roosevelt Dam and through scenery
which cannot be excelled in the country. The Kelsey stage line,
which has plied between Globe and Kelvin for many years, connect-
ing with the Arizona Eastern at Ray Junction, has been modernized
by the addition of several automobiles, and during the past year has
not missed a trip. The veteran stage driver, "Bill Kelsey," drives
the automobile with the same dexterity as he did the stage coach,
which almost precludes the possibility of a mishap.

It is confidently expected that within the next few months the
district about Payson will be traversed by railroads and highways,
which will greatly enhance the desirability of this section as a resi-
dence place, and, all in all, it is the hope of the people of this
county that Gila will eventually, because of its many advantages of
resource and beauty, become the most populous and wealthy county
of Arizona.


no s \v ii o

Scenes in Globe and Miami



Coconino County

By Edgar A. Brown

THROUGHOUT ARIZONA there is a large amount of building
done during the year. There is a great demand for lumber
and in the northern part of the state, vast amounts of virgin timber
are found. The county of Coconino may well be called the home
of the lumber industry of the state, as the four greatest mills in the
southwest are located in this county. The Arizona Lumber Com-
pany has been among the great wealth producers of the state for
many years and has turned out enough lumber to build as many

Babbitt Brothers' Trading Post

buildings as are at present standing in the entire state. The members
of the firm, progressive, wideawake business men, have been promi-
nent in the industrial life of the state, and have done much toward
the upbuilding of Arizona. They are interested also in other in-
dustries, including sheep and cattle raising, and the same interests
which control the Arizona Lumber Company are heavy stockholders
in the Greenlaw Lumber Company, which has a large mill near

The Saginaw and Manisteo Lumber Company has been most
successful since it was established several years ago at Williams, one
of the progressive towns of the northern tier of counties. The man-
agement has been in the hands of capable men who understand both
the manufacture and sale of lumber, and the company has been a
success from the start. This industry pays to the people of Coconino

\V H O S \V H O

a large amount of money each year in wages and for supplies, and
otherwise brings into the channels of trade a large amount of money.
The lumber men and mill men are among the best citi/.ens, and a
majority of them o\vn their own homes in the county.

The Flagstaff Lumber Company is a new concern, but it is fast
forging to the front. The men who have charge of the mill are also
heavy stockholders and the large majority of the stockholders are
residents of Coconino county. The company handles all kinds of
lumber and supplies the trade in a number of Arizona towns.

Large tracts of timber still remain uncut in the county and it is
expected that the mills will be supplied for a score of years from
the forests contained in Coconino county.

For years Coconino county has been one of the greatest stock
producing counties in the state. The sheep and cattle raised in that
section are among the finest in Arizona, and many fortunes have
been made within the borders of this county. One of the most
pleasing features of the county is the fact that a majority of the men
who have made their fortunes here make their home in Flagstaff,
which is often called the "City of Millionaires." The great depart-
ment store of Babbitt Brothers, which has been evolved from a mod-
est beginning, furnishes supplies to the entire northern section of
the state and the products of their ranches and slaughter house
are used over the entire state, the excellence of the articles having
developed for them a home market.

At Flagstaff, the county seat, is situated the Northern Arizona
Normal School, which under the direction of Dr. R. H. H. Blome
has increased not only in efficiency and thoroughness, but has largely
increased its membership.

In addition to its vast lumber industry Coconino is one of the
greatest sheep raising sections of the state, and there a specialty is
made of the finest breeds. There is also great manufacturing possi-
bilities afforded by the waterfalls near the Grand Canyon, \vhere
it would be possible to generate an immense power.

Within the confines of Coconino are some of the state's most won-
derful natural curiosities, among which are the Grand Canyon, one of
the natural wonders of the world, Sunset Crater, Ice Caves, Lava
Beds, and the lofty San Francisco Mountains snow topped the year
round. There also are situated the cliff dwellings, one of the ancient
curiosities, and at Flagstaff is situated the famous Lowell Observa-

Although sparsely settled, apart from the two towns of Flagstaff
and Williams, the great resources of Coconino seem to insure for it an
increase in population and that in the near future the hills and
valleys of the entire section will be dotted with the cottages and
ranch homes of the new residents who have come to Arizona to
carve their fortunes from this attractive portion of the new state.








\\ 1 1 ( ) S \\ H < )

Yuma County

By J. H. Westover

YUMA COUNTY, one of the four original sub-divisions of the Terri-
tory of Arizona ,has been almost totally dependent on mining and cat-
tle raising as sources of revenue, but with the installation of the Yuma
project, one of the greatest of irrigation projects, it is confidently ex-
pected that its agricultural possibilities will be thoroughly developed,
and fanning assume the place as one of the county's resources that it
can only where there is the amount of sunshine and growing w r eather
that Yuma County affords. This land in its natural state is compara-
tively worthless, the rainfall at Yuma being only 2.50 inches per
annum, but supplied with abundant water by irrigation, it be-
comes the most fruitful in the world. The Yuma Valley and the
South Gila Valley and the Yuma Mesa are parts of the Gadsden pur-
chase, having been acquired by the United States from Mexico shortly
after the close of the Mexican war, at which time the boundary line
between the two countries was definitely and permanently fixed. That
part of the Yuma project lying north of the Gila river and on the
Arizona side of the river were acquired from Mexico by conquest, in
the war of 1847-48. These five parcels of land, the Indian reserva-
tion on the California side of the river, the North Gila, the South
Gila, the Yuma Mesa and the Yuma Valley on the Arizona side of
the Colorado, make up the Yuma project, or the land which is to be
irrigated by water taken from the Colorado at Laguna dam.

The greatest development under the Yuma project has taken place,
up to this time, in the Yuma Valley, that part of the project lying im-
mediately south of the town of Yuma. This valley contains some
53,000 acres. It extends from the corporate limits of Yuma to the
Mexican line, twenty-one miles down the river, and is bounded on the
west by the Colorado, and on the east by the mesa. Practically all of
this land is in private ownership. There is some school land which
can be leased from the state, and a few T scattered small tracts of gov-
ernment land and Indian holdings.

Since the completion of the siphon, under the Colorado river, and
the turning of the water through that giant concrete tube, June 28,
1912, gravity water has been furnished by the Reclamation Service to
those farms and to all others that were ready to receive the water.
The water is now cheap and abundant for this valley. Dozens of
farmers are engaged in clearing and levelling their land, and it is be-
lieved that 15,000 acres of land in the Yuma Valley will be in culti-
vation during the season of 1913. More land will be brought in, year
by year, until every acre of this unit of the project will be contributing
its part to the fruitfulness and prosperity of the valley. The Yuma
Valley part of the project will be the first of the project on the Ari-
zona side of the river to be completed.



Yiuna County Court House

Elks' Building at Yuma


The land in the North Gila Valley, about 15,000 acres, is largely
in private ownership, although there is some government land which
will be thrown open to entry when the project is completed. These
lands are now receiving water from Laguna dam, and the development
of this beautiful valley is well under way.

The lands covered by this project are most favorably situated for
agriculture, the soil and climate being unsurpassed, and the water
supply unlimited. In the bottom lands the following products may be
grown with excellent yields: barley, corn, alfalfa, wheat, milo maize,
alfalfa seed, potatoes, onions and other vegetables, cantaloupes, Egyp-
tian and upland cotton. It is also a most favorable dairy country.
Figs, dates, grapes, and various fruits are grown in small quantities,
the returns indicating that good results can be obtained with this
class of crop, and it is anticipated that the areas now covered by these
products will be extended.. At the present time there is one citrus
grove of about 75 acres, on the mesa, producing grape fruit and
oranges of a very high quality. Because of the dry climate, the Ari-
zona trees are remarkably free from scale and other kindred diseases
which affect these growths in less favored spots.

The value of land in this section has already increased rapidly.
That worth from $15 to $50 an acre seven years ago is now worth
from $60 to $200, as people realize that the water supply is cheap,
abundant and permanent, and there will be further notable increases
in these values. There are thousands of acres of land in Southern
California on which are gro\vn orange and lemon orchards and wal-
nut groves, that are selling in the open market from $1,000 to $2,500
an acre, and that produce an income that makes the investment attrac-
tive in that high-priced land. The great need of Yuma County is
capital and real farmers.

Of this irrigation project which is to mean so much to the future
of Yuma County, the following by F. L. Sellew, engineer of the pro-
ject, is very comprehensive and to date :

'The Yuma Irrigation Project is one of the results of the Reclama-
tion Act passed by Congress in June, 1902. Developments under way
and now about 75 per cent, completed, provide for the irrigation of
approximately 140,000 acres, 16,000 acres being in California, along
the Colorado river, and the remainder on the opposite side of the
stream, in Arizona. The principal features of the work are : Laguna
Dam, nearly one mile in length, which provides for the diversion of
water from the river about fourteen miles above Yuma; over 400
miles of main and lateral canals, ranging in capacity from 1,700
second-feet to 10 second-feet; an inverted siphon of 14 feet internal
diameter, conveying the water from the main canal, under the Colo-
rado river; numerous canal structures, and some seventy-five miles of
levee for the defense of the bottom lands against the periodic rises of
the stream.



Indian Hut, near Yuma

"The water supply from the Colorado river is unfailing; the lowest
known discharge of the stream being 2,700 second-feet, which lasted
but a few days. Seldom is the discharge lower than 5,000 second-
feet for any material period. In freshets the volume rises, at times, to
150,000 second-feet.

"The government works, which control the diversion of water and
its deliver}' to the farms, are of the most permanent and lasting char-
acter. Laguna Dam creates no storage, is merely for the purposes of
diversion and to furnish the means by which silt may be removed from
the water before the supply enters the canals, and later, sluiced back to
the river below the dam. The structure is practically 250 feet broad
across its base, resting upon alluvial deposits of the stream, except at
its ends, where it is firmly connected to the rock abutments. The
down-stream side of the structure is protected from damage by erosive
currents by a substantial apron, composed of rock from one to two tons
in weight. About ten miles below the dam a drop of ten feet occurs,
which is at present accomplished by means of a siphon spillway. Later
a power plant will be constructed at this point from which about
1,200 horse power of electric energy may be developed. Some 2,000
feet above the entrance to the Colorado siphon, a waste-way is con-
structed, leading to the Colorado river. This makes an advantageous



point of control for the bulk of the project. Control at this point
also allows a uniform quantity to run through the wheels at the
powerhouse above, giving a constant load on the plant.

"This structure was completed in March, 1909. In June of that
year the annual freshet was sending 150,000 second-feet over its crest.
The floods of 1909 and 1912 are probably as large as any that have
ever come down the Colorado River, and it is unlikely that the future
will see them greatly exceeded. The main canal, which originates at
the Arizona end of the structure, provides for but a few thousand acres
of ground above Yuma, crossed by the Gila River. This canal has a
capacity of 250 second-feet, and concrete gates control the various
lateral canals which receive their supply from it. Although the bulk
of the land to be irrigated is in Arizona, the main canal leaves the
dam from the California end, because on this side w r as found the most
favorable route."

The cold wave which swept over the entire Southwest in January,
1913, and did such damage to many orange groves, left the Yuma
orange orchards unscathed, neither the trees nor the fruit having been
damaged in the least. In addition to this evidence that the orange
lands here are absolutely frostless, this freeze demonstrated that the
valley lands under the Yuma project are safe for orange culture. Two
nurseries of orange trees from tw r o to three years old and from three
to five feet high, located in the coldest spots in the valley, passed
through that trying period without damage and the early spring finds
them in full fruit and flower.

Bridge Over Main Canal, Yuma


Navajo County

By W. H. Clark

NAVAJO COUNTY, located in the northeastern part of the State,
about the center of the Great Colorado Plateau, was created by act
of the Eighteenth Legislature after one of the most bitter fights ever
witnessed in the Territorial Legislature over county division. This
fight was carried to the closing hours of the session, and was used as
a club to prevent the removal of the territorial prison from Yuma.

Navajo County has an area of 9,826 square miles, is about 240
miles from north to south and about 53 miles from east to west. At
the time of its organization, as shown by the tax roll, the total
assessed valuation was $370,000, the population about 4,000, and it
carried an indebtedness of practically $100,000 as a heritage of unrest
from the parent county. Today it has a population of more than
15,000, a valuation of nearly $4,000,000, and an indebtedness of
about $30,000. There are 1,122,968 acres of surveyed, and 393,363
acres of unsurveyed land, making a total of 1,516,331 acres within the
county that are unappropriated, thousands of which are the richest,
choicest and most fertile lands to be found in the Southwest. There
is also plenty of water with which to irrigate these lands, only a
small outlay being required to build storage reservoirs to impound
the waters of the streams and make a large agricultural section in the
heart of the county. An investment in any of these irrigation
projects, all of which are feasible, will bring returns a thousand fold.
The county is simply studded with reservoir sites and abounds with
splendid lands awaiting but the magic touch of capital to develop

About one-third of the county is heavily timbered with yellow
pine, spruce, fir, oak, aspen, cedar and juniper, the first named three
piedominating. The stand of yellow pine is estimated at over
4,000,000,000 feet board measure.

The Navajo Southern Railway Company and the Navajo Lumber
& Timber Company, incorporated under the laws of Arizona, with
headquarters at Holbrook, have recently made the largest purchase
of timber from the Forestry Service and the Department of the In-
terior that has ever been made, and are about ready to place a bond
issue of $2,000,000 for the purpose of building a standard guage
common carrier railway 75 miles long to reach the heart of the timber
belt. Every foot of this railway will be in Navajo County, and



Sheep in Pasture

the largest mills in the southwest will be constructed to handle the
timber, it being compulsory, according to the government specifica-
tions, to have mills which will cut not less than 50,000,000 feet of
timber each year, the cutting to commence within two years from the
date of the signing of the final contract with the government. The
foregoing development will mean the employment of about 800 per-
sons, and an immense payroll to be distributed throughout the county.
It is estimated that the county school and road funds will be bene-
fited to the extent of $25,000 annually, as 25 per cent of the stumpage
value will revert from the government to those funds.

An irrigation project is now under way, by means of which close
to 50,000 acres of land will be irrigated, and it is thought that work
will commence during 1913.

The Aztec Land & Cattle Company, located near St. Joseph, has
several thousand acres of their lands consolidated, which they are
cutting into small farms and selling on long term payments. Two
artesian wells have recently been struck, one of them flowing water
five feet above the surface. The company sells perpetual water rights
with their lands in this artesian belt.

Dry farming is now being carried on extensively in the higher alti-
tudes of the county, beginning about Snowflake and extending to the
top of the mountains, the acreage increasing every year. Much credit
for this development must be given to the 'State University, as the
experiment station established some years ago near Snowflake has
had much to do with the success of the dry farmer in this county.

I X A R I Z O X A 85

Navajo County schools are second to none in the State, and are
growing rapidly. During the fiscal year 1909-1910 the receipts for
school purposes were $25,642.15 and the expenditures $21,291.70;
and during the succeeding fiscal year the receipts were $30,524.91
and the expenditures $29,780.38, which shows that the schools of the
county are enjoying a healthy growth.

The raising of livestock on open ranges is considered the main in-
dustry of the County, and shipments of cattle and sheep annually run
well up into the thousands. In addition, the wool shipments are

In the northern part of the county lies the Navajo Indian reserva-
tion and the Moqui (Hopi) reservation, containing quaint and inter-
esting villages that attract people from all parts of the globe to wit-
ness their peculiar religious ceremony known as the Snake Dance,
which occurs each year between the 18th and the 22nd of August.
But before the positive date is announced the sun must cast a shadow
in a given place when shining over the rock, and as the writer under-
stands it they hold the dance a certain number of days after the
shadow is cast.

The weird Painted Desert is another of nature's wonders. It lies
to the west in the northern part of the county, and must be seen to
be appreciated, with its beautiful, shifting scenery. Closing the eyes
for a moment only will cause all the beautiful scenes before one to
change as if by magic. To the east is the wonderful, awe-inspiring,
silent beauty of one of the world's seven wonders, the Petrified For-
ests of Arizona ; and to the south the beautiful virgin pine forests of

Online LibraryJo ConnersWho's who in Arizona .. → online text (page 6 of 58)